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Suppose it was necessary to say, that, on a fine October morning, the Baron and Baroness of Rockenhausen left their family mansion, to place their eighth son, Ludowig, at school, at Krähwinkel, a town two miles off; the Baron and Baroness grieve to part with their boy, to whom they intend a great deal of good advice, and give a great deal of bad pastry. After leaving the child at school, they dine at an inn, and return to sup at their château. A popular German author would express the same meaning in something like the following


The morning's repast was scarce ended, and the sun-flowers that surrounded the oft heriditarily transmitted and somewhat timeinjured château of Rockenhausen, had but just rendered to the warm beams of heaven the accumulated vapour that had earlier refreshed them in dewy globules, when the Baron and Baronness of Rockenhausen entered their travelling carriage, attended by four domestics only, and accompanied by their son Ludowig, who had just five months from that time completed his eleventh year. A more than common interest attached itself to this boy. With its parents, perhaps, it had its rise in the fact of his being their eighth child, and of his possessing the same robust health that distinguished his eleven brothers and sisters. I say, eleven, for one, alas! the first-born girl, who promised every grace of loveliuess and brilliant intellect-that In fine, the fostered bud had felt but three weeks' sun, when it was nipped by the relentless ricketts!!





The party are now silently seated, and the skilful coachman, (Wilhelm Behrent, who had followed the good fortunes of the Rockenhausens for nearly forty years,) after dashing from the corner of his eye an unbidden tear, that the thought of his young master's absence until Christmas had settled there, gives a gentle lash to the four faithful animals, and, in the next instant, the portals of the court exclude their lawful owner.

Their way lies through several level meadows, where not only many coloured and scentless corn-flowers might be discovered, but also flaming and narcotic poppies were seen at intervals, proudly sustaining their cup-like heads, or modestly bowing them to the breeze.

These objects were not lost to the contemplation of the sorrowing party. The Baron felt the necessity of the sacrifice he was about to make, and inwardly resolved that his son should not finally leave the seminary until he could discourse of the Kantian philosophy, repeat whole lines of Latin, and read, without much of hesitation, words that might even consist of more syllables than two. The neglect of his own education made him admit the necessity of that course; a necessity not so obvious to his gentle partner, but she penetrated her husband's wish, and submitted without a murmur to her son's becoming erudite.

Ludowig was no ordinary child; and though remarkable for a degree of obesity rare at his time of life, he took pleasure in riding, vaulting, the discharge of miniature cannon, and in the game of dominos, where he displayed great powers of combination. His partiality to dogs and hatred of cats, were early conspicuous. His large

blue eyes, with thin white brows, his well developed mouth, and the extraordinary squareness of his jaws, sufficiently indicated the gentleness, polish, susceptibility, and firmness of his nature.

Silence reigned within the vehicle, and not a sound was heard, save the creaking of one (or both) of the hind wheels. Wilhelm, who knew that at the pace he drove, little was to be apprehended from the process of friction, scarcely ever looked behind him. Not a word was uttered; but the kind Baroness had taken the precaution of filling the carriage pockets, and her own, with such confections and condiments as she thought best calculated to allay the anguish of the parting hour. Cakes, sweetened with the saccharine sap of the occidental cane, studded with the sun-dried grape of Iberia, and leavened with the yellow rudiments of the chicken; sugar that a refining process had rendered transparent, and wild boar's ham, the produce of the Baron's chase, had been gradually, but silently exhausted. Taking from the basket the only remaining offering, provided for the interesting and still expecting child, she laid it in his warm, moist hand, and kissed away some of the macerated raspberries, that clung round his lips. It was a crocus-coloured orange. His finger quickly effected a puncture through which to pump out its refreshing pulp. The father's eye was upon him; he observed that the orifice was not so large as to exclude a portion of the acid rind from contact with the rising juice. He saw that his child must taste of bitterness, while confident of gratification; and, by an admirable connexity of ideas, he applied the saddening image before him to the ordinary lot of created beings. Overpowered by this reflection, he sunk back, and wept without restraint.

As when in autumn a half-faded leaf in the solitary valley silently gravitates into the peaceful rivulet, that bears it gently on its bosom towards the vast ocean, where it finds a welcome tomb, so was the father borne, unresisting, to his destined place. "My child!" said he, "my son! remember that you--" A convulsive sob suppressed the remainder." Papa," replied the boy emphatically, "indeed I will." At this instant, the checked horses stand at the door of a gymnasium, and Ludowig is embraced by the gladdened preceptor.

This ended, the Baron and Baroness retired to the nearest inn to dinner; after which, with feelings much relieved, they returned to the country in time to meet their assembled family at a cheerful and substantial supper.

How they came back to Krählwinkel to bring Ludowig home for the Christmas holidays, and what befel them then, will be detailed in a future paper of greater length, and of still more anxious interest than this brief narrative.

In this sketch of German style, I do not give the inversion of sentences, which may in some degree depend on idiom, though it adds very materially to the inflated effect.

The students here (as at other German Universities) do not live in colleges. They merely attend lectures at the different professor's houses, at stated hours, if they think fit to do so, for their presence is not enforced, nor their absence punished. The dress and appearance of these young men is little in accordance with pretensions to scholastic

austerity. Those who profess jacobinism, wear white riding coats, with black collars, and small red caps, after the fashion of Kotzebue's murderer, Sandt. The patriots affect the old Germanic costume, or the former academic dress of Heidelberg; and the moderns trick themselves out in fancy dresses-green coats, embroidered with silver, and yellow leather breeches, with jack-boots, are in high vogue. They all carry a little silver bust of Albertus (founder of the University) in their caps. It is the distinctive badge of a student. Swords are no longer permitted to be worn by them.


[We hope our readers will not turn up their noses at a Revolution on a small scale, about which they may very likely know no more than we did till our Correspondent furnished us with these details. We would not for the world withhold from any young gentleman who may be training for the office of Colonial-Governor, so bright a pattern of what a Colonial-Governor may become-how he may rid himself of troublesome people-how he may run away while others fight, and run back again when the fighting is over, and gather the laurels, as a careful farmer does the corn his labourers have cut, into his own barn. Above all, how he may write proclamations, setting forth how magnanimous he is, and how Divine Providence sent him to this colony, in its beneficent care for the inhabitants thereof. It is true the last sentence is not so pleasant. In spite of all his excellencies, poor General Martinez, it seems, happened to be fined, and recalled to give an account of himself. But let not our embryo Governor fear: this occurs only in Spain.—ED.]

THE remoteness of the scene at which the following events took place, and the insignificance of the result, have thrown into obscurity and oblivion the efforts made by a few virtuous citizens of the Philippine Islands, to free them from the atrocious despotism under which they have so long groaned. Three centuries have elapsed since their discovery and conquest by the celebrated Magallanes, whose crimes and cruelties at length received their chastisement from the hand of one of his unfortunate victims. While hunting down some of the Indians, he fell mortally wounded by an arrow, shot by the King of Zebù.

At the time of the Spanish invasion, the natives made the most determined resistance, but in vain. They failed, not from any inferiority in courage, but from a want of discipline and of some directing head. The Chinese, who had been long settled in the country, were not indifferent spectators of the miseries and barbarities inflicted on the enslaved Indians; and after the latter had twenty-seven times taken up arms for the liberation of their country, the Chinese were moved by compassion to assist them. They fought bravely by their side, leaving

no less than twenty-seven thousand men on the field of battle, but with no better success.

The four histories of these islands, written by Spanish missionary friars, (a race of men to whom a large share of these and similar enormities may be traced,) present a horrible picture, although they have endeavoured, as might be expected, to throw a veil over the most atrocious acts of cruelty committed by their countrymen. They could not make even an approach to the truth, without divulging many of their own iniquities.

The present narrative relates entirely to recent events. I shall make no allusion to former histories, which no friend of freedom, and especially no Englishman, can read without indignation and horror.

In the year 1819 the Indians attempted to throw off the Spanish yoke. It then appeared from incontestible facts that the priests had made use of the vilest arts of superstition, and had debased the minds of the people by terror, in order to render them servile and submissive. At the instigation of the Archbishop, they caused the assassination of a considerable number of the European inhabitants, under pretext that they had poisoned the large river Pasig, which separates the city of Manilla from the surrounding country. The Indians were kept in such a state of ignorant credulity, that they blindly believed a thing obviously impossible. They however wished to take advantage of this pretext for freeing themselves from the tyranny of the government, by killing all the European Spaniards; but a great number of the latter having assembled, and finding that the government did not repress these massacres, armed themselves, defeated the Indians, and drove them into the mountains. The Archbishop not only strove by his assertions to make the people believe that the water of the river was poisoned, but issued a proclamation, in order to give more weight to the imposture. The government, seeing that hundreds of persons daily died of thirst, issued a decree, compelling all merchants and inhabitants of the islands who had any liquors in their possession, to distribute them gratuitously among the inhabitants. Such was the state of this colony in 1819.

We must now, however, pass on to the more immediate object of this paper. General Juan Antonio Martinez, who had for many years been Governor of the Philippine Islands, conceived the project of declaring himself absolute Monarch, and rendering them independent of the mother country; and as he perceived that in order to accomplish his object he must remove all the principal merchants, who enjoyed great consideration, and in case of a revolt would have all the people on their side, he denounced them to the Spanish government as guilty of high treason, and issued orders for the arrest of twenty-two of the most wealthy and respectable of their body. They were instantly hurried on board ship, to be conveyed to Spain for trial. He drew up an impeachment, in which he falsely accused them of endeavouring to stir up a Revolution for the purpose of rendering the islands independent of the mother country, and supported his assertions by a number of suborned oaths. This harsh and tyrannical proceeding was extremely distasteful to the people, who began to concert means of ridding themselves of so infamous a ruler. As soon as he learnt the general discontent, he issued the following proclamation, with a view to

tranquillize the minds of the people, and to gain them over to his interest:


A horrible conspiracy was on foot, by which your commerce, your manufactures, your property, your repose, and your lives were threatened. The indefatigable zeal of your Governor, and his ardent desire for your happiness, combined with the most active vigilance, have enabled him to discover and defeat so criminal an undertaking, by arresting the leaders of a conspiracy; he is now drawing up their impeachment, in order that they may be tried and condemned with the utmost rigour of the law. The peaceful citizens may live secure that the rigorous watchfulness of a paternal Governor is solely employed against the disturbers of public tranquillity, order, and religion, while it protects the virtue, and secures the peace and happiness of all deserving persons. Continue then to manifest your reverence and attachment for the most holy of all religions. Obey the constituted authorities and their wise decrees, and doubt not that my affection for you will be eternal, and my desire for your happiness unbounded.

Manilla, January 3d, 1823.


General Martinez having thus got rid of these merchants, whose hostility he most feared, began to pursue the most atrocious measures, arresting every body who could oppose the slightest resistance to his will. The principal object of his dread was Captain Andres Novales, a native of the islands, and a man of great courage, as will appear in the sequel, who, being a zealous liberal, and a man of talent, found means to discover all the Governor's intrigues. Martinez, not being able to find any pretext for open violence against Novales, determined at any rate to get rid of him, and for this purpose ordered him to the fort of Misamis, in the island of Mindunao. Here he would be engaged in hostilities with the Sultan who annually devastates the Philippine Islands, making two or three thousand prisoners, whom the Spanish Government is obliged to redeem by the payment of a heavy ransom. Novales having received this order, and knowing that the General aimed at his destruction on account of his great influence in his regiment, determined to proclaim the independence of the islands on the very night in which he was ordered to embark for Misamis. But the moment was not yet arrived ; and by this precipitation he ruined a project which, if matured, would have conferred the most inestimable benefits on his country. I ought here to give some details of the character and previous life of a man who may be regarded as the sole author and leader of this revolution, or rather revolt. Don Andres Novales was a native of Manilla. His father was a captain in the Spanish army, and his mother descended from one of the most distinguished families in the islands. From his infancy he gave the strongest indications of courage and high spirit, and inclination for a military life. He studied the art of war with the utmost zeal and industry, and at the same time evinced all the qualities which could fit him to become a citizen, a patriot, and a defender of his country. At the age of fourteen he determined to signalize himself in the service. He had for some time held the rank of lieutenant, having entered the service as a cadet when only nine, and hearing that Spain had declared war against France, he applied to his Lieutenantcolonel for leave to serve in Europe. The Colonel reminded him of his extreme youth, and that he would lose the rank he held in the colonial service by volunteering into that of the mother country, to which Novales replied, that a soldier served his country not by his ra: k

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