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translating from French into English, and from gunnery, and also all the performance of all the Engiish into French, with accuracy.
regular duties of the camp. Latin and Greek (nguages. A course of Latin Sword exercise. Under ihe sword exercise, shall and Greek shall embrace the review of the Latin be included the broad sword exercise, and the cut and Greek authors tisually taught in academies. and thrust, or small sword, either or both accord.
No cadet shall be compelled to study these ing to circumstances. languages, who shall not have been taught them Assignment of duties.-Each professor and in. previous to his appointment.
structor shall be limited in the discharge of bis Mathematics.-A complete course of mathematics official duties to his own department, and not to shell embrace the following branches, viz: The interfere with any other department. Each pro. naiure und construction of logarithms, and ibe use fessor and teacher at the head of a separate departe of thie tables; algebra, to include the solution of ment, shall be the judge of the proper mode of cubic equations, with all the preceding rules; conveying instruction in his own departmen:; and geometry, to include plane and solid geometry, shall be held responsible for the correctness of also ratios and proportions, and the construction this mode. of geometrical problems; application of algebra to
Division of time.-To complete the preceding geometry, practical geomeiry on the ground; men- course of studies, will require four years. The guration of planes and solids; plane trigonometry, branches to be pursued, and the course to be com. with its application to surveying and measuring pleted in each year shall be as follows: heighis and distances; spherical trigonometry, with
1st Year. The course of the first year shell emits application to the solution of spherical problems. brace English grammar and composition, and the
The Doctrine of Infinite Series.-Conic sections, French language; logarithms, algebra, and plane with their application to military and other progeometry, to include ratios and proportions. jectiles. Flusions to be taught and studied at the 2d Year. The course of the second year shall option of the professor and student.
embrace, a continuation of the French language; Drawing -A complete course of drawing shall
the geometry of planes and solids; and the coninclude the elementary drawing of figures, rules struction of geometrical problems. The applicaand practice of perspective plans, and profiles of tion of planes and solids. Plane and spherical
tion of algebra to geometry and the mensura. permanent fortifications of every kind of field works, and also iopographical plans.
trigonometry, with their applications, conic segPhilosophy.- A complete course of philosophy tions, practical geometry, and drawing. shall embrace the following branches, viz: The
3d Year. A course for the third year shall emprinciples of mechanics, with their general applica.
brace, natural and experimental philosophy, as. tion; hydrostatics, hydraulics, pneumatics, optics, tronomy, engineering and drawing continued. the elements of chemistry, electricity, magnetism embrace, geography, history and ethics, the review
4th Year. A course for the fourth year shall and astronomy. Engineering -A complete course of engineering Greek languages; also, a general review of the
of the English grammar, and of the Latin and shall embrace the following branches, viz: military most important branches in each of the depart. and civil architecture, permanent and field fortifica. tion, field works generally; rules for the labor, time, and 'materials necessary for the construction of dif- tary acariemy shall constitute four classes.
Rules for Classification. The cadets at the mili. ferent kinds of works; also, rules for the construc- the cadets who are admitted as members of the lion of all the appendages necessary in field works; academy in each year, shall constitute the first inecons!ruction of mines and fougasses, and the dif; lower class. If however, at the general examina: ferent modes of attacking and defending fortified tion next ensuing the time of admission, it shall places: also, castrametation.
appear that any cadet is sufficiently advanced in Geography. A complete course of geography his studies, he may be adoriited into the next ghall embrace the soluiion of the several problems higher class; on the contrary, if at either of the of the spheres, usually prefixed to the systems of general examinations, any cadet shall be found geography, by means of the globe; a knowledge of unqualified to proceed with bis class, he shall be the grand divisions of the earth, of the extent, put back into the next lower class. No intermediate boundaries and relative situations of the several classes will in any case be allowed. countries situated in each of these grand divisions; Qualifications necessary for admission.-Each cadet embracing likewise a knowledge of their natural previous to his being admitted a member of the productions, commerce, manufactures, govern-military academy, must be able to read distinctly, ment, uaval and military strength, relative import- and pronounce correctly; to write a fair legible ance, and the use of the maps, &c.
hand, and to perforin with facility and accuracy History.--A complete course of history shall the various operations of the ground rules of embrace a course of universal history; the history arithmetic, both simple and compound; of the rules of America generally; the history of the American of reduction, of single and compound proportion, revolutionary war, &c.; the history of the United and also of vulgar and decimal fractions. States, or of such particular states, as the professor Promiscuous Regulations, ist. Every cadel, when in that department shall judge proper.
he shall have completed the forgoing course of Ethics -A course of ethics shall include the studies, shall be entitled to his diploma, signed by elements of moral science, also of natural and the academic staff, agreeably to law and existing political law.
regulations. Milatary Instruction.-A complete course of mili. 2d. The military instruction of the cadet shall tary instruction shall embrace a general course of be under the immediate direction of the super: tactics, a knowledge of infantry duty, to commence intendent of the academy, and shall be attended with the elementary drill of the soldier and to to at such times as will interfere the least with include the discipline and police of the battalion their other academic duties. and platoon in all their parts; a knowledge of 3d. The particular course of studies to be com. artillery duły, including the artillery drill, practical pleted by the classes between the general examine
tions in each year, shall be determined by the su. (Here follows a series of tables, being a register perintendent and academic staff, in such manner as of all the cadets admitted into the acade ny-snow. experience shall point out to be the most condu-ing when entered, when promoted, retired, &r.-cive to the interests of the institution.
The aggregate number is rather more than 600– 4th. Any cadet who shall have been reduced to of whom about 200 have received cornmissions in a lower class, and shall upon a second examination the army: the nuuber at present in the academy, be found unqualified to advance with this class to we believe, is about 250. the next higher grade, shall, unless he shall have In 1817 the number from the respective states was been prevented from attending to his studies by as follows. sickness, necessary absence, or some other evident New Hampshire 2 North Cirolina
9 necessity, be reported to the secretary of the de Massachusetts 20 South Carolina
8 partment of war, by the academical staff, stating Rhode Isiand
2 Kentucky. the branches of science in which he is most defi Connecticut
4 cient, those in which he has made the greatest Vermont
6 proficiency, as well as the general inclination, tera- New York
54 Michigan, T.
3 per and habits, which appear to predominate in his New Jersey
2 actions; and especially whether his dorminant pro. Pannsylvania 13.Missouri, T.
1 pensities impel him to the profession of arms. Delawara
6 Dist, Col. Upon this report be shall be dismissed or retained, Maryland
29 Vælparaiso at the will of the president.
3-Luisiana 5th. The superinter.dent of the academy and the academic staff, shall be at liberty to propose to
Military Instruction, the secretary of war such alterations and amend. ments to the foregoing course of studies as they Letter from the secretary of war to the chairman of shall at any time conjointly deem necessary for
the military cominittee, upon the subjuct of an addi. the good of the institution; the whole, or a majori.
tional military academy, and a schon of practice. ty of them agreeing to such alterations and amend
D.partment of war, Jan. 15, 1819.
Six-In reply to that part of your letter, of the ments.
6th. Should it be found by experience that too 30th of November, which requests my opinion on large a portion of study or instruction is assigned tional military academies, and their places of locain the preceding course of studies to any particution, and such other information and facis as you lar year, the superintendent and academic staff con. join' ly, shall be at liberty to transfer from the may deem proper, to communicate on these sub. course of one year to that of another, suclı particul'establishments, 1 bave the honor to make the fol. lar portions of study or instruction, as may appear
lowing statement: necessary to produce an equality; the whole or a
The number of cadets now authorised by law, majority of them agreeing to such transfer.
is two hun tred and fifty, who are divided into four l'he foregoing course of studies and instructions classes; the cadets of one of which, every year, teris respectfully submitted to the honorable the seminate their studies, and are promoted into the cretary of war.
army. As the academy is now nearly full, it is Rules with respect to the promotion of cadets of the probable that the number which will annually ter. United States' military academy.
minate tbeir studies, and, consequently, will be 1st. That in the govermental promotion of the candidates for promotion, will not be much short cadets, the lineal rank of each graduating class of fifty. The number of vacancies in the army, shall be established in conformity to the principle which have occurred, from the 1st of August, 1816, of general merit, as ascertained by a competent to the last of May, 1818, has been one hundred board of examiners.
and forty-eight, or about eighty-four per annum; 2d. That the distribution of cadets to the sevebut, as it is probable that the causes which bave sal corps of the army at the time of promotion, shall operated to produce so many vacancies in this be made according to their particular talents and time, have been accidental, and consequent on the qualifications, ascertained in like manner; pro. change from active service to the inactivities of a vided, that this distribution be allowed in no in- peace establishment, there will not, it is believed, stance to interfere with the principle of rank ac. in future, be so many; and that the caders who will cording to general merit.
annually terminate their studies at West Point, 31. No cadet to be promoted from the academy will be equal or nearly so, to the annual average until he shall have completed his course of studies vacancies. In this view of the subject, an add. at the same, and received the diploma of the acade. tional military academy would not now be required. mic staff to that effect.
But it seems to me, that the question ought not to 4th. No cadet who shall resign his warrant, or of our military peace establishment, which, from
be determined, by a reference simply to the wanis otherwise be separated from the accademy, before the completion of his studies, shall, on any account,
our geographical position, and the policy of our receive an appointment in the army of the United government, will always bear a small proportion States, until after the promotion of the class to
to the population of the country, and to our miliwhich he belonged; nor then, if such appointment graduating the number or extent of our military
tary establishment in time of war. So far from interfere, in the smallest degree, with the rank of any member of that chiss.
academies, by the want of the army in time of
peace, the opposite principle would, probably, 5th. No cadet, who shall be dismissed the instibe more correct; that, in proportion as our regular tution, or compelled to resign, on account of idle military establishment is small, the government ness, neglect of duty, or any species of bad con- ought to be careful to disseminate by education, a duct, shall be eligible to any office or post in the knowledge of the art of war. The army itself is a army of the United S ates, until at least five years 'ractical school of this art, which, except in the after the promotion of the class to which he be higher branches, may, where it bears a large pro. longed.
portion to the population of the country, supercede
other modes of perpetuating or disseminating this considerations on the course of instruction necessary
Circumstances of locality: the nature of the ope.
manner of combatting, but which are also intend. and perpetuating this knowledge. The govern. operate the most efficaciously to the same end, an! ment oight to furnish the means to those who are to constitute, when in action, but one combined willing to bestow their time to acquire it. The
whole. cadets wilo can'ot be provided for in the army, will return to private life; but, in the event of war, their it does among the moderns; and with both, (the
This subdivision existed among the ancients, as kaowledge will not be lost to the country. The absolute and relative numerical force of these sub. goveri poc may then avail itself of their military divisions being supposed nearly eqnal) the sys; science, and, though they may not be practically tems of war bave been uniformly more perfect, and acquaiited with all of the details of the duty in productive of great results, in proportion as the the arıny, they will acquire it in a much shorter several parts were better calculated to act with tine, than those who have not had the advantage promptitude, precision, and in concert. These of a military education: No truth is better supu parts are designated in modern armies by the word bei is nearly eqiral, victory will be on the side of arm; and consist of infantry, cavalry, artillery, and those who hève the best instructed officers; the du: engineers. Each of these arms act occasionally as ties of a soldier, are few and simple, and, with well principal, or as accessary. In a battle, the infantry is instructed officers, they can be acquired in a shori
in general the principal arm; while the three others time; as our own experience, and that of other are more or less accessaries; in the pursuit of a re. comtries 'aus satisfactorily proved. To form.com and in a siege, the artillery and engineers, are the
treating army, the cavalry becomes the principal; ilje art of war, is much more difficult, as an offi principal arms, and the rest are merely great aus.
iliaries. cer, besides a knowledge of the duties belonging to the soldier, has others of a more difficult na
Among the means which modern discipline en. ture to r*quire, and can only be acquire 1 by long ploys, to give the greatest effect to the combined experience, or sy a regular inilitary education,
action of these arms, is instruction. And bere, the With these vievs, I woull resominend one addi- same motives which have resorted to a subdivi. tional military academy. It ought to be placed sion of labor, as a powerfal cause of perfection in where it would mutually accommodate the south.objects of general industry, have also led to a .ern and western portions of our country, which subdivision of military instruction, as most pro. are the most remole from the present institution, Luctive of that concert and efficiency desirable in
Besides an additional ac: lemy, I would subinit. the operations of an army. This instruction, and for he consideration of the committee, the pro the objects and advantages of its subdivision, are priety of establishing a school of practice, to be the subjects of present consideration. fixed near the seat of government. On this impor. To obtain, by the aid of military instruction, tant subject, I respectfully annex, as a part of this greater effect in the particular, or combined em. communication, a report from general Bernard and ployment of the different arms, two modes im.. colonel M'Ree, to this department; in which the mediately presented themselves: First, that each subject is so fully discussed, as to supersede the arm should be composed of individuals, versed es. necessity of any farther observations.
clusively in the theory and practice of that arm: The expenses of erecting the necessary buildings Second, that the individuals composing each arn, for an ad:litional military acadeiny, on a scale as should be instructed equally in the theory and extensive as that at West Point, wouid cost about practice of all the other arms. The first of these one hundred and thirty thogan 1 dollars, of which methods is insufficieat; because, in giving to each sin, however but a sinall part would be required individual merely the knowledge necessary to for this year. The current expense of the ins:itu. the duties of his own arın, it leaves him deficient tion would, (exclusive of the pay of the cadets, of what is necessary to connect the operations of which is sixteen dollars per month, and two ralions that arm, with the operations of the rest, as paris per day,) probably amount to about twenty-two of one general system. The second is impractice. thousand dollars, per annum.
ble: because it is the privilege of but few indivi. For the school of practice, there would be but lit. duals, to possess that facility of intellect which is tle espense, except for the erection of the necessary requisite io embrace four branches of knowledge, buildings for the accommodation of the institution. as extensive as are those in question, and to prac. The pay of the superintendent and professors, tice them all, with that correctness and prompti. should they be even taken from citizens, would tude, which is the peculiar advantage of such as not esceed eight thousand kve bundred dollars, devote themselves principally to but one of these which would constitute nearly the wbole of the branches. In order to avoid both of these incon. current expe ise, as the lieutenants of the artillery veniences, the theoretical and practical knowledge and engineers, while at the institution, will not re. in the conduct and operations of an army, has been ceive any additional pay or emoluments. The ex. divided into two distinct classes; the one embra. pense of the buildings may be estimatel at eighty cing whatever is common to all the arms; the other thousand dollars, of which, however, but a small confined to what particularly appertains to each part would be require 1 for the present year. arin. A consequent and similar division has fils I have the honor to be your inost obedient servit. lowed in the instruction; the first branch to include
J. C. CALHOUN. what is necessary and useful to the service of every 330. R. M. Johnson, chairman, &c.
ar.n; the second to include the theory and practica
of each arm in particular. Hence, the necessity, the arms of an army; and which ought to have of an elementary, or common school, where the been extended, and applied to artillery, fortificaknowledge common to every arm, should be given tion, and topography. The consequence has been, alike to all who are intended for the army; and a that the officers of infantry, artillery, and engineers school of a higher order, for the purpose of increas. and of the topographical corps, have had the same ing when necessary, the elementary knowledge, degree and kind of instruction; and the only real which has previously been acquired to the extent difference which existed between them, on leaving demanded, and teaching its application to the the school, consisted in the uniform of their re. particular objects and duties of each arm which spective corps or regiments. If any have been so constitute a school of application. In those coun. fortunate as to render theinselves servjocable, eitries which have large military establishments, ther in the artillery or engineers, the cause must there is a school of application for each arm. be sought for, in their own industry, and not in the But those nations, who in time of peace, keep education received by them at West Point, which but a feeble military force on foot, find it advan. was barely sufficient to excite a desire for military tageous to unite, as far as possible, these different inquiries and of military pursuits. schools of application in one; where such as are It remains to enumerate the branches of know." admitted for the service of those arms wbich de. ledge which are common to all the arms, and those mand a more advanced theoretical, or more varied which are necessary, and appertain more or less practical knowledge receive their last degree of aca- exclusively, to each or several of these arms. The demical instruction. In this last case, the students subjoined table, exbibits the two principal diviat the school of application, receive likewise two sions of the instruction. The first part, includes kinds of instruction: 1st, That which is common the branches of knovledge, that are necessary, in to the several arms to which they are destined; all who are destined for any arm of the military and 2d, That which is exclusively necessary to the establishment, either as omcers in the exercise of aran in which they are respectively to serve. their immedinte professional duties, or as men of
Among all nations possessing military schools of information, liable, in the course of their military application for such as are destined for the infantry career to be intrusted with other interests. It is, and cavalry, are the regiments of the army in which threfore, that the mathematics, for instance, are they are to serve. It is on joining and doing duty extended farther than is strictly necessary to the with their respective regiments, that they learn officer of infantry; that natural and experimental to apply the instruction received at the elemen. philosophy, and chemistry, are inserted under the tary school, and acquire whatever relates to the elementary division, rather as forming part of a li. discipline, the conduct, administration, and legis finally, the several kinds of drawing are only taught
beral education thin of mere military utility; and lation of troops.
in the elementary division, as an advantageous in.' This cannot be the case, however, with those troduction to the prompt acquisition and exercise destined for the artillery and engineers, or the to- of the art of topographical delineation. This divipographical corps. They are all, more or less, sion or elementary part of the instruction, will re. liable to be employed separately, and immediately quire five professors, three teachers, and two inafter leaving the school; and are deprived of the structors. The number of assistants, &c. depend advantages peculiar to the officer of infantry or upon the number of individuals at a school. cavalry, of making their first essays in their profes.
The game table presents the second part of the sional duties, under the eyes of their chiefs, or of instruction, which is in addition to the first, and those who have preceded them; and being unas. is necessary to those destined to the engineers, sisted by the advice or opinions of their superiors artillery, or topographical corps. Here the mathe. in rank, knowledge, and experience, they are not matics are carried to a higher degree, which is only left without the means of obtaining the in. rendered necessary by their applications to mastruction of which they are yet deficient, but also chines, the theory of artillery, the construccion of frequently exposed in the execution of the duties charts, &c. Descriptive geometry is applied 10 confided to them, to compromit the public service machines and fortification. Forification is laught by the commission of errors, which too often lead to the extent which is exclusively necessary to ihe to irreparable misfortunes, and which are produc. officers of engineers; and artillery to the extent tive, at least, of a wasteful expenditure of public that is only required for the officers at that property, always beyond, sometimes exceeding, an arın. Geometry and trigonometry receive their. hundred fold, the expense of giving a proper edu, application to topographical operations, and sphe: cation to the individual who bas not been qualified rical trigonometry and descriptive geometry, to to exercise his profession, with satisfaction to him the projection, &c. of charts. This part of the in: self, or usefully to his country.
struction, will demand four professors. Because, These considerations alone, appear to us suffi. leither these two divisions of the instruction, will cient to show the advantage if not necessity, of be taught at one school, or at two separate schools. dividing the course of military instruction between In the first case, the
professors of the elementary two schools; the one elementary, and the other a course, will be insisficient, and cannot attend to a school of application.
course of instruction thus extendedl: in the second The elementary school at West Point, bas kither case, the four professors before mentioned, become to been very inferior, as such; and altogether inad. absolutely necessary. But whether the entire equate to the objects for which it was established. course, or both of these divisions of the insiruction, A project has been presented, however, calculated shall be taught at the same, or at two separate to place this school upon the footing of the most schools, it will not be less indispensable; and á perfect of the kind which exists. As to a school division of it, similar to that here established, of application, there is none. The degree of in. should still exist in fact. The question is there. struction, given to the cadets at the school of fore reduced to this, shall the elementary, or first West Point, has heretofore been for the most part part of the course of instruction, be taught at West limited to a general acquaintance with those Point, and the second part at a separate school, branches of knowledge, whicb are common to all to be established elsewhere? Or shall tbe second
part constitute an additional class or classes, aty students of the elementary classes, and those com.. the school of West Point, to consist of those posing the classes of application, will originale cadets only, who are destined for the engineers, claims to precedence and superiority on the one artillery, and topographical corps, and who shall part, and resistance to such pretensions on the have previously passed through the elementary other, which no regulations can restrain within proclasses?
per limits. The second division of the course of instruction 3d. It will be necessary to have two sets of proexhibited by the annexed table, and which must fessors at the same school, and in several instances constitute, either a school, or classes of applicatwo professors of the same department of science, tion, is practical as well as theoretical. The ap who will be independent of each other. Hence plication of the elementary branches of instruction, increased occasions of discord. Individual interest and the higher branches of the mathematics, to and feelings must of necessity, and frequently will the theory of artillery, fortification; and topogra. be brought into collision; which experience has phy, forming the tbeoretical or academic part of sufficiently proved, would lead, first to divisions this division of the course of instruction, while the among the academic staff, and finally, to the forma. application of these theories to the circumstances tion of parties among the officers and cadets, de. of the ground, &c. requires, and mast be taught structive of that harmony and order which should to the student, by a course of actual experiments, prevail, and are believed essential to the success and practical exemplifications in the field. It is ful operations of the school. necessary to make this remark, in order to a just-4th. The duties of the two sets of professors, the appreciation of all the considerations, which should studies and occupations of the officers and cadets, influence in the decision of the present question. being different in their character, and requiring to
The advantages which may be derived from a union be arranged differently, as to time and other cir. of the school of application, in the shape of addi- cumstances, will render two distinct systems of tional classes, to the elementary school, are almost organization and police indispensable, which fre. exclusively those of economy, and admit of being quently cannot be made to accord, without incorrectly ascertained; they consist,
curring some inconvenience or injury, or without Ist. in having certain duties, that are common the sacrifice of some advantage on the part of one and necessary to both establishments, performed or the other division of the school, and perhaps of by the same individuals, who are now employed both.-The superintendent will, in fact, bave two for those purposes at West Point. Such are the schools to govern and conduct; his time and atten. duties of the superintendent, most of the officers tion will therefore be divided, alternately occupied of the military, staff, and disbursing department. with the peculiar concerns of each, and frequently
2d. In the purchase of an additional site, which employed in reconciling conflicting interests. The will be avoided.
whole system of administration for the two schools, 3d. In saving the additional expense of quarters, will be more or less controlled or influenced, by academical, and other buildings, to the exient that the inconvenient and unnecessary relations in which they now exist at West Point, beyond the wants of they are placed to each other. that estabiishment.
The advantages and disadvantages here enumerat 4th. In saving the expenses of purchasing aed, as attending the union of the two divisions of library, instruments, &c. to the extent of those now the course of military instruction at the same on hand at West Point.
school, are obviously too different in their kind to 5th. In saving the travelling and other expenses admit of being compared: nor is it necessary that to which the graduates of the elementary school they should be. The expense attending the sea would be subjected in order to join and commence parate establishment of a school of application, their course at the school of application, if these might be offered as a reason for rejecting it altoge. institutions were separate; and,
ther; but by no means for uniting it to the elemen6th. In avoiding a loss of time on the part of the tary school, when the operations of both would be graduales, which would take place on their trans obstructed in consequence of so doing, and their fer to the school of application in the case just ultimale success rendered more than doubiful. supposed.
Among the advantages that will be derived frog The following are the considerations which op. the establishment of a schioni, of application are, pose a union, and which consequently urge a separa. the means it will afford of providing for other de. tion of these two schools:
partments of national service, besides those which 1st. The classes of application will consist of have been mentioned; and by locating it immedi. those individuals destined for the artillery, en- ately under the eyes of the government, the mes gineers, and topographical corps, who shall have sures necessary to enlarge, or to adapt it to the graduated at the termination of the elementary particular objects in view, will be more readily course of instruction, and who will consequently ascertained, and applied with greater certainty of be then promoted by brevet or otherwise, in the effect. The necessity of this institution will be same manner as those destined for the infantry. come urgent, in the event of one or more additional There must probably be two classes of applica elementary schools being created. It will then be tion, and the number of students of which they expedient, for those very reasons of economy which ought to consist, in order to supply the annual now form the only objections that, can be opposed vacancies in their respective arms, will not be to il; and it will be necessary because it will less than seventy. The school will therefore be enable the respective candidates for the engineer, augmented by this amount, and will be composed artillery, and topographical corps, to be assembled of commissioned officers and cadets, whose rigbts, at the same school, and to receive in common their interests and occupatio will be more or less last degree of instruction and duties of each of dissimilar; and who inust consequently be governed these arras be attained, which is essential to their by regulations, &c. essentially different, which will perfection. st once destroy that unity of system, necessary to We are, therefore, of opinion, that a school of all military institutions.
application is decidedly necessary to the military 2d. The difference in point of rank, in the service of the country; dat to be rendered efficient,