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hundred of the entire population ever entering, it is believed, a Christian place of worship—no man caring for their souls, and they, least of all, disposed to care for their own. The Church has now been opened about five years—the zealous and unwearied Prelate, to whom this colony of heathens was indebted for the erection of the sacred edifice, has selected for the minister of it a young clergyman precisely after his own model-an active, enterprising, devoted, indefatigable parish priest—one of the class who
“ Deem nothing done, while aught remains to do;" and within the single lustrum of his incumbency, schools have been erected at the expense of several thousand pounds, wherein nearly 800 children are instructed on the national system-a congregation approaching more nearly to two than to one thousand, is collected within the Church every Sabbath day ; considerable funds have been raised, not only to supply local necessities, but to promote pious and philanthropic objects in distant lands—and, almost while we are speaking, a work designed for the benefit of a higher class of residents is receiving its auspicious commencement, in the establishment of a commercial school in connection with the Diocesan Board of Education, and under the immediate patronage of the distinguished Prelate who was the first to sow in this scene of moral desolation the good seed, and who now beholds the wilderness and the solitary place to be glad for them, and the desert to rejoice and blossom as the rose. Without dwelling, however, on the positive good which has been thus effected, let us endeavour to form something like an estimate of the amount of evil which has been prevented. Could we from authentic documents compare the demand which this district will have made on the penal expenditure of the country, in the ten years from 1835 to 1845, with that which it has made during the ten years previous, can any one doubt that had the Church been built at the sole expense of the legislature, the money of the state would have been put out on the highest interest, and made the most profitable return? We desire, then, that instances of this description should be collected from the various Dioceses, and that petitions should be founded upon them, embodying the facts of the case; and armed with such documents, we think that the member for Oxford, fortified as he is with that indomitable perseverance which can only emanate from the consciousness of being zealously affected in a good thing, might plead his righteous cause with redoubled and resistless energy, being thus enabled to prove by facts, and beyond all human possibility of contradiction, that in communities as in individuals, the performance of their duty is in reality the protection and the preservation of their interest; and that, of all public expenditure, none yields, even in this life, so ample a return, as that which is consecrated to the service of Christ in the extension of His visible Church !
We conclude, therefore, with expressing our earnest hope, that Mr. Palmer's scheme for sparing the pockets of the people may be rendered nugatory and abortive, by the just and wise determination of the people, speaking by their representatives, not to spare their
“ There is that scattereth, and yet increaseth ; and there is that withholdeth more than is meet ; but it tendeth to poverty."
A TREATISE ON THE RIGHT USE OF THE FATHERS
in the Decision of Controversies existing at this Day in Religion. By Joun DAILLE, Minister of the Gospel in the Reformed Church of Paris. Translated from the French, and revised by the Rev. T. Smith, M.A., of Christ College, Cambridge. Now re-edited and amended; with a Preface by the Rev. G. JEKYLL, LL.B, Rector of West Coker, &c. Somerset. London: White. 1811.
Tus reprint of Daillé's celebrated Treatise on the Use of the Fathers is very seasonable at the present time. The reviving taste for the early writings of the Church has doubtless some advantages : but unless it be attended with sound judgment, scriptural knowledge, and the corrective which such a work as the present supplies, it must lead to serious, and perhaps even fatal
The tendency of the human heart to rest in what is human, and to shrink from what is divine, is so strong as to need the most watchful counteraction. The form under which this spirit now presents itself, is an undue estimate of the Fathers of the Church as our only sure guides in controversy; and though as yet it may be only a cloud like a man's hand, it threatens to overspread shortly the whole ecclesiastical firmament. It may not be useless, then, to give a brief summary of Daillé's argument, and afterwards to offer a few remarks which naturally arise.
The Author begins by stating in his preface the grounds of difference between Romanists and Protestants, in the following words:
“All the difference in religion, which is at this day between the Church of Rome and the Protestants, lies in some certain points which the Church of Rome maintains as important and necessary articles of the Christian faith :
whereas the Protestants, on the contrary, neither believe nor will receive thein for such. For as for those matters which the Protestants believe, which they conceive to be the fundamentals of religion, they are evidently and undeniably such, that even their enemies admit and receive them as well as they: inasmuch as they are both clearly delivered in the Scriptures, and expressly admitted by the ancient councils and Fathers; and are indeed unanimously received by the greatest part of Christians in all ages, and in different parts of the world. Such, for example, are the maxims, “That there is a God who is supreme over all, and who created the heavens and the earth :that he created man after his own image; and that this man, revolting from his obedience, is fallen, together with his whole posterity, into most extreme and eternal misery, and become infected with sin, as with a mortal leprosy, and is therefore obnoxious to the wrath of God, and liable to his curse :-that the merciful Creator, pitying man's estate, graciously sent his Son Jesus Christ into the world :-that his Son is God eternal with him; and that having taken flesh upon himself in the womb of the Virgin Mary, and become man, he has done and suffered in this flesh all things necessary for our salvation, having by this means sufficiently expiated for our sins by his blood; and that having finished all this, he ascended again into heaven, and sitteth at the right hand of the Father; from whence he shall one day come to judge all mankind, rendering to every one according to their works:—that to enable us to communicate of this salvation by his merits, he sends us down his Holy Spirit, proceeding both from the Father and the Son, and who is also one and the same God with them; so that these three persons are notwithstanding but one God, who is blessed for ever:-that this Spirit enlightens our understanding, and generates faith in us, whereby we are justified ;-that after all this, the Lord sent his Apostles to preach this doctrine of salvation throughout the whole world :—that these have planted churches, and placed in each of them pastors and teachers, whom we are to hear with all reverence, and to receive from them Baptism, the sacrament of our regeneration, and the holy Eucharist, or Lord's Supper, which is the sacrament of our communion with Jesus Christ :—that we are likewise all of us bound fervently to love God and our neighbour; observing diligently that holy doctrine which is laid down for us in the books of the New Testament, which have been inspired by his Spirit of truth; as also those other of the Old; there being nothing, either in the one or in the other, but what is most true.
These articles, and there may be some few others of a similar nature, are the substance of the Protestant's whole belief: and if all other Christians would but content themselves with these, there would never be any schism in the Church. But now their adversaries add to these many other points, which they press and command men to believe as necessary; and such as, without believing in, there is no possible hope of salvation. As, for example :--that the Pope of Rome is the head and supreme monarch of the whole Christian Church throughout the world :—that he, or at least the church which he acknowledges a true one, cannot possibly err in matters of faith :—that the sacrament of the Eucharist is to be adored, as being really Jesus Christ, and not a piece of bread :--that the mass is a sacrifice, that really expiates the sins of the faithful :-that Christians may and ought to have in their churches the images of God and of saints, to which, bowing down before them,-they are to use religious worship :- that it is lawful, and also very useful, to pray to saints departed and to angels :—that our souls after death, before they enter into heaven, are to pass through a certain fire, and there to endure grievous torments; thus making atonement for their sins :-that we neither may nor ought to receive the holy Eucharist, without having first confessed in private to a priest :- that none but the priest himself that
consecrated the Eucharist is bound by right to receive it in both kinds :—with a great number of other opinions, which their adversaries plainly protest that they cannot with a safe conscience believe.
These points are the ground of the whole difference between them; the one
party pretending that they have been believed and received by the Church of Christ in all ages as revealed by him : and the other maintaining the contrary:
Now, seeing that none of these tenets have any ground from any passage in the New Testament, (which is the most ancient and authentic rule of Christianity,) the maintainers are glad to fly to the writings of the doctors of the Church, which lived within the four or five first centuries after the Apostles, who are commonly called the Fathers : and my purpose in this treatise is to examine whether or not this be good and sufficient means for the decision of these differences.”—(pp. xvi- xix.)
In the first book, the Author treats of the clearness of the Fathers; in the second, of their authority.
The first difficulty in the use of the Fathers to decide present controversies, arises from the small number extant of the three first centuries nearest to the time of the Apostles, and from the nature of their works, which are simple and practical, or occupied with controversies very different from those of later times. Ignatias, Justin, Irenæus, Clement, Tertullian, Cyprian, Lactantius and Origen, are almost the only authors that survive, and the subjects treated by most of these are temporary and peculiar.
The third chapter dwells on the forged and supposititious writings which have been falsely assigned to the Fathers, and gathers another argument of obscurity from the difficulty of detecting them. Some remarkable facts are collected under this head, of which the two following paragraphs are specimens :
“ These forgeries are not new, and of yesterday; but the abuse hath existed above fourteen hundred years. It is the complaint of the greatest part of the Fathers, that the heretics, to give their own dreams the greater authority, promulgated them under the names of some of the most eminent writers in the Church, and even of the Apostles themselves. Amphilochius, Bishop of Iconium, who was so much esteemed by the great St. Basil, Archbishop of Cæsarea, wrote a particular tract on this subject, alleged by the Fathers of the seventh council against a certain passage produced by the Iconoclasts out of I know not what idle treatise, intituled, The Travels of the Apostles.” And I would to God that that Tract of this learned prelate were nos extant! If it were, it would perhaps do us good service in discovering the vanity of many ridiculous pieces, which now pass current in the world under the names of the primitive and most ancient Christians. S. Hierome rejecteth divers apocryphal books, which are published under the names of the Apostles, and of their first disciples; as those of St. Peter, of Barnabas, and others. The gospel of St. Thomas, and the epistle to the Laodiceans, are classed in the same category by the seventh council.
“Now, if these knaves have thus taken such liberty with the Apostles as to make use of their names; how much more likely is it, that they would not hesitate to make as free with the Fathers? And indeed this kind of imposture hath always been common. Thus we read that the Nestorians sometime published an epistle under the name of St. Cyril of Alexandria, in the defence of Theodorus, Bishop of Moj ta, who was the author and first broacher of their heresy: and likewise that the Eutychists also circulated certain books of Apollinaris, under the title of “The Orthodox Doctors," namely, to impose on the simplicity of the people. Leontius hath written an express Tract on this subject; wherein he shews that these men abused particularly
the names of St. Gregory of Neocæsarea, of Julius, Bishop of Rome, and of Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria ; and he also says particularly, that the book intituled, 'H kata uepos Diotis (A particular Exposition of the Faith,) which is delivered unto us by Turrianus the Jesuit, Gerardus Vossius, and the last edition of Gregorius Neocæsariensis, for a true and legitimate piece of the said St. Gregory, is not truly his, but the bastard issue of the heretic Apollinaris. The like judgment do the publishers of the Bibliotheca Patrum give of the twelve Anathemas, which are commonly attributed to the same Št. Gregory. The Monothelites also, taking the same course, forged an oration under the name of Menas, patriarch of Constantinople, and directed to Vigilius, Bishop of Rome : and two other books under the name of the same Vigilius, directed to Justinian and Theodora ; wherein their heresy is in express terms delivered; and these three pieces were afterwards inserted in the body of the fifth council, and kept in the library of the Patriarch's palace in Constantinople. But this imposture was discovered and proved in the sixth council: for otherwise, who would not have been deceived by it, seeing these false pieces in so authe tic a copy ??—(pp. 13—15.)
“ Others have been induced to adopt the same artifice, not out of ambition, but some other irregular fancy; as those men have done, who, having had a particular affection, either to such a person, or to such an opinion, have undertaken to write of the same, under the name of some author of good esteem and reputation with the world, to make it pass the more currently abroad: precisely as that Priest did, who published a book, entitled “ The Acts of St. Paul, and of Tecla ;” and being convicted of being the author of it, in the presence of St. John, he plainly confessed, that the love that he bare to St. Paul was the only cause that incited him to do it. Such was the boldness also of Ruffinus, a priest of Aquileia, (whom St. Hierome justly reprehendeth so sharply, and in so many places), who, to vindicate Origen's honour, wrote an apology for him, under the name of Pamphilus, a holy and renowned martyr; although the truth of it is, he had taken it, partly out of the first and sixth books that Eusebius had written upon the same subject, and partly made use of his own invention in it. Some similar fancy it was that moved him also to put forth the life of one Sextus, a Pythagorean philosopher, under the name of St. Sixtus the martyr, to the end that the work might be received the more favourably.
What can you say to this? namely, that in the very same age there was a personage of greater note than the former ; who, disliking that Hierome had translated the Old Testament out of the Hebrew, framed an epistle under his name, wherein he represents him as repenting of having done it; which epistle, even in St. Hierome's life time, though without his knowledge, was published by the said author, both at Rome and in Africa? Who could believe the truth of this bold attempt, had not St. Hierome himself related the story, and made complaint of the injury done him therein? I must impute also to a fancy of the same kind, though certainly more innocent than the other, the spreading abroad of so many predictions of our Saviour Jesus Christ, and His kingdom, under the names of the Sibyls; which was done by some of the first Christians, only to prepare the Pagans to relish this doctrine the better; as it is objected against them by Celsus in Origen. But that which is yet of greater consequence is, that even the Fathers themselves have sometimes made use of this artifice, to promote either their own opinions or their wishes. Of this we have a notable example, which was objected against the Latins by the Greeks, above two hundred years since, of two Bishops of Rome, Zozimus and Boniface; who, to authorize the title which they pretended to have, of being universal Bishops, and heads of the whole Christian Church, and particularly of the African, forged, about the beginning of the fifth century, certain canons in the council of Nice, and frequently quoted them as such in the councils in Africa; which, notwithstanding, after a long and diligent search, could never yet be found in any of the authentic copies of the said council of Nice, although the African Bishops had taken the pains to send as