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and at the same time dictators to the national afembly. Instances from a avriter of credit

, that falsehoods and forgeries were the great and constant resources of the cabals in Paris. Parisians noted for credulity, and at the same time for the extreme suspiciousness of their nature. Similar instances of credulity in the provinces. The excessive liberty and unbounded licentiousness of the press, a powerful instrument of the revolution. The literati of Paris estimated at 20,000, and these dictated to the rest of the nation. Unaccountable and indefenfible supineness of the ministers, with respect to , the press. Strange and fatal blindness of the two first orders of the state. Famine, as a cause of general discontent, another powerful instrument of the révolution. Real or imputed conduct of the duke of Orleans. National assembly seriously alarmed at the conflagrations and masacres which were jpreading desolation and ruin through many parts of the kingdom, the nobility being hunted down like wild beasts in several of the provinces. This impression of terror, produces the extraordinary events of the 4th of August. The viscount Noailles, and the duke d’Aiguillon, make speeches in the afsembly, in which they propose substantial redress and relief to the peasantry, by relinquishing and abolishing those parts of the feudal rights and duties, which lay the heaviest on, or were the most complained of by, that order of men. A sudden fit' of enthusiasm spreads at once through the two firft orders, and the only contest after seemed to be, who should sacrifice the most, and who should be the first to offer; while the commons seemed loft in astonishment and applause. It was in an instant decreed, ihat all impots should be equally and equitably laid on; that all the feudal services should be redeemable at an equitable price; and that personal servitude should be abolished for ever, without any purchase

. These are followed by a sacria, fice of the exclusive rights of the chace, of fishing, of warren, and of dove-cotes. The parish priests make an offering of all their parochial perquisites, and the beneficiaries bind themselves never to hold a plurality. Various other resolutions passed on the same night, each of which was froix that moment considered as an irrevocable decree, and afterwards made the foundation of a formal law. Affembly decree a medal to be ftruck, to commemorate the acts of this glorious night. They likewise confer on the king the title of Restorer of the Liberties of France. Solemn Te Deum celebrated, at which the king and the national assembly aff. Astonishment and dismay of the clergy, after the great facrifices which they had volunsarily made, upon a motion for the sequestration of their tithes. Debates renewed with great violence on the following day. Cause of the clergy, eloquently and ably defended by the Abbe Sieyes. In general they ftand firmly in support of their rights. Debate, after much tumult, adjourned late at night. Means ujëd during the remainder of the night, and the morning, to bring over the heads of the clergy to a consent. Archbishop of Paris, in the name of his brethren, surrenders all the tithes of the church inic the hands of the nation. His short speech an that occasion. The old provincial names, distinctions, peculiar rights, and privileges, determined to be aboliped, and the whole nation consolidated into one compaît body, and under cal equal form of government, Deputies of privileged towns and districts


make a 'furrender of their charters and municipal documents. Provinces which polleled a right of taxing themselves, renounced that right and their ftates together; and the parliaments were annihilated as well as the provincial Jtates

. All fees and taxes to the court of Rime for ever abolished Some observations on ihe precipitancy, with vhich fixteen laws of the utmost moment were hurried through in one night; as vell as on the bad effect of passing laws by acclamation. Nobility and clergy in the provinces highly discontented with the conduct of their delegates on the 4th of August

, in making such vaft facrifices without their consent. Several members of the assembly likewise repent their own concesions, and become equally disatisfied. Landed proprietaries at length take up arms in their own defence, and repress the barbarous ravages of the peasantry. King appoints a new ministry, with the approbation of the assembly. Difreed state of the public, through the failure of the taxes. Loans attempted and fail, Scheme of patriotic contributions adopted.


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King and queen send their gold and silver plate to the mint. Patriotic dona

tions incapable of relieving the necessities of the state. Extraordinary tar decreed, 2:nder the name of a patriotic contribution, by which each man was to contribute one fourth of his annual revenue to the exigencies of the state, Loud complaints and violent animofities excited by this partial tax. Embarrassments and difficulties which the national assembly experienced in framing the new declaration of rights. Great debates upon the propriety of inexpedience of adopting the measure. Declaration at length passed and promulgated. Saying of Mirabeau upon the subject. Asembly divided into a number of sections or committees, to each of which is assigned fome specified part of the new constitution, on which it is to make a report. Grand question arises, What spare of authority it was fitting the king frould posa Jess in the new legislature? This operates like a touchston in trying every man's principles, and compelling him to an open avowel of them. Asembly arranged, face to face, in two great hostile divisions, apparently equal in strength and numbers. Violent contests ensue, and are so long continued, that the people without, and at length the cubole nation, become parties in them. State of the parties within and without, who thus divided the offembly and the nation. King's veto, or negative, with respect to the palling of laws, one of the subjects molt violently and generally agitated. Populace of Paris interfere openly in the queftion of the vetos while the crowds in the galleries of the assembly become jo daringly audacious, as by hootings and revilings to endeavour to drown the voices, and by infults and menaces to deter from giving their votes all those members whe Supported the rights of the crown. Long lifts of members who were marked for proscription, and destined to be victims to the vengeance of the people, published in Paris, and distributed through every part of the kingdom. Poor pular fermentation in Paris risen nearly to its highest pitch. The notorious


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St. Huruge, attempts to have the king, the dauphin, and the national assembly, brought to Paris; but by the spirited exertions of La Fayette, Bailly, and the Hotel de Ville, the leaders are committed to prison, and the fedition quelled. Heavy complaints made to the assembly by several of its members of those treasonable attempts against the freedom of the king, as well as of ihat body itself; and likewise of the lists of proscription which were published, and of the incendiary letters by which they were continually menaced with destruction, but Mirabeau with his faction turn the whole complaint into ridicule. Numberless charges of supposed plots and conspiracies now made against the royalifts; which effectually answer one purpose, in exciting a general alarm and ferment through the nation. The Parisians, in particular, become again dangerously outrageous, and every thing bears the same aspeet as in the preceding months of June and July. In this state of afairs, the king, ever wishing to preserve or restore tranquillity, sends Neckar with a proposal to the aljembly, declaring that he would be contented with a fufpenf ve veto, whose operation should not last longer than one or two legiflatures. This proposal received with satisfaction; and it was decreed, that the royal suspension should continue during two legislatures. Great debates on the question, whether the national asembly should be composed of one or two chambers. Question at length carried for a fingle chamber by a prodigious majority. Members obliged to procure certificates how they had given their votes, to preserve their houses and families from destruction. Asembly decree, that the legislative body shall be renewed every two years by elections. Receive a letter from the king, containing his objections to certain parts of some of the new laws, which occasions much discontent in the assembly. King obliged to give his fanction fimply, and without comment, to the laws in question. Things tending fast to an extraordinary crisis both in Paris and Versailles. Asembly, however, confirm the hereditary fuccellion of the crown; and declare the king's person facred and inviolable. Arrival of the regiment of Flanders at Versailles, the cause or pretence of the ensuing mischiefs. Entertainment given by the officers of the king's life guards to those of the new corps, productive of much licentiousness and folly. This banquet occasions a violent ferment both at Paris and Versailles. Numerous army of women, after plundering the torun house, and supplying themselves with arms and artillery, march from Paris to Versailles. Are followed by unnumbered bands of ruffians. And not long after by La Fayette, at the head of a considerable army of the national guards. Events of the 5th and 6th of October. King and royal family led captive to Paris. Tumult in Paris, and the murder of a baker, soon after the arrival of the national assembly, occasion the greatest alarm and apprehenfion in that body. Severe decree pafjed, by which the magiftrares are empowered to proclaim martial law, and to proceed to the last extremities in represing the future outrages of the mob. La Fayette procures the Duke of Orleans' departure to England.




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Effeets of the transactions in France upon the minds of the people of Great-
Britain. General disposition in their favour the commencement of the

revolution. Various political speculations thercon. The evils which followed
foreseen by more accurate observers, and particularly foretold in the celebrated
work of Mr. Burke. The interest which the French leaders haut in in-
volving the surrounding ftates in the same distractions. Their attempts, and
the effects of them, particularly in Great Britain and Ireland. Meeting of
parliament. Speech from the throne. Address voted in both houses without
debate. Act of indemnity relative to the order of council for li opping the
exportation of corn. Military estimates animadveried upon by Sir Grey
Cooper, Mr. Marsham, and Mr. Fox; and defended by Mr. Grenville and
Mr. Pitt. Some expressions of Mr. Fox, opplauding the French revolution,
and the conduet of the French army on that occasion, cenfired by Col. Phipps.
The same subject taken up by Mr. Burke. His speech upon the spirit and
consequences of that event, and his regret at differing in opinion from Mr.
Fox. His opinion concerning the conduet of the French army,
cerning the comparison between the French revolution, and the revolution of
1688. His speech received with general applausê. Mr. Fox, in reply, la-
ments the difference of opinion between them. His encomium upon Mr.
Burke. Explains his ozun sentiments respecting the French revolution. Pro-
feljes bis political principles. His opinion of the revolution of 1688. His
apology for the excesses of the French patriots. Mr. Sheridan's speech upon
the same occasion. Declares his entire difference of opinion from Mr. Burke.
Defends the French revolution. Apologizes for its excefjes. Charges Mr.
Burke with being an advocate for de potisin. Compliments the marquis de
la Fayette, and other French patriots. His opinion of the revolution of 1688.
Mr. Pitt, and other members, rise to express their obligations and gratitude
to Mr. Burke for the sentiments he had expressed during the debate. (62

and con-

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The dissenters encouraged, by the small majority by which the motion for the

repeal of the test and corporation att was rejected the last fellion, to renew
their application. Steps taken by them to support it. Alarm of the friends
of the established church. Mr. Fox's speech upon moving for the repeal. His
general principles of toleration. His opinion of the impolicy and injustice of
the test laws. Argues from the merits of the disenters. Urges the example
of France. Cenfures the conduct of the bishop of St. David's. Concludes
with declaring his determination to support the question he had brought for-
ward upon every future occasion. Motion oppojed by Mr. Pitt. He objects
to its extent, and the principles on which it was supported. Is of opinion it
might affeit the security of the church. He considers the test acts as proper


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