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yellow, if a small proportion it is orange-coloured ; and by repeated exposure to the fire, without any additional colouring matter, the orange may be converted into red. This conversion of orange into red is a matter of much nicety, in which experience only can ensure success.
Till within a few years this was the only bright red in use amongst modern glass painters; and though the best specimens certainly produce a fine effect, yet it will not bear comparison with the red employed in such profusion by the old artists.
Besides the enamels and stains above described, artists, whenever the subjects will allow of it, make use of panes coloured throughout their substance in the glass-house melting-pot, because the perfect transparency of such glass gives brilliancy of effect which enamel colouring, always more or less opaque, cannot equal. It was to a glass of this kind that the old glass-painters owed their splendid red. This, in fact, is the only point in which the modern and ancient processes differ, and this is the only part of the art which was ever really lost. Instead of blowing plates of solid red, the old glassmakers used to flash a thin layer of red over a substratum of plain glass. Their process must have been such as we have already described as in use at present, so as to obtain on the surface of the glass, a very thin stratum of the desired colour, That such was the method in use, an attentive examination of old specimens affords sufficient evidence.
The material employed by the old glass-makers to tinge their glass red was the protoxide of copper; but in the decline of the art of glass-painting, the manufacture of red glass of course ceased, and all knowledge of the art became so entirely extinct, that the notion generally prevailed that the colour in question was derived from gold. In 1793, the French Government actually collected a quantity of old red glass from the destruction of church and cathedral windows, with the view of extracting the gold by which it was supposed to be coloured,
The difficulty of the art of making this glass consists in the proneness of the copper to pass from the state of protoxide into that of peroxide, in which latter state it tinges glass green. One curious circumstance deserves to be noticed, which is, that glass containing copper, when removed from the melting pot, sometimes only exhibits a faint greenish tinge; yet, in this state, nothing more than simple exposure to a gentle heat is requisite to throw out a brilliant red.
NE of the most beautiful things in nature; my young friends, is maternal affection. We see it in
every part of the animal world, and we ought to love it and admire it whenever we see it. The bird with its young, the cat with its kittens, and bitch with
its pups, the cow with its calf-how enduring is their affection, and how touching to see its exemplification in a thousand little instances. But more than all these is the affection of a woman for her child. Little do you know it, for you are perhaps not old enough to understand the depths of a mother's love, or of that holy and enduring affection with which she will undergo neglect, ill-treatment, even disdainfor her offspring. The following story will illustrate the strength of maternal affection generally found among savage nations.
In the year 1814, a trader married a beautiful squaw of one of the most distinguished families in the Omawhaw nation. This match, on the part of the husband, was induced by the following circumstances :