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Distances on the Highways of Europe (Kilometers)

Source: Foreign Travel Division of the American Automobile Association

Figures show kilometers; a kilometer is 56 of a mile)

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Cologne..

565 20501 851 864) 662) 9351780) 273/12641 939 809 615/179511327 7811

925/25651 429 3781 211 216 1636 4851 483 477) 28/ 523 1333 546 Lausanne.. Leipsic..

565) 925 1663 944 957 756 11412201 455/1383/10101 9531 477117091376

2050 2565 1663 Leningrad

5 2588/24192782386421183048 2663125922203 3372 3029

51 189 645 1771 571) 677/ 126 401) 509) 982) 492 851 429 9442575 Locarno.. 864 3781 9572588/ 51

202 594 1720 584 626 Lugano....

75 350 5221 931 441 Lucerne...

6621 211 756/24191 189 202 418|1840 382 685 275 239 357 1131) 643

9351 2161114127821 645 | 594 418 Lyons.....

1398) 7011 382 474] 244 739 13951 445 Madrid....

1780 1636/22013864 1771 1720 1840 1398 17791152 1645 1664 2158/2239|1279 Mannhelm.. 273 485 455 2118 571 584| 382 701 1779

968/

657 513 504 1523 1033 Marseilles 1264] 483|138330481 677 626 6851 382|11521

968

551 511 384/1135/ 185 Milan.....

9391 477|10102663 126 75 275 474 1645) 657 551 505 1006) 856 366

8091 28 953 2593 401 Montreux..

350 239 244 1664 5131 511 505 551 1361 Munchen..

615) 523477 2203 509 5221 357 73921581 384/10061 504 551 (12321 870 Naples.....

1795/1333/1709133721 982 9311131 (139522391523111351 856|13611232 950 Nice........

13271 5461137630291 492 441 643 445127910331 1851 3661 5741 8701 95 Airway Distances Abroad (Statute Miles )

Source: Foreign Travel Division of the American Automobile Association London to Paris. 205: Amsterdam, 230; Rotter- Singapore, Malaya, 8,393: Palembang. Dutch F

Indles. 8.695: Batavia, D. E. I., 8.983; Semaranr. dam. 227; Cologne, 326; Brussels, 200; Berlin, 600;

D. E. 'I., 9,233; Sourabaya, D. E. I., 9,390: Ram. Stuttgart, 496; Hamburg, 480; Warsaw, 920.

bang, D. E. I., 9,676; Koepang, D. E. I., 10.214: Paris to Basle, 268: Basle to Zurich, 49; Berlin,

Darwin, North Australia, 10,726; Longreach, 552; Danzig, 806. London

Queensland, 12,049; Charleville, 'Q. to (Australian route)--Paris, 205:

12,316; Bris.

bane, Q., 12,754. Brindisi, Italy, 1,352; Athens, Greece, 1,721; Alex London to (South Africa route)-Paris. 205: andria, Egypt, 2,308; Gaza, Palestine, 2,584; Rut Brindisi, 1,362; Athens, 1,721; Alexandria, 2.308; bah, Iraq, 2,947; Baghdad, Iraq, 3,187; Basra, Cairo, Egypt, 2,420; Wadi Halla, Sudan, 3,017: Iraq, 3,465; Koweit, Arabia, 3,540; Bahrein, off Khartoum, Sudan, 3,517; Juba, Sudan, 4,276: Arabia: Sharjah, Oman, 4,140; Gwadar, Baluchis Entebbe. Uganda, 4,611; Nairobi, Kenya, 4.945: tan, 4,580; Karachi, India, 4,880; Jodhpur, India, Dodoma, Tanganyika, 5,317; Mbeya, Tanganyika, 5.264; Delhi, India, 5,566; Cawnpore, India, 6,809; 5.603: Broken Hill, No. Rhodesia, 6.116: Salisbury, Allahabad, India, 5,919; Calcutta, India, 6,386; So. Rhodesia, 6,416; Bulawayo, So. Rh., Johannes. Akyab, Burma, 6,734; Rangoon, Burma, 7.041:1 burg. Transvaal. 7,094; Kimberley, Cape Prov.. Bangkok, Siam, 7,405; Alor Star, Malaya, 7,960; 7,366; Cape Town, C. P., 7,904.

DISTANCES ON THE HIGHWAYS OF EUROPE (KILOMETERS) (Continued) Source: Foreign Travel Division of American Automobile Association Figures show kilometers; &

kilometer is 5% of a mile

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Dresden
Dusseldorf
Florence.
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Freiburg ..
Genev&...
Genoa....
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Grenoble.
The Hague..
Hamburg ..
Hanover....
Havre.....
Innsbruck..
Interlaken.
Karlsbad....

716 1207 458 737 1012 1198 646 1157 969) 498 502 1242) 639 913 257 716 (1310 258 5601 886 1144 1198 1015 266 467) 302 756 794 7701 685 1207|13101 10601 7741 713 279 774 685 1447 1571 1406/13941568 618 1093 458) 258 1060 286 612 886) 940 757 524 511 346 7841 5211 512 427 737 560 774

2861

3261 608 881 471 751 797 632 758) 472 226) 635 1012 886) 713 612 326) 492 1226) 145 975 1123) 958 708 605) 210 809 1198 1144 279 886) 608 492 948 406 1281 13971232 1191 530 605 1074

646|1198 7741 9401 88112261 948) 1154 1464 1144/1148|1724) 535/1127] 615 1157 1015) 685 7571 471) 1451 406 1154 1052 1268 1103 7851 7501 355 1044 969 266 1447 5241 751) 975 1281 1464 1052

794 629 677 10451 899 951 4981 4671571 511) 797 1123139711144 12681 794

165 11981 944 10231 754 302 1406 346/ 632958 1232 1148 1103 6291 165 1033 824 858) 634 1242 756|1394 784 758 708 1191 1724 785 6771198 1033 11001 794 1270 6391 7941 568/ 5211 472 6051 5301 5351 750 1045) 944| 824/11001 5051 525 913) 7701 6181 512 226 210 605/11271 355 899 1023 858 794 50

801 257 685 1093) 4271 635) 899/10741 615 10441 9511 7541 634/12701 52

502

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Florence.. Frankfort. Geneva.... Geno&..... The Hague. Hamburg ... Havre....... Kiel.

Copenhagen • Paris......

Prague.. Rome.. Trieste Venice... Warsaw. Vienna....

1060 279 1447 1571 1394 1666 1790 1197 10601 293) 483) 277|1702) 876 1060

6 5241 511 784 606 8871 5791 5051135311391 933/1081) 736 713 612 492 975 1123 708 1218|1499503 940 1006) 880 674 1572 1022 2791 886) 492 128113971191 1492|17731 986 10221 511 657) 45111654 1050 14471 524 975 1281 | 794 677| 889 11701 472 1124 1732 1606|1400/132611260 1571 511 11231397 794 (11981 95 376/1003) 653 1856|1562/1356) 855 940 1394 | 784 708 1191/ 677|11981 1293|15742051348/1687|1470|1264 1865 1517 1666 606/1218 1492 8891951293) 4101098| 748/1951 1657|1451950 1035 17901 887|1499|17734701 376|1574| 410 13791 808 2083 1646 1634 1010 1095 1197 579 503) 986 472 1003 205 1098/13791 1159 1490 1364 1158 1650 1312 10601 505) 940 1022 1124) 653 13481 748 808/1159 1353 780 904 632 287 293 1353 1006 511 1732 1856 1687 1951 2083 1490 1353 7761 570 1913 1169 483|1139 8801 657 1606 1562 1470|1657 1646|1364 780 776

206 1237 493 2771 9331 674) 451/1400/1356|1264|1451/1634|11581 9041 5701 2061 (13431 599 1702 1081/157211654/13261 855 1865 950 1010 16501 632 1913|1237|13431 744 876 7361022 1050 1260 940 1517 1035 1095 1312 287 1169 493) 599) 744

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Paris... Prague. Rome..... St. Moritz. Salsburg .... Sarajevo.... Strasbourg Stuttgart... Trieste... Turin.... Venice... Warsaw... Vienna.... Wiesbaden.. Zagreb... Zurich ...,

115914901 773/10082336 507 637 1364 803 1158 1650)1312 553 1730 1159 1333 690 389|11051 744 508) 780 10821 904 6321 287 5491 705 657 1490 13531

79110231681|11621251] 776) 6941 570/1913/1169/1397|12811 927 773) 6901 791 | 360 1495| 445| 4181 665 315459 13326771 680 1095) 200 1008) 3891023 3601 1135 1474 3881 656 675) 574/10611 317) 563 735| 435 2336 1105 1681 1495 1135 1474 1510, 1005 1545 11111463 828 1804 400 1557 507 744 1162) 445 1474 1474

176 1184 6861 830 1301 868 271 12861 245 6371 568 1251 418 388 15101 176 902) 669 802 1125 692 239 1110 218 13641 780 776 665| 6561005/11841 9021 6401 206 1237| 493 1183 6051 791 803/1082 694315 675 1545) 686) 6691 640

434 1647|1033921 11451 451 11581 9041 5701 4591 574 1111 8301 8021 2061 434) 1343) 599 977 711 595 1650 632 1913 1332/1061 1463 1301|11251237|1647/1343 744 1125 1162 1289 1312) 287111691 6771 317| 8281 868692 493 1033| 599 744 780 418 739 5531 549 1397) 6801 563 1804) 271 239|1183921] 9771125)

7801

1198 480 11730 705 1281 10851 735 400 128611110 605/11451 711 1162 418/1198 1157 | 573 657| 9271 200| 435|15571 245) 2181 791 4511 595|12891 7391 48011157)

OTHER TRAVELING DISTANCES IN EUROPE, STATUTE MILES

Source: United States War Department Ofcial Table of Distances Berlin to-Berne, 611; Bremen, 215; Essen, 317; | mouth, 246; Portsmouth, 74; Sheffield, 163: SouthKiel, 225; Konigsberg, 366; Leipzig, 100; Magde- ampton, 80, Yarmouth, 122. burg. 88; Munich, 406, Nuremberg, 301; Posen, 158; Madrid to Barcelona, 425: Bordeaux. 538: St. Gall, 575; Saarbrucken, 466; Stuttgart, 438; Boulogne, 1,059; Cadiz, 439; Carthagena, 326: GibThe Hague, 422; Ulm, 437; Wiesbaden, 360.

raltar, 456; Malaga, 383; Marseilles, 766; Moscow, Istanbul, Turkey to-Adrianople. 198: Batum. 2,764; Oporto, 381; Saragossa, 212; Valencia, 304. 674; Beirut, 976; Brindisi, 847; Gibraltar, 2,099; Paris to--Amiens. 81: Bordeaux, 363; Boulogne. Marseilles, 1,552; Moscow, 2,300; Naples, 1,101: 158; Brest, 387; Brindisi, 1,169; Calais. 185: Odessa, 395; Smyrna, 558.

Chateau-Thierry, 59; Cherbourg, 230; Dijon, 196: London to-Aldershot, 37; Bath, 107; Bishop's Dover, 204; Havre,' 142; Kiel, 652; Lille, 156: Rock, 469; Brighton, 51; Bristol, 119; Cambridge, Lyons, 318. 53: Canterbury, 60; Chatham, 34; Dover, 78; Rome to Brindisi, 394: Lausanne, 640: MarFalmouth, 307: Folkestone, 71; Glasgow, 402; /seilles, 565; Milan, 404; Naples, 155; Pisa, 207: Liverpool, 200; Manchester, 184; Oxford, 64; Ply- | Spezia, 254; Turin, 413; Venice, 378.

Distances Between Ports in Asia

Source: United States Hydrographic Office; statute miles, water routes

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Amoy..........
022701 430 37241 230 331

1902 161 1596| 1072 1533 Bata via............... 0 2121 21381 24661 2052 17951 2904

3812 3293 3678 Canton..........

_430 2121_03570 624 96 822 1077 1748 306 1990 1466 1921 Colombo.............. 3724 2138 3570

3914| 3496 3399 4367 1825) 36181 5280] 47561 5167 Foochow.............. 230 24661 624 3914

529) 90615412092 356) 14571 9301 1401 Hong Kong .....

334 2052 96 3496 529 0 727 981 1674 211 1894 1370 1825 M anila............. 777 17958221 33991 9061

01338 15787171 2202 1725 2023 Shanghai..............

683 2904 1077 4367 541 981 1338 2545 808 1135 534 1199 Singapore..........

1902 606 1748 1825 2092 1674 1578) 2545_ 0 1796 34582934 3345 Swatow.............. 161 2165 306 3618 356 211) 717 808) 1796

1722) 1198) 1653 Vladivostok,..........

1596 3812 1990) 5280 1457 1894 22021 1135) 3458 1722 0] 11531 1093 Weihaiwei....... ..... 1072 3293 1466 4756 930 1370 1725 534) 2934 1198) 1153 0 1274 Yokohama............

11533 3678) 19215167

1671 1401 1825 231 1199 33451 16531 10931 1274 Distances Between West Indies, Caribbean and Gulf Ports

Source: United States Hydrographic Once

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Cape Haitlen ....

9411 774 1576 7271 7131 64 1368 12551 3731 509 1023 1615 Cartagena ..................

1823 13151301 707 1702 16391 546) 934|10541739 Colon.........................

941 324

1719 1155 1226 969 1616 1576629 1185 131501635

1325 13121 774 544

17211945

1854 668 Curacao..................

1 538/2005 .. Galveston.........

157611823 2069 886 872 2233 451 514 1428 2057 2560 717 Havana........ 727

6941 593 87411207117 Key West ...........

713130112261312 872) 1067 1474 658 533 917 11931689| 1001 La Guayra ..........

711 864 707 969 172 2233 1488 147402129 2016837 552 4082174 New Orleans..........

(1368 1702 1616 1945 451 694 658 2129 0263 1304 1848 2376 919. Pensacola...................

1255 1639 1576 1854 514 593 533 2016 263 0 1238 1736 2250 957 Port Royal............... 3731 5461 629 668 14281 874 917 837/1304

1152 1367 St. Thomas..

509 934 1185 521 2057 1207 1193 552|1848 1736805 597 2129 Trinidad..................

1023 1054 1315 538 2560 1720 1689 408 2376 2250 1152 597 02494 Vera Cruz .................

11615|1739|1635/2005) 717| 937|1001/2174919 957 1367 2129 24940 Distances Between South American (Pacific) Ports

Source: United States Hydrographic Office; statute miles

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Antofagasta, Chile.....

248 936 456 1961|1693 258 953 480 1289 1496 821122991 663 Arica, Chile........ .

6831 808 1709 14411127 13061 1581035124 671265011016 Caldera, Chile............. 248 601 01129 226 2148 1879 484 723 698 1480 1682 1013 2067 433 Callao, Peru .............. 936 683 11290 1308 1047 778 759 1762 539 372 582 147 3076 1504 Coquimbo, Chile......... 456 808 226 1308 02319 2051 693 524 9011655 1853 1193 1869 234 Esmeraldas, Ecuador...... 1961 17092148

1785/27501565 694 484 117640371254 Guayaquil, Ecuador......

1693 1441 1879 778 2051 4100 1517 2482 1297 426 216 907 3709 2241 Iquique, Chile............

...258 1127 484 759 693 1785 1517_0 1190 253 11111320 645 2535 901 Lota, Chile...............

- 953 1306 723 1762 524 2750 2482 11900 1392 2097 2284 1649 1371 309 Mollendo, Peru..........

480 158 698 539 901 1565 1297 253 1392_9891 1100 423 2734 1108 Pacasmayo, Peru ........

1289 1035 1480 372 1655 694 426 1111 2097 891 0232 501 3396 1848 Paita, Peru............

1196 1244 1682 582 1853 484 215 1320 2281 1100 232 7 10 3571 2043 Pisco, Peru...............

821 567 1013 147 1193 1176 907 645 1649 423 501 71002969 1390 Magallanes, Chile..... 2299 2650 2067 3076 1869 4037 3769 2535 1371 2734 3396 3571 2969 0 1656 Valparaiso, Chile......

663 1016 433|1504 234 25092241 901 309|11081848 2043|139016560 Panama Canal Distances (Statute Miles)

Source: United States Hydrographic Office Colon to Baltimore, 2,189 Boston. 2.484; Montevideo, 6,144; Para, 2,659: Pernambuco. 3.274.

Rio de Janeiro, 5,008; Arica, Chile, 2,212; Callao Charleston, S. C., 1,801; Galveston, 1,719; Havana, 1,155; Halifax,

1,550; Guayaquil, 913; Magallanes, 4,541; Val 2,668; Jacksonville, 1.768; Key

paraiso, 3,013; Auckland, 7,499; Bombay, 14.921 West, 1.220; Kingston, Jamaica, 634; Mobile, 1,604;

Calcutta, 23,989; Colombo, 13,919; Guam, 9.199 New Orleans, 1,616; New York, 2,273; Norfolk,

Hong Kong, 10,588; Honolulu, 5,395; Manila, 10.764 2,049; Pensacola, 1,576; Philadelphia, 2,241; Bor

Melbourne, 9, 130; Shanghai, 9,853; Singapore deaux, 5,295; Gibraltar, 4,989; Glasgow, 5,208; 12,097; Wellington, 7,491; Yokohama, 8,846; Los Hamburg. 5,838; Havre, 5,313; Liverpool, 5,237; Angeles. 3.354; Seattle, 4,630; San Francisco Plymouth, Eng. 5,130; Buenos Aires, 6,276: 3,737; Vancouver, 4.643.

Help in Case of Drowning and Other Accidents

Source: Medical Staff, American Red Cross Drowning, Electric Shock, Gas, Smoke and the arm pit or groin and twisting till the flow of Other Suffocations

blood is stopped. Loosen every 15 minutes. Allow to 1. Lay patient on his belly, one arm extended remain loose if bleeding has stopped, but watch directly overhead, the other arm bent at elbow and closely and retighten if bleeding commences again. with the face turned outward and resting on hand Bleeding from a vein comes in a steady flow. It can or forearm, so nose and mouth are free

be controlled by applying a clean compressor 2. Kneel, straddling patient's thighs with your dressing over the wound, bandaging snugly and knees placed at such a distance from the hip bones then applying pressure with the hand directly over so as to apply pressure direct from shoulders to the dressing if necessary. Elevating the part aids heel of hands. Place palms of hands on small of Open Wounds-On scratches and slight wounds back, with fingers resting on ribs, the little finger apply half strength iodine. Dirty or greasy wounds just touching lowest rib, with thumb and fingers in should first be cleansed with high-grade benzine. natural position, and tips of fingers out of sight. Open wounds should be covered with gauze and

3. With arms held straight, swing forward slowly, bandage. so that the weight of your body is gradually brought Never wash or touch a wound with fingers. Do to bear upon the patient. The shoulder should be not touch that part of the gauze that comes in directly over the heel of the hand at the end of the contact with the wound. Never use cobwebs, toforward swing. Do not bend your elbows. This bacco, waste or oil. operation should take about two seconds.

Burns-All burns may be treated with tannic 4. Now immediately swing backward, so as to acid burn jelly, or fresh tannic acid 5% solution. remove the pressure completely.

or picric acid gauze moistened with clean water, 5. After two seconds swing forward again. Thus or with a paste or solution of baking soda on clean repeat deliberately twelve to fifteen times a minute, gauze. Slight burns, when the skin is not broken, the double movement of compression and release, a

may be treated with a good burn ointment, precomplete respiration in four or five seconds.

ferably one containing tannic acid. Most severe 6. Continue artificial respiration without inter burns call for shock treatment. ruption until natural breathing is restored, if Fracture (Broken Bones)-Handle carefully to necessary, four hours or longer, or until a phy prevent sharp ends cutting through flesh. Apply sician declares the patient is dead.

narrow boards, heavy pasteboard, umbrellas, canes, 7. As soon as this artificial respiration has been fence railings, or any rigid appliances, as splints started and while it is being continued, an assistant

for the fractured limbs to permit the patient to be should loosen any tight clothing about the patient's moved without pain or danger. Splints must be neck, chest, or waist. Keep the patient warm. Do padded when applied next to skin, and be long not give any liquids whatever by mouth until the enough to reach beyond the joints above and bepatient is fully conscious.

low fracture. Firm traction should be applied to 8. To avoid strain on the heart when the patient end of limb while splints are fastened in place. revives, he should be kept lying down and not Transportation-Three persons are necessary allowed to stand or sit up. If the doctor has not to place an injured person properly on & stretcher, arrived by the time the patient has revived, he one to lift head and shoulders, another the hips, should be given some stimulant, such as one tea and a third the legs. The stretcher should be spoonful of aromatic spirits of ammonia in a small placed alongside injured, and helpers should kneel glass of water or a hot drink of coffee or tea, etc. on one knee on the side of patient away from

9. Resuscitation should be carried on at the stretcher, lifting him in unison, first to their nearest possible point to where the patient received bended knees, then lay on stretcher. his injuries. He should not be moved from this Eye Injuries-Loose particles may be removed point until he is breathing normally of his own from the eyelid with a clean handkerchief, or a bit volition and then moved only in a lying position. of clean cotton rolled on a toothpick or a match Should it be necessary to move the patient before stick. If not easily removed in this way, make no he is breathing normally, resuscitation should be

uscitation should be further attempt. Particles embedded in the lid or carried on during the time that he is being moved. I eye ball should be left to the surgeon. Never violate

10. A brief return of natural respiration is not a this rule, blindness may result. In case of serious certain indication for stopping the resuscitation. eye injury, cover with clean cloth compress wrung Sometimes the patient, after temporary recovery

out in ice cold water; send patient to hospital. of respiration, stops breathing. Do not leave Sunstroke Sweating stops, followed by sudden patient alone.

rise in temperature. Skin is dry, flushed and 11. In carrying out resuscitation it may be neces very hot, pulse strong and rapid. Frequently unsary to change the operator. This change must be conscious. Cool quickly with cold bath or spray. made without losing the rhythm of respiration. Elevate the head. Ice bags or cold applications

Caution-The removal of a victim of electric to head. No stimulants. shock from the electric contact is highly dangerous. Heat ExhaustionCollapse with pale face. Phone the power company to shut off the current. clammy sweat, weak rapidpulse. Treat the or get an experienced electrician to make the same as Shock. rescue if possible. Do not touch the wire or the Fainting-Place patient on back with head low. body or Clothing of the victim. Absolutely dry even raising the feet if convenient. Loosen any boards may be used to push the wire away, but be tight clothing and get plenty of ventilation. Smellcareful as it may come back at you. Keep your ing salts, ammonia on a handkerchief, or a little hands at least two feet away from the wire or the cold water in the face are often helpful. Do not victim. An oxygen inhalator is of value in gas attempt to make the patient drink anything while poisoning cases. Mechanical respiration devices in unconscious. Hot black coffee or aromatic spirits untrained hands may cause grave damage.

of ammonia-12 teaspoonful well diluted with Shock-Present in all serious injuries and greatly water may be given after consciousness returns. increased by severe bleeding and pain. Pale face, Fits-Do not attempt to hold patient down. cold clammy skin, rapid weak pulse, shallow Place any small object between teeth to prevent breathing. Lay patient on back, head low, feet biting tongue. Prevent patient from injuring sell elevated 18 inches, loosen clothing about neck, and let sleep after attack. chest, and abdomen. Keep warm with blankets and Lightning-This is a form of electrocution. The hot water bottles, hot bricks or heated stones, being treatment is the same as for electric shock. careful not to burn the person. If he can swallow. I Stings of Venomous Insects, Etc.-Apply weak give him hot strong coffee, hot milk or hot water. I ammonia, oil, salt water, or iodine. half tea spoon aromatic spirits of ammonia in Frost Bite. Treatment-Rubbing with snow is water. Never pour liquid down the throat of an especially bad; frozen tissues are bruised and torn unconscious person.

and gangrene is very apt to result. Gently cover Hemorrhage-Bleeding from arteries comes in the frozen part with the hand or other body surspurts and is brighter red in color than bleeding face until the part has thawed and circulation is from veins. If from large arteries it is always very re-established. If a hand is frozen hold next to the serious and demands immediate action. Pressure skin in the arm pit or between the thighs. The with fingers or hand will usually control it. The frozen part may be thawed very gradually in cold points for pressure are (1) just in front of ear for water or cool air. If this cannot be done, cover the bleeding from temple. (2) Inner side of arm about part with extra clothing until thawed. half way from shoulder to elbow for bleeding from Snake Bite-Tie ligature or cord around the arm hand or arm. (3) In the groin against pelvis bone or leg a short distance above the bite. Make a for bleeding from foot, thigh or leg. (4) On neck, cross-cut clear through the skin over each fang fingers forward just touching windpipe, thumb mark. Apply suction with mouth or any other conaround back of neck for cut throat. (5) Behind venient means continuously for at least half-hour. collarbone at side of neck, pressing downward on Keep patient lying down, quiet and give treatment first rib. for bleeding in shoulder or arm pit. If previously described for shock. Get doctor. necessary a tourniquet can be made by tying a Dok BiteWash wound with running water. handkerchief or bandage a hand's breadth below I apply tincture of iodine, bandage, take to doctor

Poisons and Their Antidotes

Source: Medical Staff, American Red Cross

The two most important points to be remembered Iodine-Owing to its wide use in the treatment of in any poison case in which the individual is con scratches, cuts and wounds, it is found in every scious are: (1) dilute; (2) cause vomiting.

household, and as a consequence there are cases These can both be accomplished at the same time where children or adults have taken it acci. by having the patient immediately drink large dentally or otherwise. quantities of soap suds, soda in water, salt water, Treatment- After vomiting has been induced. or even plain water. These are all more nauseating give starch or flour mixed with water to about 11 given lukewarm.

the thickness of buttermilk. The secret of success is to give enough. Start Lead-Sugar of lead, lead paint, white lead. with three or four glasses. If this does not produce Symptoms--Throat dry metallic taste with results in a few minutes, give some more. Tickling much thirst: colic in abdomen; cramps in legs; the back of the throat with the finger is also a cold sweat: sometimes paralysis of legs and convaluable aid in encouraging vomiting.

vulsions. Services of a physician should always be secured Treatment-After thoroughly emptying the as soon as possible.

stomach, may give a oz. Epsom Salts in water, Alcohol-In any form-rum, gin, whisky, proof Stimulants if needed, and soothing liquids. spirits, etc.: also wood or methyl alcohol.

Mercury-Corrosive sublimate, antiseptic tablets Symptoms-Giddiness, swaying of body, in or other mercury salts. ability to stand. Face flushed, eyes red. Later, Symptoms-Corrosive sublimate when taken is skin clammy, weak pulse, maybe convulsions and very irritating and frequently turns the mouth, unconsciousness,

lips and tongue white. Mouth is sometimes Treatment-Hot coffee or aromatic spirits of swollen and there is a metallic taste. Other ammonia-112 teaspoonful well diluted with symptoms are pain in abdomen, nausea, vomiting water. Do not exhaust by making walk. Wrap mucus and blood, bloody purging, cold, clammy warmly and put to bed. In extreme cases, skin, great prostration and convulsions. breathing may stop and it will be necessary to Treatment-After vomiting has been repeatedly give artificial respiration by the prone pressure

induced, give white of egg. whole beaten eggs, method.

milk, or eggs beaten in milk. Arsenic-Found in rat poison, vermin killer, Paris | Nitrate of silver-Lunar caustic. green.

Symptoms-Pain in mouth and stomach. Symptoms-Severe pains in stomach; purging: Mouth first colored white, then black. Vomit vomiting: severe cramps in legs, dryness of

first white then black. throat: cold sweats: profound shock.

Treatment-Salt water is the best emetic in Treatment-Be sure that vomiting is repeated this case. If not readily available, give other until stomach is thoroughly washed out. Castor emetics. Then soothing drinks, as milk or milk oil, stimulants of coffee or aromatic spirits of and eggs. Stimulants if necessary. ammonia if needed. Keep warm.

Opium-Laudanum, morphine, codeine, heroin, Carbolic Acid or Phenol-Symptoms-A very paregoric; some soothing syrups and cough

powerful corrosive poison. Mouth, lips, throat mixtures and often the face burned. Vomiting often pro

Symptoms-Drowsiness, finally unconsciousduced. In severe cases unconsciousness comes on

ness. Pulse full at first, then weak. Breathing early and soon death.

full and slow at first, gradually slower and Treatment. Immediate and repeated washing shallower. Pinpoint pupils. Face flushed then of the stomach. Soothing liquids, as eggs and

purple. milk or milk alone. Stimulants usually needed

Treatment-May have difficulty getting emetic at once. Burns of the lips, mouth and throat

to work. Plenty of strong coffee. Try to arouse may be treated by immediate application of

by speaking loudly and threatening, but do not alcohol to stop further burning.

exhaust by compelling to walk, etc. Stimulants Carbon Monoxide-Principal danger is from ex

and artificial respiration is breathing stops.

| Phosphorus-In many rat poisons and vermin haust gasses from automobiles and leaky gas pipes. Also found in leaky furnaces and stoves,

killers; often with arsenic. gas stoves without flue connections, in burning

Symptoms-Severe pain in stomach; vomiting. buildings, etc.

Bleeding from nose, blooding, purging, conSymptoms-Vary considerably depending upon

vulsions.

Treatment-After vomiting, a half ounce of the concentration of the Carbon Monoxide

Epsom Salts in water or magnesia. Stimulants. breathed, but the end result is usually & red

Soothing liquids as milk, but avoid fats and oils. coloration, especially of ears, lips and nails, and

Poison Mushrooms or Toadstools. a stopping of breathing.

Symptoms-Vomiting, purging, watery diarrhea. Treatment-1. Remove patient from atmosphere

Discharges sometimes accompanied by blood. containing carbon monoxide. 2. Start artificial

Pulse slow and strong at first, but later grows respiration immediately by the (Schaeffer) prone

very weak. Saliva and sweat pour out. pressure method if breathing has stopped. 3.

Treatment-Same as food poisoning. Administer oxygen as quickly as possible and in

Strychnine or Nux Vomica Often taken accias pure form as is obtainable, preferably from

dentally by small children who find "candy' pills an inhalator. A mixture of oxygen 95% and

or tablets left for some adult member of the carbon dioxide 5% is usually used in these. 4.

family. Also strychnine is frequently used on Keep the victim flat, quiet and warm. 5. After

meat to poison animals and in some vermin ward give plenty of rest.

killers. Food Poisoning (formerly called Ptomaine)

Symptoms-First twitching of the hands and Poisoning by contaminated foods that have be

feet followed by convulsions. Affects all muscles come infected with poisonous organisms. Chicken.

of body. Back is often bowed up by spasms of fish, potatoes, and hash, may be especially

muscles. Jaws are locked. Spasms of muscles dangerous.

so great that breathing is prevented and face Symptoms--Nausea, vomiting, purging. Severe

becomes dusky. pain in abdomen, cramps, great prostration and

Treatment- After vomiting is induced powdered weakness. Skin cold and clammy. Often an charcoal may be given. Repeat emetic. eruption on the skin.

Veronal-Luminal, etc. Treatment-After emetic give purgative of

SymptomsPatient becomes very drowsy then castor oil or Epsom Salts. If very weak a stimu falls asleep. In very severe cases the sleep is so lant or hot coffee or 12 teaspoonful of aromatic deep that the patient cannot be aroused. spirits of ammonia well diluted with water.

Treatment-Same as for Opium.

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CORROSIVE POISONS Corrosive Acids-(1) Acetic, (2) nitric, (3) hydro milk, eggs and milk or olive oil. Stimulants are

chloric, (4) sulphuric, (5) also weaker acids as usually required and aromatic spirits of amoxalic.

monia is quite suitable here. Symptoms-Very severe burning pain in mouth, Caustic Alkalies-(1) Ammonia, strong ammonia throat and stomach. Wherever the stronger liniment; (2) lime, quicklime; (3) potash. acids touch the skin or mucous membranes, caustic potash; (4) soda, caustic soda. they are destroyed. Frequently vomiting or Symptoms-Much like corrosive acids. Im. purging. More or less suffocation from swelling mediate severe burning pain in mouth, throat of the throat, great prostration and shock.

and stomach. Vomiting and purging. Treatment-Large quantities of soap suds make Treatment-Induce vomiting by giving large the best emetic in these cases. However, any of quantities of one of the previously mentioned the previously mentioned emetics will do. After emetics, then give soothing liquids and stimuvomiting is induced may give soothing liquids as lants if needed.

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