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But I remembered thy advice and that of the worshippers in this sect are very poor ; but Mencius, the disciple of the master, and when their liberality is unbounded. They take no treat: d rudely I looked at my own conduct, and thought of to-morrow save by way of prayer. failing to find cause of blame, I said to myself When they meet in the streets they invite one I may disregard this rudeness and look upon it another into their many joss-houses, which stand as the ways of mankind in the lower stages ; at the corners, to offer up a mutual prayer

for why should it disturb my serenity ?

health and prosperity in a libation of beer or Whenever the people of our ship went into whisky. And they continue libation after the city they were followed by noisy and un- libation till their senses reel for joy, and their mannerly crowds, who, not contented with worship becomes a revel of gladness. But, alas! staring at us and shouting “Ching! Ching!" in their gladness they loose all discretion and in derision, came behind us and pulled our blaspheme the name of all other gods but pien-tze, and otherwise displayed their bad their own-particularly that of the great chief manners. But judge my surprise when I saw God, who is above all other gods-he who, 0, them treat a well-dressed mu-jin (woman) of Keng-jin-chou, is so exalted above the heavens their own people in the same rude manner. that his seat in the council of the gods none The men as they passed stopped and stared at dare usurp, and his name none dare speak with her feet—not the golden lilies of my own be- their lips. How it comes surpasses my underloved sisters, but large almost as those of men, standing, but these worshipers called the “Jolly which is shocking in the well dressed and Dogs," have a bad opinion of the great God, exalted class. I will seek conversation with which some of the other sects, I must say, as some of their mandarins that I may, haply, something to the credit of the land, hold in bring shame unto them regarding the large pious reverence; and they continually appeal feet of their wives, to the end that they may, to him to d

to him to d—somebody, or do something with their children to come, adopt the fashion of equally objectionable. Judge, O, respected tutor, our refinement. She was even jostled by some the shock to my pious mind when I heard the young men, who, in a loud voice, addressed her impiety of these “ Jolly Dogs.” But again I in words which to our sensitive and educated said, it is the darkness of their ignorance, aud minds appeared to be very improper. But I their darkness is their light. As I said, there remembered thy advice and only took note is no limit to their liberality-save an empty thereof in my mind, and allowed not disgust to pocket !—for though their children may be in shut mine eyes. I went to one of their places want at home, and crying for bread, they will of amusement, which they called a circus, to spend their last pa-ka (farthing) in libations. make observations there. Judge my surprise But the singular thing is, I am told, for I have when I saw a buffoon mimic the rudest conduct not had length of time enough for observation amidst the laughter and applause of his audience. of my own, that the more these “ Jolly Dogs

A somewhat intelligent barbarian lent me a devote themselves to the service of the god of book, in which was written the travels of one health the more their health he destroys. This of their buttoned mandarins. He had visited in our own land, 0, Keng-jin-chou, we would the celestial land of China, and I find that he call blind worship, but in this land, amongst complains of our coldness to strangers; he this poor ignorant people, darkness is light, says, if we seek not to annoy them when they and light is darkness. appear in our cities, and refrain from following There is a portion of this people who devote them in disorderly crowds, as they do in every seventh day entirely to the service of England, it is because of our churlishness and the great Father. This day they make a day vanity. These sayings of the buttoned man- of gloom and travail. I have never been in darin but opened my eyes to the darkness of any of their houses, but I have been told that this people. But alas ! their darkness is their those of them who possess pictures turn them light, and I have learnt to ascribe conduct, face to the wall upon that day, that they may which to you or to me, o, Keng-jin-chou, not look on anything beautiful, lest it disturb would appear offensive and vulgar, to their and distract them in their devotions. All good manners and singular civilization, and missionaries, you yourself know, 0, Keng-jinnot really to a love of indecent license.

chou, belong to this sect. There are other They have many religions in this land, some portions of this people, I am told--for I speak of which I may describe. The prevailing sect not these things of my own knowledge—who call themselves the "Jolly Dogs;” but their here, as elsewhere, regard rites and ceremonies enemies in derision call them “Sots." Their as mere clothing, and religion as the life within. habits are " peculiar;” they worship a deity They esteem Christ as we do Kung-tze, and supposed to be the God of Health, and in all venerate his name because he taught men to be their religious rites drinks called beer and honest and true, and that a duty done is more whisky are made to take part. In general acceptable to the Father than a prayer said.

poems

BY JOHN D. MILBURN.

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rurnetinambling-houses.

each uandidate, and great was

what studies

of them

it, the English

Blake was familiarly acquainted with Fuseli, strong Flaxman, Linnell, Varley, and other artistic to

destroyed-filial piety upon which celebrities of the period, and as a poet he was

Like stability of nations, and without highly esteemed by the amiable Charles Lar

stutes may spring up only to disappear From 1804 to the year of his decease

bubbles in the ocean of time. he was constantly engaged in thr

TU-TAR-LEE.

Hae Shin, Newcastle, England, 5th Moon. work of engraving for a livelihr various with which hir and designing and engr

DAMASCUS AND MOUNT LEBANON IN 1873. his various singular w Blake's poems are

PART III. enigmatical, metap' entirely incompr

LL the house tops in Damascus are flat, theless displar

and from one of these we were shown designs exb"

Truly fertility remark

40 with emuinn soeking eagerly the of the duc

theo hmyzling orir + point! All this public beovme acquainted with any of even their most out, and all Paradise within, with sparkling, natural duplicity of this people, and so great | oriental is Damascus, with these white or yellow is their suspicion and fear lest strangers should | plastered houses, all miserable mud wall with.

rurit is highlr to be praised, but such is the Naaman's reputed dwelling place. admirable institutions, that when I asked one bubbling, fountains and odoriferous shady

Peregrine

had eres and assured me, with a great show of sometimes Moslem, sometimes Christian, the candour, that the contest was nothing more former generally recognisable by the veils of

I say generally, for some Christian than a horse race, called the Derby. Polite- the women.

women adopt this custom of the country. ness forbade a reply, and he left me under the

As if to rival the many minarets, palm trees delusion that he had closed mine eyes. Though they do not like foreigners to know shoot up at intervals from the courtyards, and

are a great people. Their from the surrounding walls, often thrusting wealth is enormous, though, singular to say, aside the rough masonry to make room for world could not furnish gold to pay it. Their We saw hundreds of mosques, some of them wealth is distributed in obedience to what they mouldy, crumbling, and tottering; others call political economy over the entire mass of with graceful dome, cunningly wrought in the people. So equitable are the arrangements choicest arabesque and Moorish or Saracenic that poverty is voluntary, and were it not for fretwork, poised, balloon-like, amidst their the fortunate superstition of the “ Jolly Dogs,” minarets; others again sheer architectural they would, I have been assured, all become so zebras in their parallel stripes of gaudy rich that they would not be required to work colours. We saw Muezzins appear upon the any more.

This, I have been toll, is the goal galleried minarets, and summon the Faithful to to which every Englishman turns his face, and prayer. They slowly entered their sanctuaries, the greatest compliment you can pay him is, first removing their shoes or slippers, and not to tell him he is skilled in his handicraft, but that he is too good for it. This, to you prayers the while.

washing their hands and feet--muttering and me, 0, Keng-jin-chou, is but a sad con- turn towards the Kibleh (the direction in which

Inside the mosque they sideration, for, in the writings of all our sages, Mecca lies), and perform their devotions-now are we not ever reminded of the dignity of sitting as if petrified with hands upraised, and labour? “ He thatcultivateth the ground is more then pressing their heads upon the ground, honourable than he who idleth in a palace.” Before I bring my letter to a close, O, vener-" There is but one God, and Mahomet is the

La il aha-illah Allah, Mahomet Resoul Allah. able friend ! let me speak of the manner of prophet of God.” Mosques contain no seats

. dress in this land. We are contented to dress Little squares of carpet, called Seggadeh, as our fathers have done for a thousand years, the floor, and upon these the worshippers kneel and the fashion of our garments never change, in rows, facing the Mehrab, which is a niche in but amongst this people fashions change every the wall, indicating the direction of Mecca day, and it is, moreover, impossible to find two (Kibleh). There is a pulpit for the Imaun, or persons, either men or women, dressed alike. priest, but otherwise the mosque is bare. This absurd habit they are very proud of, and they call it "progress.

Friday—the Mahommedan Sabbath_is, of progress.” Alas! 0, Keng-jin- course, the great day of worship; but daily, at chou, they do not perceive that inconstancy the Muezzin's call, people flock to the mosques in dress makes inconstancy of mind. They to pray. They have five set daily prayers despise the habits of their fathers, and their the sunset, the nightfall

, the daybreak, the

cover

may be.

noon, and the afternoon. Upon ordinary days Armenians, and many other sects. Of these may

be performed at home, in the streets, Protestants there is a mere handful, chiefly upon the housetops, or wherever the worshipper composed of the missionaries and their families.

Upon the Sabbath all pious Moslems There are a large number of negroes and slaves proceed to the Mosque to pour out their who may be said to belong to their master's devotions. Women are excluded, or carefully religion, if they belong to any at all. separated by partitions from the sons of the The Hauran lies to the south of Damascus, Prophet, for women of the Moslem belief are and being exceedingly fertile, it produces large but small stars to do obeisance to the larger quantities of grain, which is cultivated by the stars—their masters. It is not surprising, Druses, who pay taxes to the Turks, when they therefore, that they should be largely re- are not in open rebellion, as frequently is the case. presented in the Islamitic Inferno.

Three or four days' journey, away to the A story is told of Mahomet having informed East, is Palmyra with its stately ruins, an old woman, who begged hard to be allowed dominating sandy barrenness. A visit to to go

to Paradise, that there no such things as Palmyra froin Damascus entails much inconold women existed. The old lady wept ; venience, owing to the lawlessness of the Mahomet took pity on her, and mended matters Bedouins, who think nothing of robbing unby telling her that all women would be made escorted travellers of everything they possess, young again before entering Paradise.*

not excepting their clothes. Again, there is Modern Damascus houses, near the Great the hard riding, of which I had almost had Mosque, present in their exteriors a much- enough on the journey from Beyrout. The cracked and dilapidated appearance. The Doctor would not entertain this excursion, contrast between these ugly, unpretending not even upon a fast trotting dromedary, and mud-hovels and the architecture of the Romans suggested that we should visit Baalbec instead. and the Caliphs is vast. There is a charm, One of the missionaries offered to accompany however, about this

olla podrida.The me, but I chose to abide by the Doctor's decision. straggling or half-buried colonnades of Straight Baalbec, at any rate, was within easy reach ; and Street; the massive battlements, towers, and owing to the mystery which shrouds its origin, casemates of the Citadel; the tower-flanked and the massive architecture of its base, it is walls of the City; the graceful domes of the perhaps the more remarkable ruin of the two. mosques, many of them richly decorated; the Palmyra is described by King Solomon as tall slender minarets, many of them possessing “Tadmor in the wilderness," and history

, spiked-cupolas ; the pretty Moorish arches and records how its brave and beautiful Queen, gateways, and lastly the mud walls and chaos Zenobia, together with her faithful councillor, of debris, which serve as modern dwelling- Longinus, defended it bravely against the houses, and smother and confuse everything Romans for a considerable time. It was ultiinto a conglomerate perplexity, as though mately taken (A.D. 272), and Zenobia was they would fain hush up the stirring history carried to Rome, and led captive through its and bloody scenes of the past. The popula streets, bound with golden fetters. Palmyra tion of Damascus may he estimated at from in due time made the acquaintaince of the Sara150,000 to 180,000 souls, but a large proportion cens, and ever since the days of the intrepid is migratory, owing to the arrivals and Zenobia has been crumbling into ruin. The departures of caravansDamascus being one most striking portion of the ruin is that comof the highroads to Bagdad and Persia. It is prising the Temple of the Sun. Gigantic colalso the great starting place of the Syrian lonnades and beautiful porticoes rise from conHaj, or pilgrimage to Mecca, and used to do a fused heaps of stones, amidst which squat large trade with the pilgrims, but the facility of modern hovels. steamer communication from the coast to Suez The next day being Sunday, we went to and thence to Jeddah is materially affecting church for the morning service, and heard this traffic. Christian Kurds and Armenians an excellent

from Mr. Patterson, also make Damascus a halting place on their a young missionary, who had been but six way to Jerusalem, and the Druses of the weeks in Damascus. The congregation was Hauran and of the mountains are continually small, but the deep, calm_fervour reminded bringing their produce of sheep, silk, grain, me of that beautiful New Testament verseand fruit, &c., into the city for sale, where “Where two or three are gathered together in they also make their purchases of clothes, arms, My name, then am I in the midst of them.” Mr. &c. Of course the greater part of the Wright preached that morning an Arabic serDamascenes are Mahommedans, next come mon in another church. I was much struck the Christians of the Greek Churches, then the by the thorough, and happy understanding, Jews, next the Druses and Maronites, the which existed between the American and

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British missions—both seemed to realise that • See Sale's Koran : Preliminary Discourse.

sermon

BY JOHN D. MILBURN.

The last moon has been one of extraordinary filial piety is destroyed-filial piety upon which excitement. They have held their annual is built the stability of nations, and without competition of students for offices of state. This which states may spring up only to disappear important event bas been looked forward to like bubbles in the ocean of time. with intense interest by all classes, from the

TU-TAR-LEE. poorest workman to the highest mandarin. Hae Shin, Newcastle, England, 5th Moon. The news-sheets have had long articles on the merits of the rivals, and the prophets DAMASCUS AND MOUNT LEBANON IN 1873. have been engaged in forecasting the result. Joss-houses-especially those of the “ Jolly Dogs"-have been turned into gambling houses,

PART III. and filled with enquirers, seeking eagerly the LL the house tops in Damascus are flat, odds against each candidate; and great was 9

and from one of these we were shown !

Truly spirit is highly to be praised, but such is the Naaman's reputed dwelling place. natural duplicity of this people, and so great oriental is Damascus, with these white or yellow is their suspicion and fear lest strangers should plastered houses, all miserable mud wall withbecome acquainted with any of even their most out, and all Paradise within, with sparkling, admirable institutions, that when I asked one bubbling, fountains and odoriferous shady of them what studies “Peregrine” had especially devoted himself to, he opened his trees, containing here and there a family group eyes and assured me, with a great show of --sometimes Moslem, sometimes Christian, the candour, that the contest was nothing more former generally recognisable by the veils of than a horse race, called the Derby. Polite- the women. I say generally, for some Christian ness forbade a reply, and he left me under the women adopt this custom of the country. delusion that he had closed mine eyes.

As if to rival the many minarets, palm trees Though they do not like foreigners to know shoot up at intervals from the courtyards, and it, the English are a great people. Their from the surrounding walls, often thrusting wealth is enormous, though, singular to say, aside the rough masonry to make room for their debt is more enormous still, and the whole their swelling trunks. world could not furnish gold to pay it. Their We saw hundreds of mosques, some of them wealth is distributed in obedience to what they mouldy, crumbling, and tottering; others call political economy over the entire mass of with graceful dome, cunningly wrought in the people. So equitable are the arrangements choicest arabesque and Moorish or Saracenic that poverty is voluntary, and were it not for fretwork, poised, balloon-like, amidst their the fortunate superstition of the “ Jolly Dogs," minarets; others again sheer architectural they would, I have been assured, all become so zebras in their parallel stripes of gaudy rich that they would not be required to work colours. We saw Muezzins appear upon the any more.

This, I have been toll, is the goal galleried minarets, and summon the Faithful to to which every Englishman turns his face, and prayer. They slowly entered their sanctuaries, the greatest compliment you can pay him is, first removing their shoes or slippers, and not to tell him he is skilled in his handicraft, washing their hands and feet-muttering but that he is too good for it. This, to you prayers the while. Inside the mosque they and me, 0, Keng-jin-chou, is but a sad con- turn towards the Kibleh (the direction in which sideration, for, in the writings of all our sages, Mecca lies), and perform their devotions-now are we not ever reminded of the dignity of sitting as if petrified with hands upraised, and labour? “ Hethatcultivateth the ground is more then pressing their heads upon the groundhonourable than he who idleth in a palace.” La il aha-illah Allah, Mahomet Resoul Allah.

Before I bring my letter to a close, 0, vener- “There is but one God, and Mahomet is the able friend ! let me speak of the manner of prophet of God.” Mosques contain no seats. dress in this land. We are contented to dress Little squares of carpet, called Seggadeh, cover as our fathers have done for a thousand years, the floor, and upon these the worshippers kneel and the fashion of our garments never change, in rows, facing the Mehrab, which is a niche in but amongst this people fashions change every the wall, indicating the direction of Mecca day, and it is, moreover, impossible to find two (Kibleh). There is a pulpit for the Inaun, or persons, either men or women, dressed alike. priest, but otherwise the mosque is bare. This absurd habit they are very proud of, and Friday- the Mahommedan Sabbath-is, of they call it "progress." Alas! 0, Keng-jin- course, the great day of worship; but daily, at chou, they do not perceive that inconstancy the Muezzin's call, people flock to the mosques in dress makes inconstancy of mind. They to pray. They have five set daily prayers, despise the habits of their fathers, and their the sunset, the nightfall, the daybreak, the

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*

noon, and the afternoon. Upon ordinary days Armenians, and many other sects. Of these may be performed at home, in the streets, Protestants there is a mere handful, chiefly upon the housetops, or wherever the worshipper composed of the missionaries and their families. may be. Upon the Sabbath all pious Moslems There are a large number of negroes and slaves proceed to the Mosque to pour out their who may be said to belong to their master's devotions. Women are excluded, or carefully religion, if they belong to any at all. separated by partitions from the sons of the The Hauran lies to the south of Damascus, Prophet, for women of the Moslem belief are and being exceedingly fertile, it produces large but small stars to do obeisance to the larger quantities of grain, which is cultivated by the stars—their masters. It is not surprising, Druses, who pay taxes to the Turks, when they therefore, that they should be largely re- are not in open rebellion, as frequently is the case. presented in the Islamitic Inferno.

Three or four days' journey, away to the A story is told of Mahomet having informed East, is Palmyra with its stately ruins, an old woman, who begged hard to be allowed dominating sandy barrenness. A visit to to go to Paradise, that there no such things as Palmyra froin Damascus entails much inconold women existed. The old lady wept ; venience, owing to the lawlessness of the Mahomet took pity on her, and mended matters Bedouins, who think nothing of robbing unby telling her that all women would be made escorted travellers of everything they possess, young again before entering Paradise.

not excepting their clothes. Again, there is Modern Damascus houses, near the Great the hard riding, of which I had almost had Mosque, present in their exteriors a much- enough on the journey from Beyrout. The cracked and dilapidated appearance. The Doctor would not entertain this excursion, contrast between these ugly, unpretending not even upon a fast trotting dromedary, and mud-hovels and the architecture of the Romans suggested that we should visit Baalbec instead. and the Caliphs is vast. There is a charm, One of the missionaries offered to accompany however, about this olla podrida.The me, but I chose to abide by the Doctor's decision. straggling or half-buried colonnades of Straight Baalbec, at any rate, was within

easy reach; and Street; the massive battlements, towers, and owing to the mystery which shrouds its origin, casemates of the Citadel; the tower-flanked and the massive architecture of its base, it is walls of the City; the graceful domes of the perhaps the more remarkable ruin of the two. mosques, many of them richly decorated; the Palmyra is described by King Solomon as tall slender minarets, many of them possessing “ Tadmor in the wilderness,” and history spiked-cupolas ; the pretty Moorish arches and records how its brave and beautiful Queen, gateways, and lastly the mud walls and chaos Zenobia, together with her faithful councillor, of debris, which serve as modern dwelling- Longinus, defended it bravely against the houses, and smother and confuse everything Romans for a considerable time. It was ultiinto a conglomerate perplexity, as though mately taken (A.D. 272), and Zenobia was they would fain hush up the stirring history carried to Rome, and led captive through its and bloody scenes of the past. The popula- streets, bound with golden fetters. Palmyra tion of Damascus may be estimated at from in due time made the acquaintaince of the Sara150,000 to 180,000 souls, but a large proportion cens, and ever since the days of the intrepid is migratory, owing to the arrivals and Zenobia has been crumbling into ruin. The departures of caravans—Damascus being one most striking portion of the ruin is that comof the highroads to Bagdad and Persia. It is prising the Temple of the Sun. Gigantic colalso the great starting place of the Syrian lonnades and beautiful porticoes rise from conHaj, or pilgrimage to Mecca, and used to do a fused heaps of stones, amidst which squat large trade with the pilgrims, but the facility of modern hovels. steamer communication from the coast to Suez The next day being Sunday, we went to and thence to Jeddah is materially affecting church for the morning service, and heard this traffic. Christian Kurds and Armenians an excellent sermon from Mr. Patterson, also make Damascus a halting place on their a young missionary, who had been but six way to Jerusalem, and the Druses of the weeks in Damascus. The congregation was Hauran and of the mountains are continually small, but the deep, calm fervour reminded bringing their produce of sheep, silk, grain, me of that beautiful New Testament verseand fruit, &c., into the city for sale, where “ Where two or three are gathered together in they also make their purchases of clothes, arms, My name, then am I in the midst of them.” Mr. &c.

Of course the greater part of the Wright preached that morning an Arabic serDamascenes are Mahommedans, next come mon in another church. I was much struck the Christians of the Greek Churches, then the by the thorough, and happy understanding, Jews, next the Druses and Maronites, the which existed between the American and • See Sale's Koran: Preliminary Discourse.

British missions—both seemed to realise that

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