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BY MRS. GEORGE CORBETT.
connected with the making of a heavy gun was into another, and taking up a ladleful now and just about to begin, and, therefore, hurried on to then at pleasure. the furnaces. Here we saw a piece of iron, Darkness coming on, we commenced our fifty feet long, slowly drawn, white-hot, from a return to the entrance. We noticed many of furnace. Its extremity was attached to a the sheds lighted by numerous gas jets, but cylinder, which, by its revolutions, converted there were one or two sheds in which the light the iron into the resemblance of a magnified was much more radiant and pleasing. This corkscrew, presently to be re-heated, hammered was caused by the use of the electric light. and manipulated until fit to form part of a One great difficulty attending its use, the thirty-five ton gun.
expense of providing machinery and motive A casual observer would suppose that a large power, does not deter the authorities at Woolgun consisted simply of one piece of metal all wich from employing whatever method of cast at the same time. But this is not generally lighting suits them best ; for they have a the case ; a gun is in construction more like nation's money to spend, and the number of the handle of a cricket bat. There is a central engines constantly at work renders the provisteel tube, round which are coiled long and sion of motive power easy. ponderous bars of iron, like the waxed thread The electric light was the last object of our round a bat handle. Where the strain is curiosity, and we left the Arsenal fully assured greatest it is necessary to place more of the that the time was not yet come for the beating coil, hence the irregular shape of the gun. of swords into ploughshares, and wondering at
The analogy between a great gun and a bat the number of pruning hooks that might be handle must not be carried too far. The wrap- made from an eighty-ton gun. ping on the handle is small compared with the handle itself; the coils round the central tube
“WALLENSTEIN.” of the gun are just the reverse; again, the string is first wrapped round the handle, but the gun coils are first wrapped round the cylinder
, and In the long struggle for supremacy between then the central part is driven into them with
Catholicism and Protestantism, which a steam hammer.
These, the most ponderous implements of lasted for thirty years (from 1618 to 1648), modern times, are marvellous, not only for the and was consequently called “The Thirty vast force they exert, but also for the ease Years War," one of the most remarkable actors with which they may be regulated. It is just was “Wallenstein," and it is here proposed to as easy to crack a walnut with a steam hammer
give a brief outline of his character and history. as to crush a score of tons of iron. During our tour through the Arsenal the
Ferdinand, then Emperor of Germany, calllargest hammer was at work. When the time ing strategy to his aid, had vanquished the for its use drew near spectators came together most formidable of his foes, and once more from all parts of the works, and the workmen the Catholic cause was triumphant. Notable stood ready. Presently the signal was given;
among forth from the furnace was drawn a mighty
these enemies was the Elector Frederic,
But the mass of iron of dazzling whiteness ; guided as it son-in-law of James of England. ;
. by some unseen but irresistible force, it slowly peace which prevailed for a short time was moved under the immense hammer raised aloft. only apparent, for the Protestant Princes were All is ready; down comes the weight with a bent upon saving their Faith from the utter thundering crash. Sparks of molten iron fly destruction with which they rightly suspected around, and the foundations shake under our that Ferdinand meant to visit it. The annihifeet beneath the resistless stroke. Again and lation of Protestantism in Germany was what again is the process repeated until the work is Ferdinand aimed at, and he again began to done, and we turn away to contemplate fresh look around for a competent Commander-inobjects of interest in the shed where guns are Chief to carry on the war, which had already turned, cut, polished, and grooved. Here we | lasted so long, and had produced so much saw an eighty-ton gun receiving a few finishing misery. But here a difficulty arose. To pursue touches; it would be about six feet in diameter his undertaking, Ferdinand needed money, and at the broadest part.
that was a scarce commodity with him just Our next visit was to the furnaces where then. Hitherto the victories had been achieved iron was being melted and formed into shot principally by the Bavarians, under the leaderand shell. From these furnaces flowed two ship of Duke Maximilian of Bavaria, and of streams, one of liquid slag or refuse, the other Tilly. But the Emperor began to dread the pure iron, which the workmen appear to the vast power which the Duke was gaining handle like water, pouring it from one vessel | by the very efforts made to serve
and the Catholic cause. The Houses of auguries of good or ill which he drew from his Hapshurg and Wittelsbach had always borne mysterious calculations. The stars, according a feeling of jealousy towards each other, and to his belief, foretold him a glorious destiny, the Emperor Ferdinand was of the impression and his boundless ambition impelled him to that to owe another victory to Maximilian think that no earthly position could be too would be too humiliating, whilst any fresh great for him to hope and strive for. accession of power to the House of Bavaria He took service under Archduke Ferdinand, might result in the deposition of himself and and fought in several battles. A rich bride, the elevation of Maximilian to the Imperial an elderly widow, had brought him immense throne. And yet, without Bavarian aid, he estates in Bohemia. He also claimed reparation did not see how he could carry on the war. for the havoc committed on his lands by the
It was at this juncture that Albert Wences- Protestant troops, and Ferdinand, who was in laus-Eusebius, Count von Waldstein—but more those days very liberal, gave him the dominion commonly named Wallenstein-a rich Bohemian of Friedland, in Bohemia. Subsequently ho nobleman, born at the château of Hermancé, was created Prince, and then Duke. Having September 15, 1583, unexpectedly came to the lost his first wife, he again married a lady Emperor's assistance. He offered to act as immense fortune. Several Bohemian nobleCommander-in-Chief, upon condition that un- men lost their estates by confiscation ; Wallenlimited power over his own army be given him, stein purchased sixty of them tolerably cheap, with the exclusive right to appoint or depose and thus by degrees became a power to be all the other officers; but in return for these dreaded. He looked born to command. He privileges, he made an unprecedented offer. He was of imposing presence ; his tall, proud proposed to raise, equip, and maintain, an army figure infused respect in beholders, while the of 50,000 men entirely at his own expense ! impenetrable glance of his fiery, deepset black The Emperor eagerly accepted the offer, and eyes, commanded unqualified obedience. Wallenstein's name at once became a power in He was always self-willed. Once, when a the land.
boy, on showing even more obstinacy than usual, The Protestant leaders had meanwhile not his uncle chided him. “ Fie, fie, boy, you been idle. In a comparatively short time behave as if you possessed a principality.” they had again managed to raise an army of “What does not exist now, may be made to 60,000 men. The leadership was offered to exist some day," was the boy's proud and ambiGustavus Adolphus, of Sweden, and would tious answer. On one occasion, while walking have been accepted by him, if the Protestant in his sleep, he fell from a great height, without Princes would have inade certain concessions, being injured, and attributed his preservation which he considered it only prudent to enforce, to fate, which had reserved him for some great in order to ensure a safe retreat in the event of destiny. defeat by the Imperialists. But doubts were He was very moderate in his tastes, the entertained as to the advisability of granting pleasures of the table having little attraction these concessions, so the control of the army for him. Although an indefatigable worker was entrusted to King Christian the Fourth, during the day, he allowed himself very little of Denmark, who was also Duke of Holstein, time for sleep at night. He was very taciturn, and a prince of the Empire. Many other and seldom laughed, bui was generally seen countries accorded their sympathy and aid to with a frown on his face. the Protestant cause, and Wallenstein had no Nevertheless, he was the idol of his troops, mean antagonists to confront.
for neither birth nor rank influenced him in Wallenstein's parents were Protestants, and the distribution of rewards or favours.
The were educating him in their own faith, but most meanly born of his soldiers had an equal were removed by death while their son was chance of advancement with the offspring of still very young
An uncle, who bequeathed nobility, for Wallenstein took care that the to him at his death fourteen Lordships or only passport to promotion should be “Merit.” Baronies, placed him under the care of the He showed wonderful discrimination and talent Jesuits, at Olmütz. Here the principles of in always selecting the most deserving men, Ignatius of Loyola were carefully instilled into and in invariably placing them in the most him, and Jesuitism became firmly rooted in his suitable positions. Even when the Emperor mind. As he grew up to manhood, intercourse sent noblemen to him with recommendations, with the celebrated mathematician and astro- and with injunctions to give them influential loger Verdungus tended to develop his admira- appointments, he scornfully refused to entertain tion of everything that partook of mysticism. the suggestion, and gave the vacant posts to Later on, Professor Argoli, of Padua, initiated the men whom he knev to be deserving of him into the mysteries of astrology and of promotion. cabala, and ever after he firmly believed in the If a soldier conducted himself with special
bravery, Wallenstein would for awhile banish to secure his own interests, no matter at what the moroseness natural to him, and fill the cost to others, and made no effort to redress soldier's heart with pride and pleasure, by the grievances of his petitioners. On the calling him to the front, and pleasantly com-contrary, he increased his favourite's importmending his bravery. He would slap him on ance, by making him Duke of Mecklenburg, the shoulder, and shout : “This is the man to Generalissimo on land, and Admiral of the whom the victory is due.” On the other hand, Baltic. the slightest neglect of duty would meet with He speedily took steps to obtain possession stern punishment. The religion of his men did of his new territory, Stralsund especially not trouble him at any time. He always pre- appearing of the greatest importance to him. ferred a talented Protestant to a Catholic whose But the citizens of Stralsund knew better than abilities were inferior, and never allowed to submit quietly to the pillage and maltreatprejudices to bias his actions. A clever general, went which would inevitably be their portion, a strict disciplinarian, and possessed of iron if the town fell into the hands of Wallenstein's will, he seemed perfectly adapted for the soldiers, and they defended it with wonderful position he had assumed. The Electoral and unwearying bravery. Princes doubted his ability to maintain such The Admiral of the Baltic had not an enormous army out of his own private purse, sufficient number of ships wherewith to close but they did not yet quite understand Wallen- the harbour of Stralsund, and the besieged stein. He was not too scrupulous about the were able to obtain food supplies by water. means he adopted to further his plans. He The siege lasted several months, for Wallenintended his army to keep itself at the expense stein had vowed to subdue Stralsund, "even if of any luckless town or district near which it it were bound by chains to heaven.” But, in might happen to be quartered. He knew that spite of this determination, Stralsund was a large army would be able to dictate terms to saved, for Gustavus Adolphus, the Swedish any of the smaller states; and, secure of being hero, succoured it, and Wallenstein was comable to keep his men together by enforcing pelled to withdraw, after losing 12,000 men, supplies from others, he commenced his muster and wasting several months. in Bohemia. Although the champion of the Christian IV. of Denmark was now tired of Catholic cause, he repeatedly expressed an the war, which had devastated all his lands, aversion to compelling others to embrace a and, though his fleet had annihilated that of form of religion to which they objected, and Wallenstein, he sued for peace. Wallenstein thus managed to induce many competent himself preferred such an issue at present ; for Protestants to join his army. In the autumn the contiguity of his two duchies of Mecklenof 1625, he commenced action, without obeying burg to Denmark, made an amicable relationthe Emperor's command to unite his forces ship with the King of Denmark desirable to with those of Tilly, who was at the head of him. So a treaty of peace was concluded, in the League. They were jealous of each other, which Christian is accused by some of sacriand an amalgamation of the two armies was ficing the interests of many of his friends and more desired by Tilly than it was by supporters, in order to secure his own;
Wallenstein, as a matter of course, took care It is not our present purpose to trace the to make the bargain beneficial to himself
. different incidents of the Thirty Years War, Ferdinand, taking advantage of the dread except in so far as they bear upon Wallenstein ; inspired by Wallenstein, recommenced his thus it will suffice us to say that his army was former system of despotic oppression, and the even larger than he anticipated, and that he Duke came to be looked upon as the author of rendered immense services to the Imperial all the mischief. The Catholic League, at the
After a time, Tilly and he were head of which was the Duke of Bavaria, hated induced to act in concert, and their power was him, and partly persuaded, partly coerced the now almost irresistible. Count Mansfeld, a Emperor into dismissing Wallenstein. The formidable adversary, was defeated ; several latter had for some time been aware of the captured fortresses were recovered; the Elector intrigues pending against him, and accepted his of Brandenburg was forced to submit to the deposition from office with a pleasant coolness Emperor, and in many other ways was the and nonchalance which surprised his enemies, gratitude of Ferdinand earned. Loud com- who had expected an angry resistance. To tell plaints were made by the harassed North the truth, his favourite astrologer, Seni, had Germans of the havoc and misery caused by predicted his downfall, but had also announced Wallenstein's soldiers, who were allowed un- that this same downfall would be but temlimited license, and exercised an unchecked porary, and would precede Wallenstein's accessystem of oppression and rapacity. But sion to greater power and splendour. Thus Ferdinand, like Wallenstein, was only anxious arose his equanimity. He retired to Prague,
where he resided in a sumptuous palace, Danube, and a decisive meeting occurred at the and was surrounded by his own Court. His ever memorable battle of Lützen. The Swedes magnificent style of living eclipsed that of were victorious, but their victory was dearly the Emperor himself, and almost fabulous bought, for their idolised King lost his life here stories are told of the wonders and beauties of in attaining it. Wallenstein announced to the his palaces.
Emperor that he had achieved a victory, but His motive for so cheerfully obeying the there are abundant proofs to show that he did Emperor's order of dismissal, when he stood at not himself consider it a victory. He held a the head of an army of 100,000 men, and could court-martial in Prague, and every soldier who have dictated ternis to the Emperor himself, was not considered to have fought bravely was not as yet known to others, and the mar- enough, was consigned to a terrible punishment. velling which ensued upon the act was inces- Proofs of actual cowardice did not need to be sant. He even gave valuable presents to the forthcoming to ensure condemnation. Among messengers who, with words, intended to be as the officers, eleven were sentenced to die by the pacifying as possible, brought him the news of sword, and a great number were hanged. his deposition.
So pitiless and arbitrary was Wallenstein's His enemies were gratified to find that he behaviour now, that he was dubbed “The apparently rejoiced in his inactivity, and con- Tyrant" by his own men, the very men who cluded that, his greed being at last satisfied, he formerly looked up to him as an idol. The no longer cared for a soldier's life. But, while slightest complaint against one of his soldiers, apparently devoting his time to the designing of it did not much matter whether it were with new palaces, and to the pleasures of his Court, or without foundation, was enough to bring his he was never more active in his life. Till far favourite phrase to his lips : "Let the brute into the night he would occupy himself with a hang!” and hanged the poor fellow would be. correspondence which extended its ramifications The number of those who paid for Walleninto every Court of Europe. He would trust no stein's defeat with their lives was enormous. secretary's discretion, but wrote all his own He was more savage than ever, but did not letters. He was aware of all that was going for months recommence action against the on in the other German Courts, and knew that Protestants. The whole winter he kept his the time for renewed action on his part was army at a standstill, and did not leave his fast approaching
camp until the resources of the whole of the Tilly was dead; the Emperor's army had surrounding district were exhausted. Then dwindled to 39,000; that of the League mus- he marched forwards to Silesia, but even here tered only 30,000, and Gustavus Adolphus, he adopted no decided course of action, although who was now the Protestant leader, had he had again an army of 40,000 men, while already crossed the frontier, and commenced the united forces of the Saxons and Swedes did his series of victories. Everything pointed to but amount to 24,000. Wallenstein as the only hope of the Empire, And now Wallenstein's actions are enveloped and Ferdinand abjectly supplicated him to suc- in mystery. Some say that he meditated and cour it once more. For a long time Wallen- negotiated treaties with various Courts which stein pretended to be averse to doing so, but were derogatory to the interests of the Empire, at last consented, on terms which constituted but were calculated to enhance his own power, him absolute military ruler of the Empire. whilst others maintain that these treaties were
In three months he was at the head of but ruses de guerre, intended to mislead the 40,000 men, and he spent out of his own purse
Protestants. Be this as it may, his question200,000 thalers in the outfit of his troops. able conduct in avoiding action, and in pre
The Swedes were on the Danube, devastating tending to advance to Bavaria, where he was Bavaria; and Wallenstein, in spite of entreaties, needed, and immediately retreating to Bohemia, refused to aid the Duke of Bavaria, his old where he and his army again spent a winter, enemy, in the slightest degree, but revenged proves indubitably, in the opinion of many, himself upon him by permitting the Swedes to that the accusations of treachery levelled lay his country in waste, until Austria being against him were not without foundation. also threatened by them, he advanced as far as “ He means to be King of Bohemia,” said Eger. Gustavus now found it expedient to some. “He aspires to the Imperial Crown," devote his attention to the Generalissimo's said others, and this was the opinion of movements. For ten weeks the two armies, Ferdinand himself. He trembled on his harassed by famine and sickness, opposed each throne, and anxiously cast about for means to other, each hoping that the other would weary demolish this power of his own creating; but and withdraw.
it was no easy task to get rid of a man like At last, after many mutual attacks and Wallenstein. By means of lavish presents and reprisals, the scene of action was shifted to the preferments, he had, during his two winters
BY JOHN D. MILBURN.
of inaction, tried to fix the affections of his pages in his history. A.pologists for Ferdinand men upon himself again, and it did not appear assert that Wallenstein was a traitor to his likely that they would willingly leave him ; country, and that he strove for Ferdinand's yet no one dared indulge a hope that he would throne. The first accusation has never been again submit quietly to an order of dismissal. proved, and, if the latter be true, could Wallen
Many secret councils were held, and it was stein have succeeded in his design, he would determined that some of Wallenstein's most have been, at the present day, regarded with trusted officers should be bribed to deliver him reverence, as one who had delivered his country up to his enemies—either alive or dead. Among from the vacillating, incompetent, and tyrana great number of people traitors are always nical rule of an Emperor who was never fit to to be found, and in Wallenstein's army they occupy his high position. were not wanting. Piccolomini and Gallas were the most notable ones, and they used every endeavour to secure the destruction DAMASCUS AND MOUNT LEBANON IN 1873. of the man who had heaped benefits upon them. The Emperor Ferdinand, even while
PART II. writing to Wallenstein in the most friendly
had already nominated Gallas his manner,
WAS astir at eight o'clock, and surprised superior in command, and pronounced both Dr. C., who had not expected me till the him and four of his friends to be outlaws. afternoon. Let me introduce this reverend Thus, while Wallenstein believed himself to be gentleman :-Behold then! a fresh-coloured almost at the summit of his ambition, his fate old man, beardless and clean shaven, with prodefection of many of his troops , and the deser- minent nose and capacious ears; hale, hearty,
, tion of those upon whom he pinned his greatest and elastic, though some seventy years old ; faith, his eyes were at last opened to the pre-his manner cordial and attractive ; his spirits cariousness of his position, he tried to save jovial and infectious, and possessing that rare himself by going over to the enemy. Messen- enviable tact which makes those he meets gers were dispatched in all directions, and pleased and satisfied with themselves; loving speedily brought word that both the Swedes his fellowmen, and receiving their love in and the Saxons would help him. Then he
return; in short, a more agreeable comwithdrew to Eger, which was occupied by troops of his own, commanded by Colonel panion could not well be found. His speech Butler, a Scotchman, who owed everything to proclaims him to be an American, and upon Wallenstein. Every officer who surrounded looking at the flyleaf of a New Testament which the latter, had received both rank and wealth he subsequently gave me, I find he hails from from the great general, Leslie, an Irishman, Newark, New Jersey. I had met the Doctor and Lieutenant-Colonel Gordon, a Scotchman, first at Cairo, found him again at Beyrout, and particularly; and yet these were the very men arranged another rendezvous at Damascus. who, with Butler, plotted their benefactor's We saw no other visitors that morning, so assassination. The few faithful friends left to breakfasted tête-a-tête, and recounted Wallenstein were murdered, and to Captain different experiences of the road. We then Devereux, an Irishman, was entrusted the took a survey of our new quarters. Our breakassassination of the great duke himself. With fast room faced a large courtyard, beautifully six dragoons, Devereux penetrated to Wallen- paved. In the centre stood orange and citron stein's apartment, and there they all fell upon trees, shading a large marble basin or miniature him with mocking words and murderous hand. lake, in which gold-fish gambolled. From the Their victim declined to defend himself from centre of this basin rose a fountain, shooting the wretches, but met his death bravely, stand forth a shower of cooling spray; white doves ing, with arms outstretched, and eyes gazing fitted about from tree to tree, and the sunproudly at his assassins.
already powerful - lighted up this pretty Thus fell, on the 24th of February, 1634, the picture. Beautiful plants and shrubs adorned great Duke of Friedland, at the instigation of each corner, and were dispersed about our the Emperor for whom he had done so much. domain. Round its sides were ranged the Ferdinand rewarded the six common dragoons various rooms of the establishment. One of with 500 Thalers each, while all the officers these was open towards the court. who had contributed to Wallenstein's destruc- beautifully decorated, with arabesqued walls tion were elevated to the greatest honours. and ceiling, quaint ornaments, large Persian Ferdinand's name has never been surrounded trays, etc. Round the three walls was a raised with a halo of lustre, but his behaviour with platform, richly cushioned, for the accommodarespect to Wallenstein forms one of the blackest tion of guests. This was the reception room.