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knave: he is driving at his own interest in the cunningest manner in the world, but his neighbour is "Yorkshire too." His rival can just spoil the plot, and is himself baulked in his turn. When all are sharpers, no business is done; brawls arise, the tables are overturned, the dice are thrown out of the window, and the sun rises upon confusion, contusion, broken heads, and lost time. No nation understands jobbing like your dexterous Greeks-the navy is jobbed, the commissariat, the places and offices of trust, every thing is jobbed as in much more civilized countries. The difference is, that among politer nations jobbing is the privilege of certain classes and ranks, and long practice has settled who shall job and who shall be jobbed. In an unsettled country of slaves, who have just kicked their masters out of their houses, and have scarcely squatted themselves upon their sofas and cushions, this is a matter not arranged. To settle this matter has been the business of a year or two; and now, when the affair was pretty well concluded, and one party had been fairly ousted, and the ins had come to an understanding how the English money should be disposed of, down comes the Egyptian and scatters the inferior beasts just in the middle of the quarry. The Greeks are the most greedy and avaricious people on the face of the earth-money, money, money, with all, high and low, is their constant cry. The mere mention of a dollar is an apple of discord; and then come into play all the qualities of the wily slave-his cunning, whining, flattering-even his humour and fun, his braggadocio boastings, his very vanity, failings, and vices, are made available to serve his end-that of extracting money. The Greeks are not only the greediest people in the world, but they are perhaps the shrewdest and the cleverest: yet, with all this, they do nothing. Full of the idea of cheating, they always expect to be cheated. Upright, plain, manly conduct confounds them; and because they cannot see any dishonesty, they give you and your project up together as too deep for them. Propose any thing to a Greek for the good of his country, he shakes his head, parries the proposition, and suspects you have your private ends to gain. Greece has been crowded with disinterested Philhellenes who can bear testimony to this fact.
When the Turks were turned out of the country, it appears that the sharers of the booty might be divided into two great classes:-the men of the mountains, and the men of the plains and the islands. The mountaineers having lived, even under the Turks, a pretty independent life by robbery and predatory warfare, and partly by cattle-feeding; and being also collected into multitudinous knots or clans, following rather than obeying one chieftain, were highly useful as soldiers. The men of the islands, ports, and plains, lived chiefly by commerce, and possessed the navy a most important instrument of the war. The islanders, as soon as the Turks were gone, were anxious to return to their gainful pursuits, and to secure the spoils of war; in order to do this effectually, it was desirable to get themselves erected into a government. Now, as they were much more of civilians than the mountaineers, as they were more concentrated and more conversant with matters of business, they succeeded with some management in getting themselves named, or raising themselves into the chief offices of state. Having become a government, they assumed the direction of these moving bands of mountaineers, which was the cause of a good
deal of quarrelling and some confusion; but on the whole the mountaineers, caring little for their orders, carried on their predatory excursions in their own way against the Turkish armies, whenever they came to spend a summer in the ravines and defiles of the Morca. When, however, rumours of a loan began to be bruited about, and the merchants and letter-writers of the government appeared likely to persuade the good people of England to pour their treasures over the barren mountains of Grecce, the case was altered, and a fierce contest ensued; the true meaning of which was who should get the biggest share of the English dollars. The islanders, whether more dexterous or more fortunate than their rivals, actually subdued their enemies by means of the very loan itself. The principal mountaineers were either killed, bought, or taken prisoners, and locked up in the islands. Those who were imprisoned remained so until a few months ago, the government got alarmed at the success of the Egyptians, and let out the warrior moutaineers, in order to collect an army and fight their enemies! The result remains to be seen. Colocotroni, after being let out of prison, found much difficulty in collecting an army, and has done nothing. Except the capital, Napoli, there is no place in the Morea which would resist the Egyptians for any time, and only Messalonghi and Athens in the Western and Eastern divisions of the Roumeli. Fortunately, however, every mountain top (and the Morea is all mountain) is a natural strong hold which may do more for the Greeks than all Vauban could have done in a thousand years. On these mountain-tops, with a wall or tambour before them, the Greeks fight well, and they hate and fear the Mussulman too much ever to submit to a pacific arrangement. Probably the Egyptian will be exhausted and confounded before he succeeds in mastering the Morea. In the contest, perhaps some single superior man may rise to take the lead, or the government being under the necessity of laying out their money in raising an army, may strengthen themselves in such a manner as to be able to enforce some consistent plan of operations. If this turn out so, the invasion of Ibrahim Pacha will have proved a blessing.
The view which we have taken of these matters will be abundantly confirmed by the extracts we shall make from the very instructive, as well as very amusing Journals before us.
Mr. Emerson landed at Clarenza* on the site of the ancient Cyllene, in the March of 1825. His object being to cross the Morea to Napoli di Romani, on the Argolic Gulf, he had an opportunity of seeing the nature of the country, and fully experienced the difficulty of travelling over it.
The Morea, with the exception of a few miles along the coast, consists entirely of hills piled one above the other; and in the short tour which I mean to describe from the western to the eastern coast, from Clarenza to Napoli di Romania, through Elis, Arcadia, and Argolis, we did not meet with a level valley of more than a mile in circumference, with the single exception of the little mountain plain in which Tripolizza is situated. There are no roads; the Turks, whilst the country remained in their possession, deeming it a temptation of heaven to make them, and identifying their national indolence with their resignation to Providence, by shrewdly remarking, that had God designed them to pass with rapidity from one place to another, He would
This village is said to give title to the English Dukes of Clarence: one of the Dukes of Clarenza having married into the Hainault family, a descendant of which (Philippa) was afterwards Queen to Edward III.-Emerson."
have given them roads. To the Greeks, next to their own bravery, their want of roads is their chief security; as in the present wild state of the country, no invading army could penetrate far beyond the sea-coast. The only practicable passages over the mountains, are the tracks along the rocks that have from time immemorial been marked, rather than beaten, by the troops of the mules and mountain poneys; these generally take the least circuitous route; and as the hills of the Peloponessus are usually precipitous and rugged, the ascents and descents of these mountain passes, even supposing them roads of the most superior construction, are by no means such as concur with European ideas of security. On the contrary, these tracks afford the most direct channels to the mountain streams that roll down to join the rivers at their foot, and have, therefore, from time to time, carried away every particle of soil that formerly filled up the interstices of rocks; which, consequently, afford a pathway of loose slippery stones, over which the mules and poneys step with an instinct and security quite astonishing. Again, with the exception of one bridge across the Alpheus at Karitena, and a very few arches of the most primitive construction thrown across some narrow streams, there are no bridges. The broader part of the Alpheus, near its mouth, we passed in a ferry: the Peneus, Helisson, and a few other rapid, but fordable rivers, we waded over. There are, of course, no wheel-carriages, and in a country such as this, we may well suppose there are no inns. On arriving at a village, we usually applied to the Eparchos or Astynomos (the governor and his vice), who found us lodging for the night; usually an empty room, into which we brought our trunks and bedding; and having with difficulty procured firewood, we cooked what provisions we had brought with us, or could procure from the peasants,-brown bread, eggs, and milk, though seldom the latter; and having made our supper, and spread our cloaks on the earthen floor, we stretched ourselves upon them, rather to await daylight than to sleep.-(Emerson, vol. i. p. 42.)
On the traveller's arrival at Clarenza, just after daybreak, he enters one of the ruined houses of that ruinous village, and gives a lively description of the economy of a Greek establishment:
The house consisted of one large apartment, in the further end of which, separated from the rest by a screen, were stretched the carpet on which the owners had passed the night. The other contained a large heap of wheat prepared for market; whilst the middle of the floor was occupied by a blazing wood-fire, round which squatted the lords of the mansion, about half a dozen paltry-dressed Greeks. The walls were hung round with their richly ornamented pistols, ataghans, sabres, and tophaics, or musquets, which, with a few wooden wine flasks, and two or three primitive cookery utensils, formed the only furniture in the establishment: no seats, no tables, no beds-in fact, no other necessaries than were barely necessary for the sustenance of life. The description of this house may serve as a picture of all those of the same class in Greece; nothing certainly can be more miserable than their manner of existence. The only addition which I could make to an inventory of their furniture, would be occasionally a few more cookery materials; a plate or goblet, (knives and forks being total superfluities,) a barrel for wine, a vase formed of wicker-work and clay for holding water, and sometimes a hollow cone of burned clay, which being heated and inverted over a flat stone, forms an oven for bread, or for cooking an occasional meal of fresh meat.(Emerson, vol. i. p. 46.)
Here he procures horses and proceeds on his journey to Gastouni, formerly one of the richest towns in the Peloponnesus, and then inhabited solely by Turks. It is now a heap of ruins, but before the breaking out of the revolution had been sacked by the bandit peasantry of the neighbouring district of Lalla.
Having, with difficulty, procured here two little horses, which were barely sufficient to carry our baggage, we set out on foot for Gastouni, which lies about eight miles distant. Our route lay over a level plain once celebrated for its fertility, but now almost uncultivated: we traversed it by a path seldom wide enough to admit of two persons walking abreast. The ground, even at this early season, was covered with a profusion of wild and beautiful flowers, which, with the immense beds of thyme, that grew in every direction, loaded the air with fragrance: the only shrubs or trees were now and then a solitary olive, springing up amidst thickets of myrtles and lentiscus, which grew in abundance, and round their roots sprung a luxuriant crop of crocuses and acanthus. In every direction were browsing extensive flocks of sheep, the tinkling
of whose bells, joined to the chirruping of grasshoppers, and the picturesque dress of the shepherds, who still bore the classical crook, told us, at once, that we were approaching Arcadia. After passing the wretched villages of Yetrombey and Kurdiokoph, we approached the banks of the Peneus. The plain now grew swampy, and intersected by numerous marshes, whence the croaking of a myriad of frogs formed a serenade by no means so classical as the tinkling of the sheep-bells. On arriving at the river, we found that we must prepare to ford it; as even in this frequented track there was no bridge or ferry across it; we, therefore, mounted one of the little horses which carried our baggage, whilst our conductor led the foremost; and thus we crossed the classic stream, whose waters scarcely reached our horses' bodies. Landing in safety on the opposite bank, half an hour brought us to our destination, and about midday we entered Gastouni.
The plain, after we crossed the river and approached Gastouni, became pretty well cultivated; the corn in the fields was just springing, and the peasants, in every direction, were beginning to trim their vineyards. There were a good many olive trees in the immediate vicinity of the town; but they grew solely in the ruined and uncultivated gardens of the former Turkish inhabitants.-(Emerson, vol. i. p. 47.)
The town seemed to be nearly deserted; and it was with some difficulty that the house of the mayor or commandant of the place could be discovered. The name given to this officer seems to be sometimes Astynomos, sometimes Eparch-though we believe the latter title implies a wider range of authority.
Having discovered the house of the Astynomos, or governor, we dismounted our baggage, and accepted his invitation to share his dinner, whilst he sent to procure horses to enable us to reach Pyrgos that same night. This house, which was one of the finest in the town, was approached by a court-yard, and consisted of two stories; the lower one was occupied as a stable, whilst the upper, to which we ascended by a ladder and platform in front, contained two apartments-one serving as a kitchen and - the residence of his suite and soldiers, the other as the office of himself and his secretary; the latter was fitted up à la Turque, with stained windows, and a low divan, which ran round the room, and on it were strewn the carpets and cushions whereon the inmates of the mansion reclined by day, and slept by night.
The Eparch himself was a fiue military looking Hydriot, who had a short time previous been appointed to the office. He wore a scarlet turban wrapped fantastically round his head, so that one end fell on his shoulder, whilst the other was brought very tastefully under his chin: his dress was altogether splendid, and his arms richly embossed, whilst his mild and obliging manners bore nothing of the military character of his costume and appearance. During the time of our conversing with him, our baggage was undergoing a most alarming investigation, from both the eyes and hands of his attendants in the court-yard below, who were fitting on our cloaks and snapping our guns. The calibre and strength of our pistol barrels attracted their attention; the locks they never thought of examining, and as the stocks were no way ornamented, they were directly condemned as useless; however, in a short time our horses arrived, and having discussed our dinner of fowls and fresh curds, we took our leave of our host, and bade adieu to Gastouni.—(Emerson, vol. i. p. 51.)
Passing thus from one ruinous town to another, and from the hospitality of one Eparch to the next, the traveller thus crosses the Peloponnesus with some difficulty. The characters of the Eparchs afford amusement, and throw light on that of the nation: for instance, the dandy Eparch of Andruzzena.
After a tedious descent of several miles along the narrow pathway that wound round the verge of the hill, we arrived at Andruzzena, the ancient Yrapezus, seated amidst a grove of cypresses on the acclivity of an opposite mountain, and with its numerous buildings presenting a fine prospect from a distance; but which was wofully belied on entering it, by filth and misery. It was now sunset, and as we slowly wound up the steep ascent, we observed a few soldiers collected on a small eminence, at the entrance of the town, to observe our approach. On coming up to them, and asking for the residence of the Erapyce, a fine military-looking young man, in a superb Albanian dress, stepped forward, and presented himself as the person for whom we were enquiring: we applied to him, as usual, to find us lodgings. He apologized for the misery of the town, and offered us whatever accommodations his own residence afforded.
We accordingly accepted his hospitality, and accompanied him to his house. It was situated near the entrance of the town, and like that of the Eparch of Gastouni, was approached by a court-yard. It consisted likewise of two stories, the better Greek houses seldom exceeding that height. The lower of these was now fitted up as a prison for malefactors; and to the upper we ascended by a balcony, which ran along the entire front of the house, and served as a corridor to the several apartments, which had no internal communication with each other. On entering, we came into the apartment of the chief, which composed one-half of the extent of the mansion, the remainder being divided into his bed-room, kitchen, and apartments for his suite.
During the few days which bad weather obliged us to remain with him, we had sufficient leisure to make some observations on his character and manners. The latter, like those of the higher orders of his countrymen, were decidedly Turkish. The room in which he received us was fitted up in complete Ottoman style, with stained glass windows, inlaid ceiling, splendid carpets, mats, cushions, and numerous vases of gold and silver fish. On taking our seats, we were, as usual, presented with a chibouquè and some coffee; whilst our news was eagerly enquired after by our obliging host. He was about twenty-five years of age: he had formerly enjoyed a confidential situation under the present government; viz. the disposing of the forfeited Turkish lands in his province, and on the expiration of his commission, had obtained the government of his present eparchy. His dress was accurately national, but formed of the most costly materials and style, covered with an abundance of braiding and embroidery; whilst his pistols and silver-mounted ataghan were of exquisite design and workmanship. Though his conversation was lively, his manners were indolent and oriental; he reclined almost the entire day on a velvet cushion, surrounded by his attendants, smoking his chibouqué, or counting over and over again the polished beads of his amber combolojo. Of his dress he was particularly vain, and received with evident pleasure all the praises which we bestowed upon it. On such occasions, he usually arose, set forward his elbow, turned out his heel, and surveying himself from top to toe, replied with evident complacency, ναι, τό φόρημά μας ειναι αρκετον καλον.” Why, yes, our costume is certainly pretty."
Our fare, during our stay, consisted of lamb, fowls, milk, eggs, and vegetables; and though it was Lent, our accommodating host made no scruple to join in our uncanonical repast. Our breakfast was, generally, made up of curds and eggs, with a little milk and cheese; bnt the dinner was a somewhat more perplexing affair. Our table was a small round board, raised half a foot from the floor; and round this we were obliged to squat tailor-wise; as to have stretched our limbs would have thrown us at rather an incommodious distance from our provisions. In this posture, by no means an agreeable one to the uninitiated, we were obliged to remain during the tedious process of a Greek repast, which seldom occupied less than half an hour. Our first course was boiled rice, mixed up with yaourl or sour curds, eggs fried and swimming in olive oil, and a mixed dish of boiled vegetables, chopped leeks, spinage, sorrel and mustard leaves. The second, a stewed fowl stuffed with plum-pudding, roast lamb, and cairare, rather an odoriferous dish, composed of the entrails of the salmon and cuttle-fish, fermented and tempered with oil. Our third remove contained milk, in all its different preparations of curd, cheese, and runnet; various combinations of boiled, roast, and whipped eggs; the whole washed down with plentiful draughts of Pamian wine, supplied by a cup-bearer, who, in proper oriental style, stood constantly behind the cushion of his chieftain. Our desert, as it was winter, consisted chiefly of oranges and dried fruit, figs, dates, and raisins; on the whole our feasts were not only classical but palatable, and when all was concluded, a comfortable room, in which to strew our beds, was a favour as acceptable as it was uncommon.—(Emerson, vol. i. p. 66.)
At the capital and seat of government Mr. Emerson remains some time. Napoli is admirably situated, both for defence and commerce. For a Greek town it is well fortified, well provisioned, and if well garrisoned would stand a long siege. Its harbour is good, and the population overstocked.
The interior of the town, with the exception of one large square, contains nothing but miserably narrow filthy streets, the greater part in ruins, partly from the ridiculous custom of destroying the residences of the Turks, and partly from the effects of the cannon whilst the Greeks were battering the town from the little fort in the harbour. The remaining dwelling-houses are spacious, and some even comfortable. In all of them the lower story is appropriated to the horses, and from this we ascend by