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Louis? 12. A canal between lake Michigan and the taking furs from our continent to carry to China, to
claim that the time is coming to an end when The following is the 4th proposition
American traders are to be killed and robbed with “The protection of the Missouri fur traders. impunity, when the national government shall enter The establishment of military posts at the Falls the lists as a pedlar to deprive the old inhabitants of of St. Anthony, and at the Mandan villages, is the their accustomed commerce, and when Russians and first step towards yielding this protection The se: Englishmen should annually carry off' near two mil. cond will be in the abolition of the United States' lions of dollars which belong to Americans." factories, and the third in the incorporation of an This speaks for itself, and is partially replied American Pur company.
to in the essay to which this note is added. The
Philadelphin society for the promotion of polizer.
domestic industry, to the citizens of the United States The establishment of the military posts, and the
No. XIII. abolition of the factories, will go far towards giving
Philadelphia, July 5, 1819. protection to the fur traders; but the incorporation
FELLOW CITIZENS—Various causes concur to pro.' of a company, with an exclusive privilege for a limi- duce the present unbappy state of affairs. It is ted time, is the only thing which can place the tra- our belief, however, that the main root, whence ders on the safe and commanding ground which the branch all the evils we suffer, is the neglect of fur. magnitude of the object requires. The courses of nishing full employment to the productive labor of the Missouri, the recesses of the rocky mountains, the country. and the region of the Columbia river, are too re
National wealth does not consist in land, people, mote, their
access environed by too many perils to or the precious metals, but in the possession of be explored successfully by the genius of individual products or values, created by labor. enterprize. The united capital and energies of a A country with an extended territory, and a regular company are alone competent to such un- scattered population, must be poor and feeble. dertakings. Protected and united by a law of incor. Such is Spain at this moment, and such was this poration, the Missouri traders would immediately country when in the state of colonies. push their operations to the Pacific ocean-send There is a paper in the Spectator, No. 200, that the furs of the rocky mountains to Canton-bring contains some excellent refleotions on this subject, back the rich and light productions of the East In- which, as they cannot be better expressed, we shall dies, and convert the Columbia and Missouri into a extract in full. channel for that rich commerce which has given to “ If the same Omnipotent Power, which made every power that has possessed it her day of pre " the world, should at this time raise out of the eminence among the nations of the earth. The ocean and join to Great Britain, an equal estent British and Russian governments have incorporated" of land, with equal buildings, corn, cattle, and companies of fur traders in North America. The “ other conveniences and necessaries of life, but no N. W, and Hudson bay companies have numerous “ men, women, nor children, I should hardly beforts and garrisons, filled with troops and artillery, “ lieve this would add either to the riches of the and con mand the interior of our continent. The people, or revenue of the prince.” And againRussians have a fort mounting a hundred guns upon “That paradox, therefore, in old Hesiod,the North West Coast of America, coinınanded by a "Theov"LOTU navlós, or half is more than the whole, civil and military governor; from which the power-1" is very applicable to the present case; since nö ful protection of the Emperor is extended to some « thing is more true in political arithmetic, than housands of his subjects, who pre employed in that the same people with half a country, is more
«« valuable, than with the whole. I begin to think those products greater refinement, and consequent " there was nothing absurd in sir W. Petty, when value: that is, to give to food a higher relish and « he fancied if all the highlands of Scotland and more diversity; and to apparel, furniture, &c. more “ the whole kingdom of Ireland, were sunk in the of ornament and beauty. These operations are é ocean, so that the people were all saved and the chiefconstituents of manufacturing industry, and « brought into the low lands of Great Britain; nay, absorb a considerable part of the labor, which “ though they were to be reimbursed the value of would otherwise be idle. The cultivation of letters, 6 their estates by the body of the people, yet both of the fine arts, of the physical and abstract scien, " the sovereign and the subjects in general, would ces, the officers of state, and its protection in the “ be enriched by the very loss."
army or navy, in civilized society, give occupation The same sentiment is contained, and placed in to the remainder. a striking point of view with relation to this coun. When that portion, which is employed in creat. try, in a petition to parliament, in the year 1767. ing material products or values, finds full occupa General Phineas Lyman, it appears, contemplated tion, and is predominant, then national wealth is on the establishment of a settlement, on the Onio, in the increase; circulation is kept full brisk and stea the present state of Illinois; and for this purpose, dy; contentment and ease, comfort and happiness, applied to parliament for a tract of land. He en- are in the power of each individual to obtain; the forced the propriety of the measure, by the argu. government is invigorated, and its finances in a ment, that there could be little danger of the colo. Aourishing state. This is the situation of a pros nies becoming independent, if confined to agricul. perous people, and to attain and preserve it, should tural pursuits, and the inhabitants were diffused be the constant aim of an enlightened gorernment. over the country. The position is perfectly cor The reverse of this state of productive industry, rect, and is a very suitable and forcible reply to brings on a lamentable change in the affairs of a those, who are incessantly advising the same policy nation. In proportion as the employment of this to these free and independent states, instead of class diminishes, national production or wealth depromoting manufacturing industry on the seabord, cliness circulation becomes dull, languid, and stag, and the already thickly settled parts of the coun. nant; embarrassments and difficulties sufound tra. try. This is purely an English doctrine, and one ders; poverty and misery' assail laborers; being idle which the English government, unquestionably, they become viscious; and oppressed by pauperism, Walmly approves.
they become criminal. The materials for riots and “A period,” the petition we allude to observes, civil commotions; the ready instruments of design« will doubtless come, when North America will no ing demagogues, are formed and accumulated, ta
longer acknowledge a dependence on any part of the hazard of all good citizens, and the safety of “ Europe. But that period seems to be so remote, civil government. “ as not to be at present an object of rational poli It is not improbable, that it was this state of *cy or human prevention, (and) it will be made things, which was one of the principal causes of the “ still more remote, by opening new scenes of violences of the French revolution. The derange“ agriculture, and widening the space, which the ment of the finances; the immense and unequal er. 6 colonists must first completely occupy."
actions of the government, which fell chiefly op While it is thus demonstrated, that territory thin the industrious poor; the vacillation of its measures, ly peopled, confers neither riches nor power, we which overthrew all confidence; and the operation have examples in Egypt, modern Greece, and of the impolitic treaty of commerce with England other provinces of the Turkish empire, and in of 1786, all tended to ruin the productive industry Persia, that people deficient in industry, contribute of France. Large fragments of its population, as little to national wealth or strength: while Spain were thus disjointed from their usual situation and and Portugal are familiar instances, that they are foated loose and unemployed, endangering the er. not necessarily concomitant with the possession of istence of organized society, with the first agitathe precious metals.
tions that should arise. When we reflect on the distribution of labor in
The commencement of the revolution seems , society, which is necessary to give value to pro- demonstration of the fact. A starving multitude duction, we shall be more sensible of the truth and surrounded the Hotel de Ville, vociferating for operation of the principles laid down,
bread; and, whenever the king appeared in pub. It has been jadged from experience, and admit. lic, his ears were stunned with the same incessant ted by the best authorities, that the labor of twen- clamor from the crowd that thronged around his ty-five persons, will procure all the common neces.
coach. saries of life, as food, drink, apparel, housing, fur.
The same principle explains, satisfactorily, the niture, &c. for one hundred persons. This suppo. cause of the extraordinary military energy of sition takes the above articles as coarse, though France, at that period. Her .commerce ruined; plentiful and good. One-third, it is supposed, from her manufactures languid; her trades sinking from being too old or too young, sick or infirm, will pro- diminished consumption; her agriculture oppressed duce nothing. There will, then, remain about thir- and declining; and the totel destruction of her fi. ty-one individuals of every hundred, capable of nances, threw an immense mass of physical and Working, who are necessarily idle or non-produc labor-power out of employment, 'The army offertive. Now, on the quantity and quality of the ed the only mode of occupation, by which it could employment, with which these thirty-one individu- be absorbed. Hence, more than a moiety of the als are occupied, depends the wealth, power, in- non-necessary producers, whose labor had been telligence, and degree of civilization,
appropriated on a thousand different objects, The objects which can alone occupy this class, was suddenly devoted to arms. In the armies of which, for the sake of distinction, we shall call non- the republic were found every rank and grade of necessary producers, as there is sufficient of suste- society, and every variety of trade and profession. nance and raiment, &c. for necessary wants pro
Europe, which had confederated againsi that de. duced without them, must be, in part, to give to voted country, and anticipated an easy conquest,
was surprised, alarmed and confounded, at the Macpherson's Annals of Commerce, 1767. spectacle presented by this Dation, which led
seemed prostrated with calamity, sending forth at Asia:ic states, are instances of this constitution of one time «eleven distinct armies)* to the field, and things; and there are strong indications of its comher extended frontier bristling with bayonets. mencement in Spain.
This principle was so well understood in Eng. This was the condition of feudal Europe. The Band, before the establishment of manufacturing in crown possesed little constraint over its great feudustry secured permanent employment, that it be. «atories. Cach of which avenged his own wrong came a maxin with her kings to engage in wars, with his swordl
; and most of them supported their whenever this portion of her population accumula- petty dignity, and their retainers, by predatory in, ting, became idle, restless, and discontented. cursions on the domains of his neighbors.
"It was the dying injunction of the late king, From the disorders incident to, and the degrada“ (Henry IV.) to his son, not to allow the Englislation consequent on feudalism, man was rescued by * to remain long in peace, which was apt to breed the establishment of manufactures. They drew sintestine commotions; but to employ them in fo him into towns and villages, and association sharp“ reign expeditions, by which the prince mightening lis intellectual facu tics, he began to undersi acquir: honour; the nobility by sharing its dan stand his rights. By bis labor, wealth was created: rgers might attach themselves to his person; and and with his wealth, and by his combination, he accall the restless spirits find occupation for their quired power to enforce his rights, or the means « inquietude.”+
to purchase their enjoyinent. By this means employment was found for their
Tracing the causes, whence have proceeded the quperabundant labor, which had become oppres-abrogation of feudal institutions, and the emancipasive and troublesome to the government, because tion of society from the debasing and depraving ir:I could not find any other occupation.
Auence of feudal obligations, it will be seen, that On the disposition which is made by the govern- they have disappeared, like darkness yielding to ment, of this class of non-necessary producers, de. the day-dawn, before the genial and invigcrating pends the character of a nation. If the greater influence of manufacturing industry. portion be occupied in agricultural and manufac The people of Italy, acquiring wealth and power, turing industry, the nation will be wealthy and arts, leiters and science, by their industry, first cast prosperous, but not enlightened. This is the case aside the slackles of feudal bondage.' Flanders with China and Hindostan.
and the Netherlands, treading in her steps, next If engaged in arts, letters and sciences, it will be succeeded in the list of free states. As manufacdistinguished for its writers, poets, philosopbers, tures progressed in England, the people gradually historians, orators, statesmen, sculptors and pain- rose into consequence and independence. Yet, ters. Greece in its maturity, Rome in the Augus- from the many obstructions they met with, by the tan age, and Italy at the time of the revival of let. impolicy of the different kings, vassalage was not ters, illustrates our doctrine.
completely annulled until 1574. In that year, Eli. Ifarms be made their trade, the people become zabeth, in order to raise money, directed a charwarlike, make extensive conquests, and are renown- ter to her lord treasurer Burleigh and sir Wiliam ed for heroes, commanders and warri: rs. This Mildmay, chancellor of the exchequer, "to enquiro was the character of Greece in iis early history, of “ into the lands, tenements, and other goods of all Macedon, and of Rome. It is also the condition of “ her bond-men and bond-women in the counties of most semi-barbarous states; like theScythian tribes, Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, and Gloucester, viz which destroyed the western empire; and the Arabs“ such as were by blood, (i. e. birth) in a slavish who carried the crescent over more than half the condition, by being born on any of her manors; world, and have thundered at the gates of most of " and to compound with all or any such bond-men the capitals of Europe. In the vigor of its feudal « or bond-women in these four counties, for their institutions, Europe presented the same aspect." manumission or freedom; and for enjoying their Arms and a rude agriculture constituted the chief " said lands, tenements and goods as freemen. employment of its inhabitants, who poor and op- Thus terminated feudalism in England, from the pressed, were the dependent vassals of their lords. commonalty being enabled by the wealth acquired
Unoccupied by trades or manufactures, they were by manufacturing industry, to purchase their emanever ready to follow their chieftains to the field, cipation. peckless of the cause which summoned them to the In France, the progress of commerce and mana work of destruction. Under the banners of the factures was slower than in England, and a consccross, were arrayed such multitudes, that Europe, quent slower progress is observable in escaping remarks Anna Commena, loosened from its founda- from feudal oppression. Those, who had engaged tions, and impelled by its moving principle, seemed in commerce and manufactures, were, however, in one united body to precipitate itself into Asia.t the first who became'exempt; and the agriculturist, The plains of Palestine and the borders of the Nile, at the period of the revolution, which brought it for near two centuries, were deluged with the ton close, alone was subject to its hardships. blood of millions of human beings, vainly shed in The peasantry of nearly all the Germanic states, the fruitless battles of the crusades.
of Hungary, and Russia, are at this time trammelled When the exertions of a population of this cha. with its fetters. But the period of their liberation racter, are not directed on some one object, and rapidly hastens on. The immense sums disbursed combined by the control of an efficient government, by the contending powers in the late contests, have or by some ruling motive of religion or interest, diffiised much property among the commonalty, society is in complete disorganization. Civil wars, and excited their industry. The continental sys. the contests of petty chieftains, plundering and tem of Bonaparte, started a spirit of manufacturing, robbing by armed bands, ranging over the coun- which is still maintained. The sovereigns in the try, are then the predominant features. The do- last grand confederacy against Napoleon, could not minions of the grand seignior, Africa, and many rely, as formerly, solely, on mercenary troops, but
were thrown on the people for support. A military *Stevens' Wars of the French Revolution, p. 266. spirit, and the sentiments it gives birth to, hare thus Hume's History of England, vol. 2. chap. xix. p. 59. Alexias, lib, ,
* Anderson's Origin of Commerce.
been infused amongst their subjeets, who have the community, which is essential to the highes; learnt the dangerous secret of their power and its state of political prosperity and happiness. extent. The consequences have been, that Bavaria Its order of nobility is supported in the magnis. and Baden, now enjoy the best constituted and cence and splendor of an illustrious rank iby inor freest governments in Europe, while almost all the dinate salarics, attached to petty and mostly useless people of the states of Germany are perseveringly officers of state, by enormous pensions and extravu. and anxiously demanding from their rulers, an ac- gant sinecures. These are taxes, levied on the in. knowledgment and guarantee of their rights in dustrious and productive members of society, to written constitutions, and a participation, by their pamper the luxury, and glut the pride of the idle representatives, in the government.
and non-productive. The more close and attentive the examination of The laws of primogeniture and of entailments, this interesting subject, the more conclusively will abstract and withhold from the general circulation, be established the position, that the modern princi- a large portion of the landed property, in favor of ples and practice of free governments; the ameliora- this privileged rank, to the manifest detriment and tion and refinement of society; the advancement of oppression of the industrious class; and as Jord Coke civilization; and the cultivation of the higher intel observes, “what contentions and mischiefs have lectual pursuits, have grown out of the diffusion crept into the quiet of the law, by these fettered io. and division of productive labor, and the multiplica- heritances, daily experience teacheth.” tion of the objects of its exercise.
The limits of these essays, forbid us to developed When the labor, or producing power of a nation, through all their ramifications, the operation of cir: is not too much concentrated, on any one or two cumstances peculiar to European society, and of particular occupations, but is diffused, in due and the political policy of its governments, which counregular proportion, amongst those professions that teract and frequently destroy the beneficial results constitute civilization, such a nation is then, in its of its principles of economical policy. The two are mnost prosperous, happy, powerful, and intelligent not necessarily connected. The one, with ease, can condition. It will be equally famed for its wealth, be embraced, without adopting the other. We its power, its laws, its arms, its letters, its sciences; have contined ourselves exclusively to the considera. and its arts. This constitutes the most improved tion of the political economy of England and other state of society, which it is the duty of governments European powers, without reference
to their polito establish and cherish. In different degrees, tics. Whatever prosperity they are found to pos. this is the case with different nations of Europe. sess, can be attributed solely to its operation. We There are various causes, into the detail of which, have, therefore, recommended it to the imitation of we have not leisure, and which would lead us too this country. But we have to lament, that some of far from our object to enter, that cast over each of those who have opposed our views, have refused to them different complexions and tints, but which draw the distinction, and have seized on the vices do not, however, destroy their similitude. We shall barely confine ourselves to remark, that their economy.
of their politics, as objections to the principles of in England, her political policy, and her labor-saving machinery, produce modifications of the gene. Applying the above principles to the United al result on her population, which, at first view, States, we shall discover, that during the prosperity seem to militate against our proposition. But a little which they enjoyed in the first twelve or fifteen inspection will dissipate the incongruity.
years subsequent to the French revolution, the la. The population of Great Britain is estimated at bor-power of the country was fully exerted. The 17,000,000. Let us allow three-fourths to be pro- wars in Europe creating a constant market for their ductive of material values, which will make 12,750, agricultural products; the carrying trade, and the 000, as the physical labor population. But, accord- various branches of business connected with it gave ing to Mr. Owen, of Lanark, the machinery of Great employment to the greater portion of their labor. Britain creates a production equivalent to the labor Agriculture and commerce were, then, the charac. of 180,000,000 individuals. The physical popula- teristic pursuits of the nation. Literature, science, tion, therefore, of Great Britain is, to what may be and the arts, were but little cultivated; and few ori.
walled her moral population, as 1 is to 14. Now, it ginal works of importance were produced. Those is chiefly the labor population, and that generally liberal professions, however, which are connected which is devoted to the coarsest and lowest labor, with the ordinary transactions of society, and are that is subject to pauperism. They are made pau- made the business of individuals, flourished with a pers, by whatever interferes with their industry, or vigor unsurpassed in any other country. Of this competes with thcir labor. But as a moral or machi. character are politics, medicine and law. The im. nery labor power, is similar to, and equivalent in its provements those sciences have undergone, and the production, to a physical labor power, the physical ability of those devoted to them, place the United labor power of Great Britain, that is rendered pau- States in a very favourable light, as respects its in. pers, ought in strictness to be compared, not to its tellectual powers, and excite auspicious hopes for physical productive power alone, but to its whole the future. productive power; that is not to twelve or seven. Turning our attention to the situation of the na. teen millions, but to 192 or 197,000,000. Let us tion, at the present time, with reference to the suppose Mr. Owen's calculation to be erroneous, principles laid down, it is obvious, that the sources, and let us strike off eighty millions, and take the which formerly absorbed the superabounding laproductive power of machinery in England as equal bor power of our country, have crased to exist, to 100,000,000 of people, still, viewing it in the and consequently, that a portion of the population light we have presented, the discrepancy, that is which was occupied by them, is daily throw out of often pointed out, disappears.
employment. Hence we notice the effects we have The aristocratic provisions of the English consti. described, as characteristic of such a state of things. tution, and the operation of the vast funding sys. Consumption is less in amount, and consequently tem now established, also disturb that equable and the value of almost every species of property is on regular diffusion of labor, production, and the bur. the declne; bankruptcies are numerous; credit thens for the support of government, throughout I nearly extinct; the circulation stagnant; labor ful.
GREAT BRITAIX AXD IRELAND.
Ven in price; workmen discharged by their employ- mence against this state of things, inevitable if left cers; and the number of the poor augmenting. to themselves, it is utterly impossible to calculate
As this is the most unfavorable state in which the course it might pursue, or the aspect it might a nation can find itself placed, it is the duty of the assume. All the ills, that universal experience has statesmen, in whose bands is confided its direction, shown to be the concomitants of want of employto enquire into the causes, which have created those ment, are incurred, and can only be avoided, by unfavorable circumstances. If they find them to be opening new means of occupation, as the old dise merely transient, temporary remedies, adapted to appear. Every nation in Europe, that is esteemed alleviate present distress, or to enable the com- wise, has directed its attention to manufactures, not munity to sustain the shock of passing events, should only as the chief source of wealth and power, but as be sought for and applied. But if found to origi- the most salutary mode of absorbing the accumu. nate in causes, which cannot be confidently antici- lating class of non-necessary producers. It now pated to disappear of themselves, it is also their rests with us to imitate in this respect the examples, duty to devise a new system of policy, adapted to by adopting the experience of the most illustrious the new situation of the nation. If thic class of in- people of ancient and of modern times; or, by de. dustrious poor be found unemployed, and their pro-termining to procure experience for ourselves, to duction at a stand, the state should devise some run through a course of suffering and distress. But, mode to procure them
employment, and give a fresh when exhausted by the process we have undergone, start, or a new direction to their production. If who can answer for the recovery of our past state the consumption of the productions of the industrial of prosperity; for our rising to that greatness, to ous poor, on which they depend to obtain the com- which we have been looking with pride and exultaforts and necessaries of life, and to pay the taxes tion; or sinking into the feebleness of debility, that that are required for the support of society, be dimi- have always attended those nations who have nehishing, remedies should speedily be applied to glected the sound policy of distributing employment, counteract this injurious operation. The neglect of every kind throughout their population. of these important points in legislation, may overwhelm a large portion of society, bitherto happy,
Foreign Articles. prosperous, and contented, with suffering and calamity; and a consequent feeling of discontent and inflammatory excitement be occasioned, which is A letter writen from Rotterdam, under date of greatly to be deprecated.
May 25, says "A something must happen in Europe We app rehend the situation of our country is of -and from the preparations making, we cannot but the above character. Agriculture, commerce, the conclude that a war is neer ut hand." totiiling of the fabrics of foreign countries, and the branches of business subordinate thereto, formerly
London datos of June 18, gave full occupation to the greater part of our peo The countess of Darnley lately gave a fancy ball, ple; but the foreign markets, which were hereto. at which a mob of 1000 persons were present fore opened, being now closed to our agriculture; among them three of the croyal dukes," the duke our commerce much contracted; the capacity of the of Wellington, &c. The party broke up at half people to consume diminished; those occupations past six in the morning: have become overstocked, and no longer give full The same evening that the countess gave this or profitable employment to those who are engaged ball, 1 or 200,000 persons in England, after a hard in them.
day's work, went supperless to bed, In the present posture of affairs, there are no ra Marriage laws of Scotland.-An important Scottional indications which can lead us to expect that tish law case (extracted from the History of the those pursuits, while it continues, will give full em. Wars) will illustrate the nature of marriage in ployment to our industry: and it surely cannot be Scotland. urged, that this, or any nation, should trust its pros. In 1813, two days previous to the third reading perity to the possible occurrence of favorable acci- of the stipendiary curates bill, an important appeal dents. Yet, while we continue to direct our industry case regarding the Scottish law of marriages, was chiefly to those employments, we must depend on heard in the house of lords, M'Adam v. Adam, the contingent circumstances of a war, or deficient M'Adam, a gentlemen of very large fortune in Ayr: harvests in Europe, for its maintenance, and to pro- shire, kept a mistress in his house for many years, cure adequate markets for our productions, when and had children by her. One morning he called carried to the extent of our productive power.- the servants into the room where he and his mis, in the meantime, the non-necessary class of pro. tress were at breakfast, and taking her by the hand, ducers, must constantly increase; its capacity to declared in their presence, that she was his wife. pursne the vocations, in which it was engaged, must The same day he shot himself
. The question, Jessen; its means of sustenance daily decline; and therefore, tested, whether this was a valid marri. the whole retrograde from the higher species of age, and consequently the children legitimate! labor to the lower. The inferior laborers thus press. And upon the decision of this question depended ed upon, while employment is decreased, must be the succession to a real estate of 10,0001. per annum. thrust into pauperism, and come on the public for The result was, that the marriage was pronounced support.
to be valid; by which decision it may be considerIf these revolutions take place quietly, from ope. Çd as finally established, that, by the law of Scot. rating on a sluggish population, the only effect will land, as it at present stands, a mere verbal declara. be, to place society back in the position it had pre- tion of marriage, by the parties themselves, delibe. viously occupied, before it had known its days of rately made in the presence of witnesses, constiprosperity; or had acquired a taste for, with a know.tutes a valid inarriage, proveable by the testimony ledge of, the indulgences and refinements of advan- of the witnesses, without any writing or any other ced civilization, growing out of its increased wealth ceremony, civil or ecclesiastical. and the cultivation of intellectual enjoyments, in the MarriechMr. H. B. Fearon, of London author of äne arts, letters and science. But should this re. a tour through America, tu Miss Thompson, A trocession be resistech, and a struggle once. com- protest against the marriage ceremony, signed by