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us that God can take words of one nationally and as it were constitutionally a liar and add this sanction, This witness is true.

Much confusion and difficulty may indeed be avoided if we bear in mind that it is throughout a question not of originality but of inspiration, save that whatever is good anywhere must of course be original with the Father of lights, whatever the channel through which it happens to flow.

In reply then to the question, how far does the apostolic quotation of a part of the Septuagint warrant the inspiration of the whole we venture to state that it is no warrant at all. What the Holy Ghost touches it hallows — beyond this the translation, whatever its excellence, comes into our hands as the work of fallible man.

As such, however, it is highly valuable. It is not only a translation of the Old Testament, but it is the Old Testament translated into the language of the New. Let it be remembered that the Gospel was in its aspect to the world a Hellenistic thing. In the providential designs of God“ the Roman was the herald to proclaim silence to the world, the Greek was the interpreter.” And this was in keeping with the extension of the Gospel to the Gentiles. It did not merely facilitate the grand scheme of universal preaching, but Greeks, in the language of Scripture, were Gentiles and Gentiles were Greeks. See John vii. 35; Rom. i. 14. There is reason to believe that the very knowledge of Hebrew now existing among us has been won, in measure at least, by the patient labour of many who at one time or another diligently compared the original Scriptures with the Septuagint.

There is indeed one benefit of a still higher order to be derived from this version than even the elucidation of the Hebrew Scriptures. This is the correction of the Hebrew text itself. There is danger, doubtless, of pressing this argument too far, and of weakening the confidence of the multitude in our copies of Scripture, but a very few instances will serve to establish the value of the Septuagint in this respect without unduly or falsely lowering the reputation of the Hebrew.* In Genesis iv. 8, the Hebrew is rendered in the English version Cain talked with Abel his brother. But the analogy of the Hebrew language requires that the words should rather be translated Cain said to Abel his brother (the words of the speaker following). These words the Septuagint supplies, “Let us go into the field.” Again, Deut. xxxii. 43, the following words occur in the Septuagint, “Rejoice, ye heavens, with him and let all the angels of God worship him.” This passage does not occur in our present Hebrew copies, and yet they are quoted in the epistle to the Hebrews i. 6. Another very remarkable instance of the use of the Septuagint in thus correcting the Hebrew is afforded by the omission of a verse in one of the acrostic Psalms, (cxliv. 13), where the order of the alphabet requires that it should begin with 3. This verse also the Septuagint supplies.

This may be a suitable place for a few words in explanation of the obeli and asterisks of Origen. If the Septuagint does not perfectly accord with the Hebrew, there are only two ways in one or both of which they can possibly differ. 1. By the Hebrew containing what is omitted in the Septuagint. 2. By the Septuagint containing what is omitted in the Hebrew. In the former case Origen supplied the omission from some Greek translation then extant (chiefly that of Theodotion) and marked the inserted words with an asterisk; in the latter he affixed an obelus to those passages of the Septuagint to which there was nothing in the Hebrew to correspond. These two signs contribute powerfully to establish the superior claims of the Vatican copy. For on the one hand this copy contains those passages which early Christian writers represent as having been omitted in the Hebrew, but supplied and obelised by Origen. On the other hand of those passages which occur in the Hebrew but not in the Septuagint, and are said to have been marked with an asterisk by Origen, not one appears in the Vatican.

* See Introduction to Bos's edition, 4to. 1709.

It may be urged, and that in connexion with what has been already said, that there are many reasons for publishing the Septuagint, but few for translating it. Let scholars, it may be said, make the most of it, and give others the benefit of the comparison, but the unlearned who are confined to translations may be satisfied with the translation of the Hebrew. Beyond this things might be left to find their own level. Let the Greek Septuagint be published in a cheap and accessible form and the march of mind will soon supply readers.

But the march of intellect is not the march of literature. If the reading population of the country promises to double itself in a few years, the thinking part of the community increases at a still more rapid rate. And their judgment of books must sometimes precede the reading of them. To inform this judgment is one great use of translations. It is well worthy of consideration (strange as it may appear) that the studies of the learned are, and to a certain extent must be, directed by the unlearned. These cannot indeed teach what they do not know, but they can decide what shall be taught, a material difference which has been too frequently overlooked. The sons of widows, of commercial and military men, of tradesmen and mechanics, whose success in business enables them to aspire to a better education for their children than they have themselves enjoyed, these if they receive a learned education at all, have a learned education chosen by their parents, who frequently know very little what their children are taught. They have read it may be Pope's Homer and Dryden's Virgil, beyond this their acquaintance with the books their children are reading does not extend.

It is a just remark, we believe, of Archbishop Whately, that it would be well if a translation of the plays acted at Westminster school were put into the hands of the boys' mothers. If a translation of bad books is useful to teach parents what to refuse, still more desirable is a translation of good books to teach them what to choose. Why then, it may be asked, is the Septuagint so little known and so little valued? The answer is Because it has not been translated.

On the subject of the preference that should be given to sacred studies in the education of children we may learn even from Roman Catholics, one of whom represents the Septuagint as a most suitable introduction to the study of profane Greek writers.* Our readers are familiar with the history of a king of Pontus who endeavoured in his old age to poison himself, but the antidotes he had taken in his youth happily rendered the attempt ineffectual. Too frequently in the education of children professed Christians and Protestants reverse this order. The poison is taken first and in youth, the system is deeply inoculated with it, the antidote if taken at all, is taken too late. We are well aware of the grand objection to the introduction of the Septuagint into schools, viz. that the Greek is not classical. Not to provoke the hostility of the whole learned world by venturing a word against Homer, why should not the Septuagint be allowed a place as well as Theocritus ? The study of selections from this poet is considered to interfere little with the general attainment of a knowledge of Greek, though the dialect varies far more from the attic purity of Thucydides and Xenophon than does the Septuagint.

One effect that might be anticipated from the growing attention on the part of Christians to the whole Word of God and to the Hebrew Scriptures in particular, is, that the credit of the Septuagint would suffer in consequence. The writer is opinion that the reverse will be

The effect may be indeed to lower the extravagant pretensions of those of its admirers who would exalt it to the disparagement of the Hebrew, or claim for it the rank of an inspired composition; but this will only reduce it to its just level, that of an extremely useful translation.

The dangerous acquirement of a little Hebrew learning will be less likely to flatter its possessor, when it is shared with many others, or improved into a competent acquaintance with the language and its difficulties. The Septuagint

case.

* See preface to Jager's edition of the Septuagint, Paris, 1839.

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will be welcomed not indeed as the rival, but the handmaid of the Hebrew Scriptures, the pleasing tribute of Gentile literature to the House of God; who from the midst of all the infidelity and error that darken the earth can elicit blessings for his people; who could make the inauspicious land of Egypt at one time a shelter for the young child' from the jealousy of a Jewish king, at another the faithful repository of the written Word. The Jews were thus providentially led to deposit a pledge for the truth of the Gospel which they could never recall, and in the heart of their inspired records had treasured up a picture of the Man of Sorrows of which it was too late to deny the likeness to Jesus of Nazareth.

The translation has been made from the Vatican text (Valpy's edition) with occasional insertions of Alexandrine readings in the notes. As these have seldom been added, except where they seemed to elucidate or otherwise improve upon the Vatican text, they would of course convey far too favourable an opinion of that copy to any one who should form a judgment of it from a review of those passages alone. The comparative merits of the two copies have been the subject of much controversy, but the question is yet undecided. The general opinion appears to be in favour of the Vatican, while at the same time many obscure passages are rendered clear, and many omissions supplied by the Alexandrine text.

Most of the references to the New Testament are taken from the list in Spearman's Letters on the Septuagint, (pp. 348–352), a work containing some valuable remarks, but tinctured throughout with the opinions of Hutchinson, and stating, rather than answering, the question we have been considering relative to the quotations from the Septuagint found in the New Testament.

In the notes also, though very rarely, there appears the name of Thomson, the American translator. The writer has himself never seen that work, but some alterations and improvements were made from it by a friend (Mr. Charles Pridham) who had the opportunity of comparing the two, and to whom he is otherwise indebted for the correction of many errors. While thus acknowledging our obligations to Thomson, we are of course not likely to speak slightingly of his work. If there are faults, they are probably those of a vigorous and independent mind, better fitted to engage in original attempts than to submit to the drudgery of translation.

For the purpose of throwing some light on the Chronology of the Septuagint, the following Table has been copied, with some variations, from Horne's valuable Introduction to the Study of Scripture, Vol. iii. p. 527, 7th ed.

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CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.

HALES.

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B. C. 5411 5311 5210 5181 4996 4786 4616 4451 4289 4124 3937 4481 3914 4269 3755 4071 3877 3721 3489 3275 3184 3155 3154 3153 3018 2888 2754 2614 2554

100 201 230 415 625 795 960 1122 1287 1474

930 1497 1142 1656 1340 1534 1690 1922 2136 2227 2256 2257 2258 2393 2523 2657 2797 2857

Creation
Birth of ain and Abel
Murder of Abel
Birth of Seth
Enos born
Cainan born
Mahalaleel born
Jared born
Enoch born
Methuselah born
Lamech, father of Noah, born .
Adam dies
Enoch is translated
Seth dies
Noah born
Enos dies
Cainan dies
Mahalaleel dies
Jared dies
God denounces the Deluge
Lamech dies
Methuselah dies .
Noah leaves the Ark
Arphaxad, son of Shem, born
Salah, son of Arphaxad, born
Eber, son of Salah, born .
Peleg, son of Eber, born
Babel built about this time
About this time Nimrod builds Nineveh

and founds the Assyrian empire.
Reu, son of Peleg, born
Serug, son of Reu, born
Nahor, son of Serug, born
Terah, father of Abraham, born
Haran, son of Terah, born
Noah dies

B.O. 4004 4003 3875 3874 3769 3679 3609 3544 3382 3317 3130 3074 3017 2962 2948 2864 2769 2714 2582 2468 2353 2348 2347 2346 2311 2281 2247 2247 2233

1 129 130 235 325 395 460 622 687 874 930 987 1042 1056 1140 1235 1290 1422 1536 1651 1656 1657 1658 1693 1723 1757 1757 1771

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USHER B. 0. A. M. 1996 2008 1986 2018 1922 2082 1921 2083 1920 2084 1913 2091

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Abram born
Sarah born
Abram called from Ur to Haran
Abram comes into Canaan
Abram goes into Egypt
-His victory over five kings,–Mel-

chisedec blesses him.
Ishmael born
Abram's name changed-Circumcision

instituted—Isaac promised.
Isaac born
Abraham commanded to offer Isaac
Isaac marries Rebecca
Jacob and Esau born
Death of Abraham
Jacob's flight into Mesopotamia
Joseph sold into Egypt
Promotion of Joseph-seven years of

plenty begin.
Jacob sends his sons to Egypt to buy corn
Moses born about this time
Moses flees into Midian
Job lives about this time .
God sends Moses to deliver Israel
Law delivered at Mount Sinai .
About this time Israel turned back to

wander forty years.
The Israelites pass

Jordan
The Sun and Moon stand still .
Joshua dies
Gideon delivers Israel
Saul made king of Israel
Saul's rash sacrifice and consequent

rejection.
Saul spares Agag, and is finally rejected
Death of Saul
Death of Absalom
Completion of the Temple
Death of Solomon
Jeroboam's calves set up
Death of Rehoboam
Abijah conquers Jeroboam
Asa succeeds Abijah.
Nadab succeeds his father Jeroboam
Baasha succeeds Nadab .
Jehoshaphat succeeds Asa

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1079 1055 1021 1004 975 974 958 957 955 954 953

914 xiii

2925 2949 2983 3000 3029 3030 3046 3047 3049 3050 3051 3090

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