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destroyed-filial piety upon which destability of nations, and without States may spring up only to disappear bubbles in the ocean of time. TU-TAR-LEE.

Blake was familiarly acquainted with Fuseli, strong Flaxman, Linnell, Varley, and other artistic to celebrities of the period, and as a poet he was highly esteemed by the amiable Charles Lar From 1804 to the year of his decease he was constantly engaged in the work of engraving for a liveliho various poems with which his and designing and engr his various singular w

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Hae Shin, Newcastle, England, 5th Moon.

DAMASCUS AND MOUNT LEBANON IN 1873.

BY JOHN D. MILBURN.

PART III.

LL the house tops in Damascus are flat, and from one of these we were shown

the haggling over a point! All this public Naaman's reputed dwelling place.

Truly

natural duplicity of this people, and so great oriental is Damascus, with these white or yellow become acquainted with any of even their most out, and all Paradise within, with sparkling, admirable institutions, that when I asked one is their suspicion and fear lest strangers should plastered houses, all miserable mud wall with

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Peregrine" had

bubbling, fountains and odoriferous shady

especially devoted himself to, he opened his trees, containing here and there a family group eyes and assured me, with a great show of -sometimes Moslem, sometimes Christian, the candour, that the contest was nothing more former generally recognisable by the veils of ness forbade a reply, and he left me under the women adopt this custom of the country. than a horse race, called the Derby. Polite- the women. delusion that he had closed mine eyes.

it, the English

I say generally, for some Christian

As if to rival the many minarets, palm trees

Though they do not like foreigners to know shoot up at intervals from the courtyards, and

any more.

are a great people. Their

We saw hundreds of mosques, some of them

from the surrounding walls, often thrusting wealth is enormous, though, singular to say, aside the rough masonry to make room for their debt is more enormous still, and the whole their swelling trunks. Their world could not furnish gold to pay it. wealth is distributed in obedience to what they mouldy, crumbling, and tottering; others call political economy over the entire mass of the people. So equitable are the arrangements that poverty is voluntary, and were it not for the fortunate superstition of the "Jolly Dogs," they would, I have been assured, all become so rich that they would not be required to work This, I have been told, is the goal to which every Englishman turns his face, and the greatest compliment you can pay him is, not to tell him he is skilled in his handicraft, but that he is too good for it. This, to you and me, 0, Keng-jin-chou, is but a sad consideration, for, in the writings of all our sages, are we not ever reminded of the dignity of labour? "He that cultivateth the ground is more honourable than he who idleth in a palace."

with graceful dome, cunningly wrought in
choicest arabesque and Moorish or Saracenic
fretwork, poised, balloon-like, amidst their
minarets; others again sheer architectural
zebras in their parallel stripes of gaudy
colours. We saw Muezzins appear upon the
galleried minarets, and summon the Faithful to
prayer. They slowly entered their sanctuaries,
first removing their shoes or slippers, and
washing their hands and feet-muttering
prayers the while. Inside the mosque they
turn towards the Kibleh (the direction in which
Mecca lies), and perform their devotions-now
sitting as if petrified with hands upraised, and
then pressing their heads upon the ground-
La il aha-illah Allah, Mahomet Resoul Allah.
"There is but one God, and Mahomet is the
prophet of God." Mosques contain no seats.
Little squares of carpet, called Seggadeh,
the floor, and upon these the worshippers kneel
in rows, facing the Mehrab, which is a niche in
the wall, indicating the direction of Mecca
(Kibleh). There is a pulpit for the Imaun, or
priest, but otherwise the mosque is bare.

Cover

Before I bring my letter to a close, O, venerable friend! let me speak of the manner of dress in this land. We are contented to dress as our fathers have done for a thousand years, and the fashion of our garments never change, but amongst this people fashions change every day, and it is, moreover, impossible to find two persons, either men or women, dressed alike. This absurd habit they are very proud of, and Friday-the Mahommedan Sabbath-is, of they call it "progress." Alas! O, Keng-jin- course, the great day of worship; but daily, at chou, they do not perceive that inconstancy the Muezzin's call, people flock to the mosques in dress makes inconstancy of mind. They to pray. They have five set daily prayers— despise the habits of their fathers, and their the sunset, the nightfall, the daybreak, the

upon

noon, and the afternoon. Upon ordinary days these may be performed at home, in the streets, the housetops, or wherever the worshipper may be. Upon the Sabbath all pious Moslems proceed to the Mosque to pour out their devotions. Women are excluded, or carefully separated by partitions from the sons of the Prophet, for women of the Moslem belief are but small stars to do obeisance to the larger stars their masters. It is not surprising, therefore, that they should be largely represented in the Islamitic Inferno.

A story is told of Mahomet having informed an old woman, who begged hard to be allowed to go to Paradise, that there no such things as old women existed. The old lady wept; Mahomet took pity on her, and mended matters by telling her that all women would be made young again before entering Paradise.*

Modern Damascus houses, near the Great Mosque, present in their exteriors a muchcracked and dilapidated appearance. The contrast between these ugly, unpretending mud-hovels and the architecture of the Romans and the Caliphs is vast. There is a charm, however, about this "olla podrida." The straggling or half-buried colonnades of Straight Street; the massive battlements, towers, and casemates of the Citadel; the tower-flanked walls of the City; the graceful domes of the mosques, many of them richly decorated; the tall slender minarets, many of them possessing spiked-cupolas; the pretty Moorish arches and gateways, and lastly the mud walls and chaos of debris, which serve as modern dwellinghouses, and smother and confuse everything into a conglomerate perplexity, as though they would fain hush up the stirring history and bloody scenes of the past. The population of Damascus may be estimated at from 150,000 to 180,000 souls, but a large proportion is migratory, owing to the arrivals and departures of caravans-Damascus being one of the highroads to Bagdad and Persia. It is also the great starting place of the Syrian Haj, or pilgrimage to Mecca, and used to do a large trade with the pilgrims, but the facility of steamer communication from the coast to Suez and thence to Jeddah is materially affecting this traffic. Christian Kurds and Armenians also make Damascus a halting place on their way to Jerusalem, and the Druses of the Hauran and of the mountains are continually bringing their produce of sheep, silk, grain, and fruit, &c., into the city for sale, where they also make their purchases of clothes, arms, &c.

Of course the greater part of the Damascenes are Mahommedans, next come the Christians of the Greek Churches, then the Jews, next the Druses and Maronites, the See Sale's Koran: Preliminary Discourse.

Of

Armenians, and many other sects. Protestants there is a mere handful, chiefly composed of the missionaries and their families. There are a large number of negroes and slaves who may be said to belong to their master's religion, if they belong to any at all.

The Hauran lies to the south of Damascus, and being exceedingly fertile, it produces large quantities of grain, which is cultivated by the Druses, who pay taxes to the Turks, when they are not in open rebellion, as frequently is the case.

Three or four days' journey, away to the East, is Palmyra with its stately ruins, dominating sandy barrenness. A visit to Palmyra from Damascus entails much inconvenience, owing to the lawlessness of the Bedouins, who think nothing of robbing unescorted travellers of everything they possess, not excepting their clothes. Again, there is the hard riding, of which I had almost had enough on the journey from Beyrout. The Doctor would not entertain this excursion, not even upon a fast trotting dromedary, and suggested that we should visit Baalbec instead. One of the missionaries offered to accompany me, but I chose to abide by the Doctor's decision. Baalbec, at any rate, was within easy reach; and owing to the mystery which shrouds its origin, and the massive architecture of its base, it is perhaps the more remarkable ruin of the two.

Palmyra is described by King Solomon as "Tadmor in the wilderness," and history records how its brave and beautiful Queen, Zenobia, together with her faithful councillor, Longinus, defended it bravely against the Romans for a considerable time. It was ultimately taken (A.D. 272), and Zenobia was carried to Rome, and led captive through its streets, bound with golden fetters. Palmyra in due time made the acquaintaince of the Saracens, and ever since the days of the intrepid Zenobia has been crumbling into ruin. The most striking portion of the ruin is that comprising the Temple of the Sun. Gigantic collonnades and beautiful porticoes rise from confused heaps of stones, amidst which squat modern hovels.

The next day being Sunday, we went to church for the morning service, and heard an excellent sermon from Mr. Patterson, a young missionary, who had been but six weeks in Damascus. The congregation was small, but the deep, calm fervour reminded me of that beautiful New Testament verse"Where two or three are gathered together in My name, then am I in the midst of them." Mr. Wright preached that morning an Arabic sermon in another church. I was much struck by the thorough, and happy understanding, which existed between the American and British missions-both seemed to realise that

TU-TAR-LEE.

The last moon has been one of extraordinary filial piety is destroyed-filial piety upon which excitement. They have held their annual is built the stability of nations, and without competition of students for offices of state. This which states may spring up only to disappear important event has been looked forward to like bubbles in the ocean of time. with intense interest by all classes, from the poorest workman to the highest mandarin. Hae Shin, Newcastle, England, 5th Moon. The news-sheets have had long articles on the merits of the rivals, and the prophets DAMASCUS AND MOUNT LEBANON IN 1873. have been engaged in forecasting the result. Joss-houses-especially those of the "Jolly Dogs"-have been turned into gambling-houses, and filled with enquirers, seeking eagerly the LL the house tops in Damascus are flat, odds against each candidate; and great was the over a All this

BY JOHN D. MILBURN.
PART III.

spirit is highly to be praised, but such is the
natural duplicity of this people, and so great
is their suspicion and fear lest strangers should
become acquainted with any of even their most
admirable institutions, that when I asked one
of them what studies 66
Peregrine" had
especially devoted himself to, he opened his
eyes and assured me, with a great show of
candour, that the contest was nothing more
than a horse race, called the Derby. Polite-
ness forbade a reply, and he left me under the
delusion that he had closed mine eyes.

and from one of these we were shown Truly Naaman's reputed dwelling place. oriental is Damascus, with these white or yellow plastered houses, all miserable mud wall without, and all Paradise within, with sparkling, bubbling, fountains and odoriferous shady trees, containing here and there a family group

sometimes Moslem, sometimes Christian, the former generally recognisable by the veils of the women. I say generally, for some Christian women adopt this custom of the country.

As if to rival the many minarets, palm trees shoot up at intervals from the courtyards, and from the surrounding walls, often thrusting aside the rough masonry to make room for their swelling trunks.

Though they do not like foreigners to know it, the English are a great people. Their wealth is enormous, though, singular to say, their debt is more enormous still, and the whole world could not furnish gold to pay it. Their wealth is distributed in obedience to what they call political economy over the entire mass of the people. So equitable are the arrangements that poverty is voluntary, and were it not for the fortunate superstition of the "Jolly Dogs," they would, I have been assured, all become so rich that they would not be required to work any more. This, I have been toll, is the goal to which every Englishman turns his face, and the greatest compliment you can pay him is, not to tell him he is skilled in his handicraft, but that he is too good for it. This, to you and me, 0, Keng-jin-chou, is but a sad consideration, for, in the writings of all our sages, are we not ever reminded of the dignity of labour? "He that cultivateth the ground is more honourable than he who idleth in a palace."

Before I bring my letter to a close, O, venerable friend! let me speak of the manner of dress in this land. We are contented to dress as our fathers have done for a thousand years, and the fashion of our garments never change, but amongst this people fashions change every day, and it is, moreover, impossible to find two persons, either men or women, dressed alike. This absurd habit they are very proud of, and they call it "progress." Alas! O, Keng-jinchou, they do not perceive that inconstancy in dress makes inconstancy of mind. They despise the habits of their fathers, and their

We saw hundreds of mosques, some of them mouldy, crumbling, and tottering; others with graceful dome, cunningly wrought in choicest arabesque and Moorish or Saracenic fretwork, poised, balloon-like, amidst their minarets; others again sheer architectural zebras in their parallel stripes of gaudy colours. We saw Muezzins appear upon the galleried minarets, and summon the Faithful to prayer. They slowly entered their sanctuaries, first removing their shoes or slippers, and washing their hands and feet-muttering prayers the while. Inside the mosque they turn towards the Kibleh (the direction in which Mecca lies), and perform their devotions-now sitting as if petrified with hands upraised, and then pressing their heads upon the groundLa il aha-illah Allah, Mahomet Resoul Allah. "There is but one God, and Mahomet is the prophet of God." Mosques contain no seats. Little squares of carpet, called Seggadeh, cover the floor, and upon these the worshippers kneel in rows, facing the Mehrab, which is a niche in the wall, indicating the direction of Mecca (Kibleh). There is a pulpit for the Imaun, or priest, but otherwise the mosque is bare.

Friday-the Mahommedan Sabbath-is, of course, the great day of worship; but daily, at the Muezzin's call, people flock to the mosques to pray. They have five set daily prayersthe sunset, the nightfall, the daybreak, the

noon, and the afternoon. Upon ordinary days these may be performed at home, in the streets, upon the housetops, or wherever the worshipper may be. Upon the Sabbath all pious Moslems proceed to the Mosque to pour out their devotions. Women are excluded, or carefully separated by partitions from the sons of the Prophet, for women of the Moslem belief are but small stars to do obeisance to the larger stars their masters. It is not surprising, therefore, that they should be largely represented in the Islamitic Inferno.

A story is told of Mahomet having informed an old woman, who begged hard to be allowed to go to Paradise, that there no such things as old women existed. The old lady wept; Mahomet took pity on her, and mended matters by telling her that all women would be made young again before entering Paradise.*

Modern Damascus houses, near the Great Mosque, present in their exteriors a muchcracked and dilapidated appearance. The contrast between these ugly, unpretending mud-hovels and the architecture of the Romans and the Caliphs is vast. There is a charm, however, about this "olla podrida." The straggling or half-buried colonnades of Straight Street; the massive battlements, towers, and casemates of the Citadel; the tower-flanked walls of the City; the graceful domes of the mosques, many of them richly decorated; the tall slender minarets, many of them possessing spiked-cupolas; the pretty Moorish arches and gateways, and lastly the mud walls and chaos of debris, which serve as modern dwellinghouses, and smother and confuse everything into a conglomerate perplexity, as though they would fain hush up the stirring history and bloody scenes of the past. The population of Damascus may be estimated at from 150,000 to 180,000 souls, but a large proportion is migratory, owing to the arrivals and departures of caravans-Damascus being one of the highroads to Bagdad and Persia. It is also the great starting place of the Syrian Haj, or pilgrimage to Mecca, and used to do a large trade with the pilgrims, but the facility of steamer communication from the coast to Suez and thence to Jeddah is materially affecting this traffic. Christian Kurds and Armenians also make Damascus a halting place on their way to Jerusalem, and the Druses of the Hauran and of the mountains are continually bringing their produce of sheep, silk, grain, and fruit, &c., into the city for sale, where they also make their purchases of clothes, arms, &c. Of course the greater part of the Damascenes are Mahommedans, next come the Christians of the Greek Churches, then the Jews, next the Druses and Maronites, the See Sale's Koran: Preliminary Discourse.

Armenians, and many other sects. Of Protestants there is a mere handful, chiefly composed of the missionaries and their families. There are a large number of negroes and slaves who may be said to belong to their master's religion, if they belong to any at all.

The Hauran lies to the south of Damascus, and being exceedingly fertile, it produces large quantities of grain, which is cultivated by the Druses, who pay taxes to the Turks, when they are not in open rebellion, as frequently is the case. Three or four days' journey, away to the East, is Palmyra with its stately ruins, dominating sandy barrenness. A visit to Palmyra from Damascus entails much inconvenience, owing to the lawlessness of the Bedouins, who think nothing of robbing unescorted travellers of everything they possess, not excepting their clothes. Again, there is the hard riding, of which I had almost had enough on the journey from Beyrout. The Doctor would not entertain this excursion, not even upon a fast trotting dromedary, and suggested that we should visit Baalbec instead. One of the missionaries offered to accompany me, but I chose to abide by the Doctor's decision. Baalbec, at any rate, was within easy reach; and owing to the mystery which shrouds its origin, and the massive architecture of its base, it is perhaps the more remarkable ruin of the two.

Palmyra is described by King Solomon as "Tadmor in the wilderness," and history records how its brave and beautiful Queen, Zenobia, together with her faithful councillor, Longinus, defended it bravely against the Romans for a considerable time. It was ultimately taken (A.D. 272), and Zenobia was carried to Rome, and led captive through its streets, bound with golden fetters. Palmyra in due time made the acquaintaince of the Saracens, and ever since the days of the intrepid Zenobia has been crumbling into ruin. The most striking portion of the ruin is that comprising the Temple of the Sun. Gigantic collonnades and beautiful porticoes rise from confused heaps of stones, amidst which squat modern hovels.

The next day being Sunday, we went to church for the morning service, and heard an excellent sermon from Mr. Patterson, a young missionary, who had been but six weeks in Damascus. The congregation was small, but the deep, calm fervour reminded me of that beautiful New Testament verse"Where two or three are gathered together in My name, then am I in the midst of them." Mr. Wright preached that morning an Arabic sermon in another church. I was much struck by the thorough, and happy understanding, which existed between the American and British missions-both seemed to realise that

though sent from different lands, their objects were identical. Dr. C spent the interval between morning and afternoon service with his countryman, Mr. Crawford, whilst I accompanied Mr. Wright, to be introduced to his family. In this domestic circle, my mind was soon filled with pictures of my own distant home.

Mr. Wright possessed a splendid collection of ancient coins, several signet rings, earthenware lamps, resembling those carried by the Virgins, as seen in pictures, and many other curiosities and antiques. For years the missionary had collected. He occasionally made excursions to the numerous ruins in the neighbourhood. Sometimes he carried his gun, and allowed the excitement of the chase to vary the monotony of antiquarian pursuits. Thus also he acquired a valuable knowledge of the fauna and flora of the country. After an early dinner, we went to Mr. Wright's Sunday school, where I heard the "Realms of the Blest" sweetly sung by nearly two hundred dark-eyed children in their native tongue. It had been one of Mr. Wright's first duties to translate some of those sweet Sunday school hymns, which are so familiar to our childhood, into Arabic, and very beautiful it was to listen to the tones of those familiar tunes, as sung in that deep and powerful tongue.

That same afternoon, Mr. Wright held an Arabic service in the church which we had visited in the morning. We saw a number of tawny, sunburnt Kurds eagerly joining in the service, and we also found Druses amongst the worshippers, and one or two converts from the numerous sects of Damascus. A screen was drawn right down the middle of the aisle. From the further side came now and again the rustling of female garments. After this service we were joined by Mr. Crawford and the Doctor, and we all went for a stroll. Soon we found ourselves upon a mountain side in a suburb of of Damascus, named Salahijeh. From this place the view was superb. The eye fell upon the domes and minarets of the ancient city, upon the crumbling old castle, and upon all Damascus, hemmed in by stately poplars and abounding in fruit trees-the apricot in its glorious blossom being conspicious. Here and there a palm tree shot out its ostrich-plumed fronds. Close at our feet flowed the silvery Barada through a heaven of fertility. In the distance loomed the hills which marked the fertile Hauran. As we gazed the evening sun turned everything it touched into living, lustrous gold, casting a yet brighter loveliness over the foliage and the city, and reflecting itself by a thousand dazzling coruscations in the pellucid river. It was a charming, indelible scene. Yet, in this smiling valley and upon those rugged mountains took place

the hideous massacres of 1860, when blood flowed like water. Incited by hellish hallucinations, friends struck friends in fanatic fury, or handed them over to the turbulent and blood thirsty Druse. Mr. Graham, the missionary, perished here. His nationality and great popularity amongst the Damascenes were unable to save one of England's most devoted servants of the cross. Meshaka escaped with his life, but was severely wounded, through the treachery of a friend who had undertaken to keep him in hiding till the wave of frenzy had passed over. But for the exertions of the British and French Governments, and that brave Algerian prince-Abd-el-Kadir, the massacre which swept away so many thousands of lives, would have been yet more bloody. And the Turk slept through it all, or calmly looked on, as if it were a matter of fact-Inshallah! the Kismet of the Christian dogs!

Amongst the sights of Damascus are the burial grounds. Outside the eastern walls, near the place whence Paul is made to escape, we had seen the Christian burial ground. Near this spot is shown the scene of Paul's conversion, which has at any rate the merit of being conveniently near the city, but disputes its title with another place some twelve miles away. We were shown the grave of St. George, the Porter who aided Paul in his flight. All round here the silk spinner plied his pretty art. Long ropes of brightly hued silk, chiefly of yellow, relieved the blank monotony of the tombs and the city walls.

At Salahijeh we stood in a cemetery, above myriads of departed Arabs and Turks-all good Moslems. Inside this place we saw no broad-leaved sycamore, no dark green walnut, no gentle cypress; merely numerous mounds of sun-baked clay and a wilderness of stones, stretching far away up Jebel Salahijeh. Outside this sanctuary of the Believers (there were others which we did not visit)-the stately poplar, the blushing apricot, the fragrant pomegranate, and the gentle willow are found in profusion, particularly along the banks of the Barada, which flowed past us to Damascus. These trees are very beautiful. Without them Damascus would lose its charms. They are the chief features of the city, especially when contrasted with the sterile mountains and weary deserts which surround it. In the city itself a remarkable tree was pointed out to us. It was a gigantic plane. I measured it with a pocket tape-line, and found its circumference to be from 38 to 40 feet, equal to a diameter of about 12 feet. It would have made a splendid round table for the knights of Arthur. No tree of Damascus can rival this colossus. It is unique, and would stand out from trees of its species as did King

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