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modations, we were compelled to pass the man, and two or three children from ten to night : I need hardly add, it was a sleepless fifteen years of age.--'Are you the mother one. People of any rank or condition in of this babe ?' "Yes, Senor.' 'I pity you life, both in Spain and Portugal, when ne. froin my heart.' 'How so, Senor - To cessitated to make journeys, always lodge have borne and buried a Christian without in private houses, to which they gain admit. sin, I look on as a blessing.'-| gazed eartance either by regular billets, recom- nestly on the woman. Was this insensibilmendations, or by hiring chambers for the ity ? or was it enthusiastic reverence for, night.”
and pious resignation to, the will of God? “ The life of the muleteer is very hardy. I decided for the latter; for I saw her bend He is exposed to all weathers, for he is ever over her child with an expression of coun. on the road. Each individual has the tenance rapturously affectionate.. Your charge of three or four mules; and the la. child,' said I,' my good woman, is perhaps bour of loading and unloading them daily, ere now, a cherub in heaven.'
i Senor, you and foraging for them, is not triding. The cannot be a heretic !" "No, I am a Christ. food of the muleteer is coarse ; a large ian of another sect.' "Ah! you must be a dish of thick peas, boiled with a morsel of Christian : I thought so ; but the Priest pork; a sausage, or some dry salt fish fried said you English were all heretics !'” in strong oil, are his most common and favourite dishes. He drinks more than the Spa
The British army was now entering nish peasant, and generally carries a large into action, and the interesting details leathern bottle or bag filled with wine. He before us, now lead us, from observanever undresses at night, but sleeps either tions on the peasantry and the manners in the stable with his mules, or on the floor of the country, to the horrors of war. of the kitchen ; indeed, in the summer, more generally in the open air.-In all pla
The whole army encamped upon ces, a pack-saddle is bis pillow, and a mule the Sierra de Buzaco. No sooner had cloth his coverlet. He is an honest, good. the regiment piled its arms than our tempered, cheerful creature, and you most always hear him singing on the road. young soldier walked to the verge of A train of mules is seldom less than fifty; the mountain in the hope to obtain a but it is not uncommon to meet two or three view of the enemy's forces. trains, or more, travelling the saine road, and laden with the same merchandize.
“ Little however was I prepared for the Each traio has its captain or leader, who is magnificent scene which burst upon my asinvariably a crust-worthy man of the best tonished sight. Far as the eye could stretch, character."
the glittering steel and clouds of dust raised
by cavalry and artillery, proclaimed the In March he rejoined the army. march of a countless army ; while immedi
"Alas! when I came again to stand on ately below me, at the feet of those precipithe parade, for how many a face did my tous heights on which I stood, their piequets eye inquire in vain !- In the space of four . were already posted : thousands of them short months my regiment had buried near were already balted in their bivouacks, and ly three hundred men, all in the prime of column, too, after columo, arriving in quick life and vigour of manhood.”
succession, reposed upon the ground allotDreadful as is the aggregate
The numbers of the enemy slaughter returned from a field of bat- were, at the lowest calculation, 75,000, and tle, it is probably but a small pro- this host formed in three distinct and heaportion of the waste of life occasioned vy columns : while to the rear of their
left, at a more considerable distance, you by war.
miglit sec a large encampment of their Fond of scenery, retirement, and ob- cavalry; and the whole country behind servation, whenever the army halted them seemed covered with their train, their he explored on foot the adjacent coun
ambulance, and their commissariat. This try.-
then was a French army : bere lay before
the men, who had once, for nearly two " In one of my walks I arrived at a small years, kept the whole coast of England in romantic chapel, such a one as you often alarm ; who had conquered Italy, overrun find in the Peninsula, a league or more Austria, shouted victory on the plains of from any human habitation. In the shade Austerlitz, and humbled, in one day, the near the door, I observed a small basket, power, the pride, and the martial renown apparently filled only with the most beauti- of Prussia, on the field of Jena. To-mor. ful flowers ; when stooping, I beheld a love. row I may for the first time hear the din of ly infant about a year old ; it was dressed battle, behold the work of slaughter, share prettily and tastefully ; though pale, I the honours of a well-fought field, or be thought it slept : it was, however, cold and numbered with the slain. I returned slowlifeless.-1 kissed its delicate fair face, and ly to the line. Though we had neither bagthought, not without a sigh, on its parents. gage nor fires, we lay down rolled in our A voice startled me, and turning, I beheld a cloaks, and, with the stony surface of the decent looking peasant woman, with an old mountain for our bed, and the sky for our
canopy, slept or thought away the night.- mountain cottages stood open and unten. Two hours before the break of day the line anted ; the mills in the valley, but yesterwas under arms; but the two hours glided day so busy, were motionless and silent. away rapidly and silently. At last, just as We bivouacked near Thomar.--It had the day dawned, a few distant shots were counted, a few days before, a population of heard on our left, and were soon followed nearly four thousand; the morning we enby discharge of cannon, and the quick,hea- tered it a few hundreds only remained, and vy, and continued roll of musketry. The these were fearfully hurrying their depar. first wounded man I ever beheld in the field, ture. There is a remarkably fine convent was carried past me. He was a fine young in this town. I had no occasion to ask for Englishman, and lay helplessly in a blan- admission ; I followed a group of noisy mu, ket, with both his legs shattered by cannon leteers, who had chosen it for their night's shot. He looked pale, and big drops of lodging, and whose mules were already perspiration stood on his manly forehead, drinking out of the marble fountain, or but he spoke not, bis agony appeared unuts trampling over the neat garden, round terable. About this time Lord Wellington which ran some high-arched, and echoing with a numerous staff galloped up, and de- cloisters, yesterday responsive only to the livered his orders to General Hill.-I dis- pacing of some thoughtful monk, now re. tinctly overheard him. “If they attempt sounding with the boisterous laughter and this point again, Hill, you will give them a coarse jests of rude merry muleteers. In volley, and charge bayonets ; but don't let the kitchen some lay servants of the convent your people follow them too far down the yet lingered ; and the table in the refectory hill.' I was particularly struck with the was covered with the crumbs of the last style of this order,so decided, so manly; and meal which the banished fathers had that breathing no doubt as to the repulse of any morning partaken of. The church, howev. attack, it confirmed confidence Lord Wel. er, large, magnificent, and gloomy, still inlington's simplicity of manner in the delive spired reverence and awe ; and the unuleery of orders, and in command, is quite that teers who walked thither with me sunk into of an able man. He has nothing of the silence and crossed themselves, as they truncheon about him; nothing full-mouthed, knelt before the high altar, round which important, or fussy : his orders on the field the lamps, trimmed by some pious hand, are all short, quick, and clear, and to the were yet burning. The streets had an air purpose. The French, however, never mo of loneliness, quite oppressive to the heart; ved us through the day in the course of no one stood on the thresholds ; Ro face it our mep went down to a small brook, looked from the casements ; not a voice which flowed between the opposing armies, was to be heard. The flanks of our line of for water ; and French and English sol- march from this place were literally covered diers might be seen drinking out of the with the flying population of the country. same narrow stream, and even leaning over In Portugal there are at no time many facilto shake hands with each other. One pri. ities for travelling, and these few the exivate of my own regiment actually exchan. gences of the army had greatly diminished: ged førage caps with a soldier of the ene . Rich, indeed, were those who still retained my, as a tokeu of regard and good will. a cabriolet, and mules for its service. Those Such courtesies, if they do not disguise, at who had bullock cars, asses, or any mode least soften, the horrid features of war; and of transporting their families and property, it is thus we learn to reconcile our minds looked contented and grateful ; for respect. to scenes of blood and carnage."
able men and delicate women, of the sec
oud class, might on every side be seen The enemy, however, instead of re- walking slowly and painfully on foot, encommencing the attack, retreated, and cumbered with heavy burdens of clothes, left the fame of the most able general- bedding, and food.” ship to the prudent measures and able the bank of the river was crowded by fugi;
“ Immediately below the town, (Lisbon,] guidance of Lord Wellington.
tives, waiting to be transported across, and The British commander feeling him- the most affecting groups of families sat self compelled for the safety of Portu- weeping on the ground. I well remember gal to abandon Spain, the order was fifty, seated on a horse, and carrying before
a serious, thoughtful-looking man, of about given for the army to retreat into their him a very aged mother, who had been bed. lines near Lisbon.
ridden for many years, and who lay upon
his arı so helplessly, and with an aspect so “ I feel that no powers of description can pale and withered, that you might have couvey to the minds of my readers the af- thought the grave had yielded up its dead. flicting scenes, the cheerless desolation, we Here monks, gentlemen,peasants, and mendaily witnessed on our march from the dicants, were all crowded together ; the siMondego to the lines. Wherever we mo lent nun and the complaining damsel, sat ved, the mandate which enjoined the wretch- side by side. There was a strange, yet ed inhabitants to forsake their homes, and natural familiarity among them ; natural, to remove and destroy their little pro- for it was the offspring of misery. How perty, had gone before us. The villages soon can the arrows of misfortune level the were deserted; the churches empty ; the paltry distinctions of this world! Here
vanity was stifled, rank forgotten : al was through it in quick succession ; we susagitation, anxiety, and alarm. This mel- tained'little injury from either, but a capancholy picture was forcibly contrasted by tain of the twenty-ninth had been dreadfulthe gay and careless security of our sol. ly lacerated by a ball, and lay directly in diery. For what, let me ask, does the sol. our path. We passed close to him, and he dier suffer, compared to the wretched in knew us all; and the heart-rending tone in habitant, whose country is made the theatre which he called to us for water, or to kill of war ?"
him, I shall never forget. He lay alone,
and we were in motion, and could give him The French army not thinking it
no succour.-When we arrived near the disprudent to attack the well-chosen and comfited and retiring Spaniards, a very no. well-fortified lines of the British troops, ble looking young Spanish officer rode up which so skilfully defended Lisbon, and brave anxiety, to explain to the En
to me, and begged me with a sort of proud was at length obliged in its turn to re- glish, that his countrymen were ordered to treat, and was followed into Spain by retire, but were not flying." the united forces of the English and Por " The coolest and bravest soldier, if he tuguese. We cannot but admire the be in the heat of it, can make no calculaamiable spirit of our young soldier, ever ested and animated, he marks not the flight
tion of time during an engagement. Interstudious to record all that is good of of hours.” others, whether it is found in a foreign Our author's own regiment was er, or even in an enemy. In a skir
now brought forward to the scene of mish a young French officer was taken
action.prisoner. A flag of truce brought him some baggage and money.
66 To describe my feelings throughout
this wild scene with fidelity would be im “ The trumpeter, who accompanied the possible : at intervals, a shriek or groan flag, was a vieux moustache, of about for. told that men were falling around me; but ty, with the cheverons of twenty years' it was not always that the tumult of the service on his arm. This man rode up to contest suffered me to catch these sounds. the young officer, and cordially grasping A constant falling to the centre of the line, his hand, put into it a purse of money, and and the gradual diminution of our front, rode off. The purse, I found, had been more truly bespoke the havoc of death. As made up among the privates of the com we moved, though slowly, yet ever pagnie d'elile, who had charged the old little in advance, our own killent and woundtrumpeter with its delivery.”
ed lay behind us ; but we arrived among An animated description is given of iards who had fallen in the first onset : we
those of the enemy, and those of the Spanthe Battle of Albuera : we shall not trod among the dead and dying, all reckfollow him through either the disposi- less of them. But how shall I picture the tion of the troop, or the details of the British soldier going into action ? He is action, but select those passages which the hope of plunder, nor inflamed by the
neither heated by brandy, stimulated by seem best calculated to convey some deadly feelings of revenge ; he does not idea of what takes place on the field of even indulge in expressions of animosity action.
against his foes ; he moves forward confiSpeaking of one of the British brige bility of defeat, and braves death, with all
dent of victory, never dreams of the possi. ades which was engaged on this occa- the accompanying horrors of laceration and sion, our author observes
torture, with the most cheerful intrepidity.
Enough of joy and triumph. The roar of " I saw it at three in the afternoon :-a the battle is hushed ; the hurry of action is captain commanded the brigade ; the fif over ; let us walk over the corpse-encumty-seventh and forty-eighth regiments were bered field.-Behold thousands of slain, commanded by lieutenants, and the junior thousands of wounded writhing with ancaptain of the twenty-nioth regiment was guish, and groaning with agony and de. the senior etiective officer of his corps. Not spair. Move a little this way ; here lie four one of these six regiments (which formed officers of the French hundreth, all corpses. the brigade) lost a man by the sabre or the Why, that boy cannot have numbered eigh. Jance; they were never driven, never teen years.--Here fought the third brigade ; thrown into confusion ; they fought in line, here the fusileers : how thick these heroes sustaining and replying to a heavy fire, and lie! most of the bodies are already stripoften charging; and when the enemy at ped; rank is no longer distinguished.length ded, the standards of these heroic Here charged the Polish lancers ; not long battalions flew in proud, though mournful ago, the trampling of horses, the cry, the triumph, in the centre of their weakened prayer, the death-stroke, all mingled their but victorious lines."
wild sounds on this spot ; it is now, but for " I remember well, as we moved down a few fitful and stifled groans, as silent in column, shot, and shell few over and as the grave.-----Who are these, that
catch every moment at our coats, and cling occupied in repairing their clothes or to our feet in such an humble attitude? The shoes; while in one part of the chapel, a wounded soldiers of the enemy, who are im- self-elected orator was addressing the group ploring British protection from the exas. on their late capture, in such terms as, perated and revengeful Spaniards. What • Messieurs, vous n'êtes pas déshonorés.a proud compliment to our country !". On nous a trompé, cet espion, cet Espagnol,
« Some readers will call this scene ro nous a vendı.'- Et comment ! qui vous a mantic, others disgusting : no matter ; it is dit cela ?' said a rough voice. Monsieur,' faithful ; and it would be well for kings, replied my orator,' vous me permettez de politicians, and generals, if while they talk savoir. Je suis de Paris même, et je conof victories with exultation, and of defeats nois la guerre.' This speech was highly with philosophical indifference, they would approved ; for several vociferated — Ah! allow their fancies to wander to the theatre oui, il a raison, nous avons été vendus par of war, and the field of carnage.”
ce vilain espion.' "Nous aurions battu les “ I again went down to that part of the Anglais dans une affaire rangée, mais cer. field which was covered with the slain ; tainment,' said my little Parisian ; and just they lay ghastly and unburied : here and then, the rations making their appearance, there,indeed, you might remark a loose made they all hurried to the door, and singing grave, where some officers or soldiers had some song, the chorus of which was 'Bonne been to perform an act of private friend. soup, bonne soup,' they eagerly took their ship. I was much struck with one affect. meat, and set about preparing it." ing thongh simple proof of the attachment " I should lose sight, however, of the of our Peninsular allies : the hands of vast French military character, if I omitted to numbers of the British corpses had been notice that several of the sergeants and old clasped together in the attitude of prayer, soldiers, who were decorated, and wore the and placed by the Spaniards in the inanner, cheverons of service, appeared exceedingly they superstitiously imagine it important to' sulky, and vented their anger in a sort of lay out their dead."
muttering, smothered swearing. Those who " It yas a strange thing to see, in the have seen a ferocious Frenchman utter from crowded wards of the hospitals, English and between bis closed teeth his favourite oath, French soldiers lying helplessly side by will agree that there are few things more side, or here and there performing little savage and offensive." kind offices for each other with a willing
One can hardly read the above de and cheerful air. Their wants and thoughts they communicated to each other in phrases scription of the French prisoners, withof Spanisli."
out being reminded of Voltaire's satire “ In the French column one of the regi. upon his countrymen, when he said ments was numbered 34 ; in the British they were compounded of the monkey column also the 34th regiment led the pur and the tiger. suit, and got quite mixed with the enemy. Several of the French officers as they ten At this juncture our young traveller dered their swords, embraced the officers was recalled, to his great regret, to Eng. of the English 34th, saying – sh! Mes. land. In his journey from the army to sieurs, nous sommes des frères, nous som
Lisbon he met with a scene in a peames du trente-quatrième régiment tous deux.'_Vous êtes des braves. - Les An. sant's cottage, in which he had taken glais se battent toujours avec loyauté, et refuge for the night, which he has de traitent bien leurs prissoniers.'— Ah! Mes. scribed with his usual felicity in these sieurs, la fortune de la guerre est bien ca
kinds of narrations. pricieuse.' Under any circumstances, however unfortunate, this people will find some “ The family consisted of a venerable method of disarming wrath, courting ra. old peasant, his daughter, (a woman of vour, and softening their fate :—they have about thirty-four,) and her five children ; spirits, too, wonderfully elastic, and have the eldest a most beautiful girl or sisteen, The readiest ingenuity in framing excuses and the youngest a fine black-eyed boy of for any disaster or disgrace which may be- eight. The husband of this woman was abfal them. I was on duty over the prisoners sent on a journey ; the old peasant was not a few days after this ati'air : at the close of within ; and, when we first entered, the the day's march, a chapel was allotted to mother and her children were at supper ;them for the night ; and to have seen them they pressed us to partake of it ; we de. take possession of it, one really would have clined, but procured from them some fine thought that they were still marching free and rich goat's milk; and boiling it up with in arms: they entered it,singing-Grenadiers, bread of Indian corn, made an excellent ici; grenadiers, ici ;--voltigeurs là là ; vol- meal. It was late when the old man came tigeurs là là ;' and rao tumultuously, the in from his labour; he expressed great degrenadiers to the altar, and the voltigeurs light at our having rested in his cot, as he to the gallery. In ten minutes all were at said there was no house within two leagues home ; some playing cards, some singing, of that spot, the night dark and stormy, and some dancing : here a man was performing the road bad and dangerous. A small punch behind a great coat with infinite wooden bowl of vegetable soup was brought drollery : there again, quieter men were him for his supper ; he crossed himself,
and said a short grace ; but my astonish- standing open and neglected, with ţhe or. ment was not a little excited by observing namental wood or stone work which once that, daring the whole time he was eating adorned them broken down and defaced; his frugal meal, the family stood up, and all proclaimed silently, but forcibly, that i with their hands closed and lifted up,
was travelling through a country which had their eyes raised towards the crucifix, pray- been the theatre of war, and exposed to ed, not with extravagant fervour, nor as if the ravages of contending armies. Such it were a tame, unmeaning form, but with scenes make the Briton, while he sighs over much natural feeling, and seemed to invoke the miseries of the peaceful citizens, and blessings on the head of this the respected laborious peasants, whose towns and villa. elder of the cottage. The old man, too, ges have been thus visited by violence and however habitual it might be, appeared rapine, offer up many a grateful prayer for deeply impressed with the ceremony, and the secure and beaven-defended position of took his food with a sort of quiet, solemn his happier countrymen.” thankfulness. When we lay down for the night, all the children knelt at the feet of
Lord Wellington, from the want of their grandfather, and received his bless- co-operation in the Spanish forces, was ing, sealed by hin with a kiss upon their again obliged to fall back upon Portuyoung forebeads. ! slept with a sort of gal, and wait for another campaign to sweet and superstitious confidence under this roof; so much and so pleasingly had
crown him with those laurels which he I been affected by the simplicity of man. had already so well deserved, but which ners among its poor contented inmates." are rarely bestowed excepting in the
The attachment which this amiable case of success. In this retreat our officer had conceived for the Peninsula, troops suffered severely.-made the remarks which he heard at “On our march we were deluged with home very painful to him, and gave rain ; the roads were deep and niry, and rise to the following animated eulogium we had repeatedly to ford rivers and streams
some of which were breast high. In our of Spanish valour.
bivouacking, the ground was soaked, no dry “ No! the efforts of the Spaniards to wood to be had, and our fires, if any, were deliver themselves from the yoke of France smoky and cheerless. In addition to this, must never be forgotten ; and no man of we were miserably provided, having neither generosity or of candour would willingly bread, biscuit, nor flour.* Leao bullocks, cast a shade over their heroic exertions. which travelled with us, were daily slaughThey had no government, no ininisters, tered, as we halted ; and puttiog your mino generals; yet under all these disadvan: serable ration on a stick, or on the point of fages they ever remained true to the cause; your sword, you broiled it on wood ashes and it is to their partial and continual strug. and ate it greedily, half sinoked, and half gles against the French detachments scat raw, with knife, fork, or any conveniences ; tered over the face of their country, that the whole of our baggage having of course we are indebted for our ultimate success. preceded us." Had not the force of the enemy been so constantly employed, and their commuoi
The following spring, our army, cations so often menaced by the active ha- commanded by their noble general, entred of the Spanish people, it is vain to tered upon its last and triumphant suppose that even the ability and genius march through Spain. As we have alof a Wellington, or the discipline and intrepidity of a British army, (which hon. ready given many similar extracts to ever excellent in composition was nameri- our readers, we will not detain them in cally feeble,) could have long resisted the this route ; but only remark, that in the combination of eight marshals of France, quick progress which the troops now and the efforts of 200,000 soldiers.”
made through the very heart of the Upon his return to the Continent, as country, our intelligent, observant trahe traversed Portugal and part of Spain veller lost no opportunity of acquiring to rejoin the army, he thus feelingly de- information, and deriving useful knowlscribes the scene.
edge from every thing around him. “ Not a town or a village had I passed
* " Such was the scarcity of bread, that a payfrom Lisbon, but affecting traces of the in
master who lost our column, and was wandering for vasion of this smiling country were every two days on another road, overtook a Spanish peawhere to be seen. Cottages all roofless and sant journeying with bis wife and children ; and votenanted; the unpruned vine, growing in seeing a loaf of bread, he begged to purchase it, but rank luxuriance over their ruined walls ;- with hunger, he pulled out a doubloon, and ollered Deglected gardens; the shells of fine hoy. it as the price of the loaf, but the man still declived, ses, half destroy ed by fire ; convents and saying pithily, My little ones cannot eat gold.'churches, too solid' to be demolished, there is nothing gold cannot buy"
What a lesson for the pampered citizen who thinks ATHENEUM VOL. 1. 2d series.