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membrance of all their past tri- The 12th of January was fixed umphs.

upon for the execution of this deT'he turdy Switzer faced his trial fign; and the expectation and cruel with a degree of composure, firm- hopes of the rabble were risen to the ness, and refolution which astonished highest point at which they were te beholders; and repelled the ac- capable of arriving: But things cusations brought against him with were much changed in this respect, such ju ginent and spirit, that the and they were not able in their precour: could not, either with regard sent state to conduct schemes of this to justice, or to their own character, nature with that secrecy and conpollibly avoid acquitting him; at the cealment, which are so necessary to same time, that the fuperior con- their success, and which afforded tempt which he shewed for any dan- them such infinite advantages in ger that might accrue from a due their paft conflicts with the court. discharge of his military duties, Bailly, La Fayette, the chatelet, the feemed to overawe even his ene- national assembly, and in a word, mies. It is however to be ob{erved, every part of government, became that the Swiss cantons took so fpi- masters of the whole design, before rited a part in behalf of their suf- it could be carried into execution, fering commander, that it is thought and all adopted such measures as the national assembly did not wish seemed best calculated for its prematters to be carried to extremity vention or defeat. La Fayette acted against him; so that the violence of with great vigour, diligence, and the mob was posibly the greatest effect; but one circumstance in his danger, which he apprehended he conduct occafioned much surprise, had to encounter.

and afforded no fniall room for speAlthough the court had not yet culation. This was his placing the declared the sentence, yet every security of Paris, and the preservabodbeing now convinced of his tion of her tranquillity, in the hands acquittal, nothing could exceed the of the bourgeoise militia, instead of rage and indignation of the popu- entrusting them to the regular standlace; who considered the boalted ing forces, who received constant benefits of the revolution as nothing pay, and of whom the late French but deceptions, if the majesty of the guards formed fo conspicuous a part. people was to be thus flagrantly in- Nothing could be more stattering to fulted, and their authority grofsly the militia than this distinction, and invaded, by attempting to itrip them mark of unlimited confidence, in a of the inherent right of furimary case of so much supposed danger ;, and executive justice. They ac- they accordingly acted their part cordingly decerinined to force the inimitably well; but nothing could prison in which Bezenval was con- be a more galling affront to the refined by the clatelet, and to exhibit gular troops than this preference giin his person a memorable and bloody ven to men whom they despised. instance to mankind of that inexor- Though the immediate designs of able justice by which they were the plotters were thus overthrown, guided; the execution of which yet the capital continued in : ftaté should not be prevented or diverted, of great disorder for two or three by any laws or by any authority. days. Cabals and meetings were

continually

a

continually taking place, and all the tineers, who were allembled in the past indications of mischief were re- Champs Elysées, of whom he made 200 newed, and seemed to appear in prisoners; the rest being so terrified, Stronger colours than usual. The that they seemed to consider themVersaillians were again supposed felves happy in escaping with their formidable, and thousands of them lives. On searching the prisoners, were said to be mixed with the Pa- they were found well furniihed with risians. Mischiefs of every kind, powder and ball, made up into carand accompanied with every degree tridges, but not a single musket was of horror and ruin, were generally found or seen in the whole party. expected; and even those the best This put a stop for the present to informed, supposed some great, and nocturnal meetings, as well as to probably dreadful event. The aris- riots by day. Yet such was the tocrates were charged with being nius of the time for the fabrication the authors of all this evil, in their of plots, for the discovery of myfteendeavours to carry off the king, ries in the most common and obviand to bring about a counter-revo- ous occurrences, and for the belief lution. It would only have exposed of the most incredible fables, that a stranger to mockery or suspicion, this was still infilted upon, and that if he attempted to show the glaring by men otherwise of good sense and improbability of fo unnatural and well informed, to be the beginning monttrous a coalition or alliance, as of a grand aristocratical plot, deeply that supposed between the royalists laid for the subversion of the contiand the rabble of Paris or Versailles, tution and present government. A who seemed by some inherent in- troublesome question, however, still ftinct destined to be their mortal and remained to be solved, who those implacable enemies. At the same immediate instruments of the plot, time, it was openly said on all sides, those actual rioters were? With the that the king's life would be the im. evidence of 200 prisoners before mediate facrifice to any attempt to them, this seemed a question easily rescue his person; and that the resolved; but it would be too much whole royal family would probably to suppose the patriotic Parisians the perish at the same instant. All fo- authors of such a crime; and as to reigners, who had any knowledge of the Versaillians, besides that they the former, and even very late cha- had borne their full share of re. racter of the people, were astonished proach already, they were too neai at the coolness and indifference with neighbours to be loaded with all the which the immolation of the love- infamy.- In this difficulty, the term reign, in such a circumstance, was of brigands, which had already anpublicly talked of, in all companies, swered so excellent a purpose, in defrom the highest to the lowest, as an îtroying the castles of the nobility, act which of course mult take luckily

occurred; but, as if questions place.

multiplied in proportion as they In the mean time, La Fayette and were resolved, it still remained to be his militia, by a vigorous act of ex, answered, who these brigands were? ertion, put an end to the combustion if they were men like others, and sn Paris. He suddenly furrounded not totally imaginary beings, their at night, a body of Ilpo of the mu. exiílence might surely be easily identified. The only solution that vague reports, and hearsay convercould be found to this question, was sations, appeared on the side of the the fuppofition, that they were com- prosecution; so that the plot ftill lay posed of Germans and other fo- in its original state of darkness, and reigners, who had conie to Paris for Broglio, with the other fugitives, were the purpose of raising tumults, in of course acquitted of the crime of order to facilitate the carrying of leze nation. this incomprehenfible plot into exe- It will always be found difficult cution.

identifica

in many cases, to reconcile or acBezenval being acquitted, and count for the various contradictions safely discharged from Paris, the and inconsistencies, which appear in chatelet now ventured upon what the conduct and actions of men. before would have seemed a moft Although this business undoubtedly dangerous task, that of proceeding stood foremost in point of importance to the trial of the prince of Lam- of all those which had been prescribbesc, of marshal Broglio, and of fome ed to the cognizance of the chatelet, others of those principal fugitives, yet there are good reasons for bewho had been long accused of that lieving that its being brought forreal or fupposed plot, for the de- ward was highly disagreeable to the struction of the city of Paris, of the principal rulers; who could not wish national assembly, for governing the that the weakness which now apkingdom entirely by the sword, and peared in so effential a point, through placing the king in a state of more the total failure of all evidence in unbridled despotism, than even the its support, should have been thus worst of his predecessors had poffef. nakedly exposed to all the world. fed or attempted, and which had laid It was probably imagined, that this the foundation of the revolution in was an affair which carried such apthe preceding month of July, as well pearances of danger on whatever as of all its subsequent consequences, lide it was examined, that the chato the present day. As the event of telet would not venture to meddle these trials seemed to include in no with it; and it was possibly intendsmall degree the grand question on ed, that no great apology would be the neceffity, justness, or fitness of necesary to justify the omiffion. the revolution, which derived its However that was, the chatelet foon birth from this supposed plot, so no became an object of conftant abuse cause could be more intereiting, or with the democratical writers, and excite greater expectation; and the was treated with a coldness and inseveral parts of it had been so long, difference by the asiembly, which so often, and fo peremptorily re- ftrongly indicated that its new powpeated and afterted, that it was sup- ers were not likely to be lasting. pofed such a body of evidence as It would seem as if this state of nothing could i'esist or controvert, things produced in one instance a would now be brought forward in disposition to temporize, and accomits support. But to the inexpresible modate matters to the occafion, in furprize of every body, excepting, that court, which ill accorded with perhaps, those, who were in the im- that high character of honour and mediate secret of things, no evi- inflexible integrity, which through dence beyond conjecture, inference, a'long course of past years it had, in defiance of power, so justly merit- ters as totally innocent of all crime, ed, and so often nobly sustained. and as acting purely in their own This was in the case of one Favras, defence. Not content, however, who, if we mistake not, was a mem- with this instance of independence ber of the national afiembly. This and spirit, as if it were to afford a man was charged with being con. demonftration that the love of juscerned in a plot for overthrowing tice was the only operative inotive the new constitution, and for bring- of their actions, they entered deeping about a counter-revolution. The ly and with the utmoft earnettness evidence against him was so weak into that, evidently, most critical and and defective, that it has been.com- dangerous business, an enquiry into pared with that which has

he retofore the conduct, designs and proceedings been received, and brought so much of the duke of Orleans, and of Midisgrace upon the course of legal rabeau, who acting apparently as his Justice in our own country, in those instrument, was in fact the "framer unfortunate periods of its history, of every thing that shewed genius when Titus Oates and similar vil- in his plans, and that went beyond lains were allowed to flouritband such cunning in his projects. It requirmen as Jefferies were the dispensers ed no inspiration, nor even much of our laws. Favras was condemned fagacity, to have seen, that whether and executed; and this unfortunaie these enquiries c me within the letman was generally considered as a, ter.of their instructions or not, they victim destined to be a peace-offer- could not at all accord with their fpiing to the Parisians; in the vain rit and design; and were widely difhope of reconciling them to the loss ferent from the purposes to which of those others on whom their desire that court owed its temporary instiwas much more strong!.y fixed. It tution. They were, however, ad. was a curious circumstance, and 'mitted to proceed to a certain deworthy of notice, that the conduct cent and confiderable length in their of the chatelet, instead of procuring enquiries; until at length becoming the end proposed, was equally irc- too troublesome, bringing matters to probated and condemned by both light which there was no occasion parties; and that that court was thould be publicly knoin, and the overwhelmed with such torrents of preservation of those appearances reproach coming from all quarters, which operated to their institution as it had never before in the course being no longer necessary, their of its existence.experienced. powers were luddenly withdrawn,

Convinced as they undoubtedly their enquiries left unfinished, and were of its justness, the chatelet did the chatelet for ever laid by. This not sink under the weight of the re- was foon followed by the total anni. proach; but seemed desirous of re. hilation of that, and of all the other trieving their character by the vi- ancient courts of law and justice in gour with which they prosecuted the the kingdom. enquiry after the authors of the plot, In the mean time the king's firm murders, and intended massacre of ness in rejecting the proposed visit the 16th cf October; being those and coalition, was, through means worthy citizens, who had been re- or motives of which we are not inWesented by the democratical wri- formedat length overcome. It is

not

Feb. 4th,

not to be fupposed that he could be ment, and immediately ifued a detotally indifferent to the menaces cree, which, in that state, none had against his life which were continuó the courage to oppose, ånd by ally thrown out in case of any at- which, every member was obliged tempt to rescue his person, (an event to take the newly-devised civic oath, hourly to be looked for, without his under the penalty of being excludconcurrence or knowledge, in the ed from giving his vote on any ocpresent state of temper and discon- casion. This teit was of fuch a natent which prevailed through so ture, that they had reason for congreat a part of the nation) and con- ceiving it would prove effectual in lidering his remarkable affection for purging the affembly of most, if not the queen and children, whose lives, all of those, whose names or coun: he knew, hung by the fame hair with tenance they no longer wanted, and his own, it is not to be supposed but whose company they no farther he was as deeply affected on their wished to be troubled with. The account as his own. Perhaps other assembly then decreed a general admotives might have operated.

dress to the provinces, reminding Whatever they were, them of all it had done for the fake

the king appeared sud- of public liberty, laying before them 1790.

denly at the national what it proposed farther to do, for affembly, where he complained of the complete regeneration of the the attempts which were made to empire, and holding out proper reashake the basis of the new constitu- fons and arguments to preposiess tion, and declared it to be his desire, them, againit those unfavourable that it should be universally known, impressions which evil minded perthat the monarch and the represen- sons were endeavouring to infuse tatives of the nation were entirely upon their minds. united; that their wishes were the Soon after the exhibition of this fame; that he would defend the state farce, this strange and extraconftitutional liberty, the principles ordinary coalition, by which the of which the general wish, in con- king without gaining one new friend cert with his own, had consecrated; loft many of the old, and much of and that, conjointly with the queen, the confidence and confideration he would early form the heart and which he held with all, the national the sentiments of his son, for that asembly resumed the affairs of the new order of things, which the cir- clergy, a businefs which they juitiy cumstances of the empire had intro- considered of the last importance, as duced and sanctified.

their estates and property were to As soon as the king was with- fupply that pledge and security, drawn, the assembly voted an ad- which was to be offered to the nadress of thanks to him; and per- tion for the discharge of their imceiving at once the deep dismay and mense debts, as well as to make confternation with which this unex - good the current deficiencies which pected measure seemed nearly to arose, from the failure of payment overwhelm the minority, they in- of the remaining taxes, and the toftantly determined to take advan- tal loss of the most productive, tage of their confusion and aftonith which had been generally repealed. VOL. XXXII.

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