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Nience in scottish


Nationlavention Date Inventor Ality


ate lovestor Pendulum.

1581 Galileo...... Italian Rayon (nitrocellulose)] 1884|Chardonnet. French White lead

Dutch Steel, manganese.....1 1884 Haddeld..... English Nitric acid (from 80

Bordeaux mixture dium natrate and sul

(lime-copper sulfate) 1885 Millardet ....French furic acid).......... 1648 Glauber..... German | Powder, snokeless....1 1886 Vielle........ French Clock, pendulum.... 1657 Huygens.... Dutch Il Gold (cyanide process Leyden jar (conden

for extraction)...... 1887 MacArthur 1745 von Kleist. ...German

Forest..... British Sulfuric acid (lead

Tire, pneumatic......

1888 Dunlop...... English chamber process).... 1746 Roebuck, .... English Rayon (cuprammonCement, hydraulic.... 1756 Smeston..... English

1890 Dupelsses, ... French Lens, achronatio..... 1758 Dolland..... English Rayon (Viscose)...... 1892 Cross and BeEgine, steam...... 1765 Watt........ English

van ........ English Spinning Jenny (WGAY

Coke, oven.....

1893 Homen..... Austrian er)........... 1767 Hargreaves., English Gas mantle.....

1893 Welsback ....German Balloon.......

1783 Montgolfer.. French Oxygen (from Shuttle, dying...

English alr).

1895 Linde....... German Loom, power.... 1785 Cartwright... English

Rayon (acetate). :::

1895 Cross and BeSoda, trom salt .... 1791 LeBlanc ..... French

VaR........ English Bleaching powder... 1798 Tennant..... English || Telegraph, wireless, Paper, (the Fourdrin

low frequency....... 1895 Preece.... English ler) Dach. for making l 1799 Robert ...... French X-ray...............

1895 Roentgen.... German Plle, electric battery.. 1800 Volta. ....... Italian Camphor, synthesis of 1896 Haller....... French Food preservation (by

Telegraph, wireless, sterillzation and ex

high frequency..... 1896 Marconi..... Italian clusion of air)... 1810 Appert...... French || Photographic paper, Safety lamp..... 1816 Davy....... English

sensitized ..........

1898 Baekeland... Belgian Stethoscope..... 1816 Laennec.....French


1899 Dreuer....... German Kaleidoscope.... 1817 Brewster .... English Motor, internal comUrea, synthetic. from


1900 Diesel ..... German ammonium cyanate. 1828 Wohler ...... German Nitric acid (oxi lation Sewing machine...... 1830 Thimonnier. French of ammonia. ...

1900 Ostwaldt.... German Match, phosphorus...] 1831 Saurla.... French Steel, electric...

1900 Heroult...... French Propeller, screw ......

1831 Sauvage..... French Fat, hardening of 1902 Normand... German Sulfuric acid (contact


1903 Jatho...... German process)....

1831 Phillips...... English Bomb, depth. ... 1903 Unge..... Swedish Telegraph, electro

Barbital, sedative.... 1903 Flaker....... German magnetic .......

1836 Wheatstone.. English Cyanide (from Propeller, screw. 1837 Ericsson .....Swedish Ca2+ N2).........

1905 Caro and Stereoscope..... 1838 Wheatstone. . English

Frank...... German Photography.... 1839 Daguerre and

Lubricants, solvent re. French ning of......

1908 Edeleanu .... Dutch Bicycle. 1842 Mac Millian.. Scottish Novocaine....

1908 LeBrocq..... English Mercerization of

Glass, laminated..... 1909 Benedictus... French lulose textiles ... 1843 Mercer, J.... English Coal, hydrogenation Cement, Portland 1848 Johnson..... English to liquid fuels... 1910 Berglus...... Qerman Lithopone......

1851 de Douhet...French | Tungsten filament inGyroscope.....

1852 Foucanta...: French candescent lamp.... 1912 Just and Telegraph, duplex.::: 1853 Ginti........ Austrian

| Hanaman.. Burn, gas...

1855 Bunsen...... German Nitrogen Oxation.... 1913 Haber....... German Dye, aniline (coal

Airplane, helicopter.. 1916 Brendan.. English tar) mauve....

1856 Perkin..... English Steel, stainless .. 1916 Brearley..... English Stoel...............

1856 Bessemer .. English Urea - formaldehydel Dynamo, cont. current 1860 Picinotti... Italian resins..........

1918 John...... Csech Linoleum ..........

1860 Walton..... English Lubricants, high presFurnace, electric..... 1861 Siemens.... English sure......

1919 Southcombe Powder, smokeless.... 1863 Schultze..... German

and Wells... English Soda (from salt, a

Insulin (Isolation for monla and c. 02)... 1863 Solvay....... Belgian medical use).... 1922 Collip....... Canadi. Typewriter..........

1864 Mitterhofter Austrian Carbon oxides (hydroTorpedo........ 1866 Whitehead... English genation to gasoline Dynamite.......... 1867 Nobel ....... Swedish and oils)...........

1925 Fisher and Chloride (from air and

Tropech.... German hydrochloric soid)... 1868 Deacon.. Engllsh Methanol, synthesis of 1925 Patart....... French Dynamo, cont, currentl 1870/Gramme..... Belgian Il Television......

1926 Balrd........ Scottish Lithopone.........

1874 Orr..

English Soap hard water Torpedo, dirigible.... 1876 Brennan... English "Soapless," based on Engine, gas, cycle.... 1877 Otto.... German alcohol gultates...... 1928 Bertsch...... German Engine, auto, 2-stroke! 1879 Benz.... German Gasoline, high octane. I 1930 Ipatlett...... Russian Cream separater..... 1880 DeLaval... Swedish Resin, synthetic Indigo, synthesis of ... 1880 Baeyer ... German II (methyl methacryRayon......

1883 Swan.....

English late).............. 1931 HIN......... English Paper, trom wood pulp, sulfate (Kraft) proc. 1884 Dahl........Danziger | peutic use of........ 1935 Domagk..... German

Gottlieb Daimler, in 1885, drove, in Germany, & Gutenberg, because his mother came from there, bicycle powered by gasoline engine of his own was the first to make cut metal type, from which,

in partnership with a goldsmith named Johann invention.

Fust, he printed, in Germany, at Maink on the In 1890, at Montrouge, France, Fernand Forest

Rhine, a number of copies of St. Jerome's' Latin put his 4-cylinder engine, its carburetor, Its water

translation of the Bible, 1450-5. This was the cooling system, and its magneto ignition on &

Vulgate Bible, first printed Bible. wagon chassis--thereby creating, it is said, the Leonardo da Vinci was an inventor and builder first 4-cylinder automobile

as well as a painter. Models of 175 of his invenIn 1892 (April 19), the first gasoline automobile

tions have been shown in the Museum of Science in the U. S. was operated by its inventor, C. 1 and Industry, N. Y. City-steam cannon, armored Duryea, who also won the first American contest car, alarm clock, olive oil press, fying machine in Chicago, Nov. 1895.

and many others. On July 4, 1894, Elwood Haynes drove to Kokomo, Speech was transmitted by electrical means in Ind., a gasoline automobile of his own invention. Germany by Philipp Reis of Friedrichsdorff 10 The Duryen and Haynes machines are in the 1 years before Bell's venture. His original instruSmithsonian Institution, Washington.

ments are in the South Kensington Museum in Movable type.-Their origin is obscure. Wooden London. type preceded metal. Laurens Janszoon Koster, of Edouard Branley, a French physicist, invented Haarlem, Holland (1370-1450), printed from mov- the coherer, which had a part in the development able typé. about 1438, and used his own ink. Jo- of radiography-the means of detecting and rehann Ganseisch (1397-1468), commonly called 'ceiving wireless impulses,

atenilamide, thera-|

The Wonders of the Ancient World

Source: Historical Records Pyramids of Egypt-Beginning at Gizeh, opposite reservoir on the top terrace and was piped down Cairo, the pyramids stretch for 60 miles south on to the gardens. They date from about 600 B.O. the west bank of the Nile. They date from about

Temple of Diana in Asia Minor at Ephesus, an

ancient but now vanished city on the east side of 3000-1800 B. C. The most ancient is the famous

the Aegean Sea, South of Smyrna, was built in step-pyramid at Saggara, tomb of Zoser, the

the Fifth Century B.C. by the Ionian cities, as a second king of the third dynasty, about 3000 B. C.

joint monument, from plans by the architect The pyramids were built with forced labor, it is Ctesiphon. The building was of marble, 425 x 225 said. The workers were let go home only at feet, and the roof was supported by 127 columns of planting and harvest time.

Parian marble, each 60 feet high and each weighing In May, 1939, at Sakkara, a few miles south about 150 tons. In 356 B.C., the temple was burned west of Cairo, & tomb was found and opened, il

by Herostratus, a crank. cially described as that of Pharaoh Zer, second

I Statue of Jupiter Olympus, in the valley of King of the first dynasty. It contained a collection

Olympia, province of Elis, 12 miles or so inland of copper swords, daggers, ivory, gaming pieces

from the west coast of the southern peninsula of and other items.

Greece, which anciently was called the PeloponIn March, 1939, a tomb was opened at the

nesus, was begun by the Greek sculptor Phidias ancient city of Tanis, in the Nile Delta, and there

after he had been banished from Athens in 432 in was discovered, in a silver sarcophagus, the

B.C. It was of marble encrusted with ivory and murmy of one of the five pharaohs or Kings

the draperles were of beaten gold. ramed Sheshong, who ruled Egypt in the 22nd dy

Tomb of Mausolus, King of Caria, in Asia Minor, nasty, beginning in 950 B. C. It was at first

at Halicarnassus, on the eastern side of the Aegean thought the mummy was of King Psou-sen-nes, &

Sea opposite Greece, was built of marble about father-in-law of King Solomon. The first Sheshong

352 B.C., by Queen Artemisia, the widow. was

named Mausoleum, and was remarkable for its conquered Jerusalem in the reign of Rehoboam. The two skeletons in the chamber with the

beauty and its magnificent interior. It was de

stroyed by an earthquake. mummy were presumably those of servants. They

Pharos of Alexandria, & white marble lightwere so decomposed it was impossible to determine

house or watch-tower on the island of Pharos, their identity. On one a long carnelian necklace

in the port of Alexandria, Egypt, was completed by was still intact. Also found in the chamber were

King Ptolemy Philadelphus 265-247 B.C. The island canopic silver vases with covers, some shaped as

had been joined by Alexander the Great to the heads of animals, others as heads of humans.

mainland of Egypt by a causeway when he founded The tomb of Psou-sen-nes, who ruled in the 21st

Alexandria. The structure cost $850,000. It was dynasty, was located and opened, near Tanis,

over 400 feet high. It was partly razed in the 5th early in 1940. The sarcophagus containing |

Century, A.D., and was destroyed in 1375 by an the mummy was of solid silver. The head

earthquake. of the mummy was encased in a mask of pure gold, Colossus of Rhodes was a brass statue of the similar to that of King Tut-ankh-Amen, and the

Greek sun-god Apollo, 70 cubits (about 109 feet) rest of whose body was covered by silver gilt. In

high, erected by Charles of Lindus at the port of the sarcophagus were found many bracelets and

the City of Rhodes, on the island of Rhodes, in the necklaces, golden cases for the fingers and toes,

eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea, off the a pair of golden shoes and other pieces of jewelry,

coast of Asia Minor, north of Alexandria. It took which adorned the mummy. The dampness of

12 years to build, cost 300 talents ($258,000), was the Delta region had caused the mummy to de

completed about 280 B.C. and was thrown down compose, leaving only a handful of bones. Since

224 B.C. by an earthquake. most of the ornaments were made of gold, they

Great Wall of China, dating from the Third have been hardly affected by climatic conditions. Century B.C., extended along the Northern frontier

Also found was the tomb of King Amenemopet, of that country, from the northern part of the son of Psou-sen-nes.

Gulf of Pechili, on the Yellow Sea, north of The Great Pyramid is that of the tyrant Pharaoh Peking (Peiping) in a zigzag course, to Syning, on Cheops, and was, when intact, 481 feet high, and the border of Turkestan. Prof. Geil, in 1908. after 756 feet square at the base. It is now 450 feet high, visiting both ends of it and several intermediate 746 feet square at the base, and covers nearly 13 points, estimated the total length of the Great acres. It contained, it is said, 2,300,000 blocks of Wall, including all known spurs, curves, and loops, diorite, a hard pale bluestone. The Cheops quarries at 2,550 miles; with 25,000 watch-towers built into were discovered early in 1938, in an unsurveyed the wall and 15.000 detached watch-towers. The part of the desert, near the Sudan frontier 60 air-line distance between the point where the miles or more from the Nile.

wall reaches the sea at Shanhaikwan and the South of Luxor (ancient Thebes) is the tomb of western termimus, identified by Geil on the Great young King Tutankhamen (1350 B.C.), discovered White River west of Suchow in the pan-handle of by Howard Carter in 1922. He was the son-in-law | Kansu Province, is 1,145 miles. ol King Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti, and be The wall which has crumbled into heaps in many

going on the throne was Prince Tutankhaten. I places was, at Kalgan (as measured in 1900 by Sphinx, near Gizeh, is a great wingless crouch Col. H. B. Ferguson). 17 feet 6 inches thick and ing lion with a human head, hewn by order of | 16 feet high, made of two walls of large brick. Chephren, son of Cheops, or soon after Chephren's Alled between with earth and stones. It was built death. It had been rejected for the pyramid be by the Emperor Shih Huang-ti, by forced labor, cause it consisted of layers of hard gray and soft as a measure of national defense, and has SO yellow stone. The body of the Sphinx was painted continued to the present day. red, the headdress white, the eyes had a natural Tower of Babel, at the Chaldean City of Ur in coloring. Its body is 150 feet long, the head 30 feet i lower Mesopotamia, has completely disappeared. long, the front paws 50 feet long. The face is 14 | The base of the tower was 300 x 300 feet, tapering feet wide. The distance from the crown of the through 7 stages to the Shrine at the top. The head to the base of the figure is 70 feet. Being | height also was 300 feet. A smaller Tower of Babel situated in a hollow it has been covered with was the Ziggurat at Ur. 195 x 130 feet at the base. windblown sand from time to time. The Sphinx and probably more than 150 feet high. was dug out in the 18th Dynasty, and was wor- Stonehenge, an assemblage of huge shaped stones shiped as the sun god. The Romans (100 B.C.) in 3 circles, one within another, on Salisbury Plain. restored it. In the Middle Ages the Arabs called it 90 miles or so southwest of London, England. The Father of Fear,

outer circle is 100 feet in diameter, the next within Also in the Pyramid area, Hassan discovered. is 75 feet in diameter, and the circle inside that in 1935, two so-called sun boats, hewn in the rock one has a diameter of 40 feet. Extending around south of the cult temple. It was an ancient Egyp the outer circle is a deep trench 333 feet in tian belief that every king, after his death, was diameter. The stones of the outer circle, originally like the sun god Ra and, like the sun, must make | about 30 in number, average 12 x 6 x 3 feet. a journey daily from the East to the West. To be fastened in couples by blocks fixed across the tops reborn each day in the East he must return at The stones in the inner circles are smaller night from West to East. To make these two trips The Circus Maximus, at Rome, built 605 B.C.. daily, he had two boats-a day boat and a night by King Tarquin and rebuilt and enlarged by boat. The latter was called a resurrection boat. Julius Caesar some years before the birth of Christ.

Hanging Gardens of Babylon were near the was 312 feet high, 1,875 feet long, and 625 feet Euphrates River, in the palace of King Nebu wide. It then held 150.000 spectators. but the chadnezzar, 60 miles south of the present City of capacity was increased to 385.000 in the Fourth Bagdad, and not far from the eastern border of the Century A.D. The place was used for games and Syrian Desert of Northern Arabia. The terraced | for horse and chariot races. gardens, planted with flowers and small trees, with | Coliseum, or Colosseum, at Rome, one of the fountains and refectories interspersed. were 75 to largest amphitheatres in the world, was begun by 300 feet above the ground. Water was stored in a 'the Emperor Vespasian and finished by the Em

peror Domition, 82 A.D. In 238 A.D. a fourth the south, where they established a new Cambodian story was added. The ruins still stand. The build- Capital at Pnom Penh. ing, elliptical, was 615 x 510 feet, and the floor of i Temple of Karnak, in Egypt, built 3,500 years the arena was 281 x 176 feet. The walls were con- | ago and now in ruins, inclosed 973 acres of ground, crete; the seats, marble; 50.000 persons could sit; but it was a low structure, consisting of a series 20,000 could stand. The cost was 10,000,000 crowns of connected halls, with open courts. ($ 15,000,000). The work of construction was done Palace of Shah Jehan, the Mogul emperor at by 12,000 slaves from Jerusalem. Wild animals Delhi, India, erected in the first half of the 17th were kept in dens under the floor. Thousands of century, inclosed more than 100 acres, the walls persons, including early Christians, perished in forming courts by meeting various wings. The combats with lions and tigers. Gladiators also building proper covered about 53 acres, the wing fought there.

occupied by the women of the harem and the Appian Way, built 313 B.C. by Censor Appius eunuchs covering 20 acres. The British destroyed Claudius, 360 miles long, extending from Rome most of the palace during the Indian Mutiny. south to Capua, above Naples, and thence to the excepting the private audience chamber. In the East, across Italy to Brindisi (then called Brun Great Audience Chamber was the Peacock Throne. dusium), on the Adriatic Sea, opposite Turkey. It covered with gems. was the highway to the Levant.

Palace of Pluto, discovered in 1939, is 150 feet Leaning Tower of Pisa, begun in 1173 A.D., at beneath the King's Palace, at the 900-foot level Pisa, Italy, by Romano Pisano and William of of the Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico. There are Innsbruck, and finished in 1350, was intended to three vast chambers in Pluto's Palace in addition stand upright, but commenced to tip during con to those in Carlsbad Caverns. Together they are struction, owing to clay in the soil, which grad great forests of stalactites, stalagmites, and other ually gave way on one side, until the round 8-story forms fashioned in limestone during some 60 mil. marble building was 16 feet out of the perpendic lion years, including gigantic carvings of reptileular, and was 181 ft. high on the north side and like creatures larger than the ancient dinosaurs. 179 on the south. It is still sinking at a low rate They may be only accidental mimicrles by nature according to Dr. Dimitri P. Krynine of Yale rather than petrified remains. The King's Palace University, research associate in soil mechanics.

is 4,000 feet long. 600 feet wide, and varies in In accordance with an order by Premier Mussolini, height from 200 to 375 feet. One of the Chambers since 1932 more than 1,000 tons of high-strength in the Palace of Pluto is approximately as large. cement have been injected into the foundation In France and Spain there are caves on the through 361 holes, each two inches in diameter. walls of which are drawings by prehistoric men Prom September, 1934, to April 1935, the movement of the animals of their day. And in caves throughof the top of the tower was studied with an out North America, Europe and Asia are fossil re"inclinometer" designed by Girometti-Bonechi. mains of human beings, animals, fishes, insects, * The results were almost incredible," Dr. Krynine trees, etc. In the United States are many limesaid. "During September, 1934, the tower moved stone caverns, such as Mammoth Cave. They are north, but at the end of that month turned around all wonders of both the ancient and the modern and moved south. This continued up to the end of world. January when the movement toward the north Floating Gardens of Xochimilco, in Mexico.

d again for a couple of months. At the same / When the Spaniards entered the central basin thes time the tower was persistently moving eastward. I were surprised by the sight of large, orderly arOf course, all these movements are microscopically

ranged settlements in the midst of great fields of small."

blossoms intersected by canals along which a brisk Porcelain Tower of Nankin was built in that traffic was in progress. This landscape, fashioned ancient capital of South China in the early part | by the Indians in the shallow lake of Xochimilco, of the 15th Century. It was an octagonal 8-story has persisted from the 13th Century until the prestower. 261 feet high. The Taiping revolutionistsent... Between the canals the Indians had destroyed it in 1853.

small artificial Islands known as chinampas, upon Angkor, a ruined temple city in Cambodia, in which flowers and vegetables were grown. The French Indo-China. Until 1907, it was in the proy "islands" were formed of rafts of decaying vegeince of Battambong. in Siam. Then it went to Itation, reeds and roots, which were anchored by France, by treaty. The city was founded at the end thrusting quick-growing slips of Salix Bonplan. of the Ninth Century by Yacovarman, king of the | diana through them. The term "floating garden" Khmers, and lasted until the middle of the Thir- is therefore incorrect, and the reports of earlier teenth Century when the Siamese drove them to travelers were based on a misconception.

to I travelers ore Incorrect. The terms Salix Bored by

Mount Vernon and the Tomb of Washington

Source: Omcials of the Institution weet hore of the Potomac. The Mount Vernon mansion and surrounding

I plantation was left to General Washington's nephew. sixteen miles below Washington, is part of a large

Judge Bushrod Washington, and by him bequeathed tract of land in Northern Virginia which was orig

to his nephew John A. Washington, whose son, inally included in a royal grant made to Lord

John Augustine Washington, became the last Culpepper, who, in 1674, granted five thousand

private owner of Mount Vernon. Two hundred acres to Nicholas Spencer and John Washington. acres, including the Mansion and Tomb were scThe division between Spencer and Washington put quired (1859) by the Mount Vernon Ladies' AssoJohn Washington's son Lawrence in possession of

clation of the Union, after both the government the Washington halt in 1690. Later it became the of the United States and the Commonwealth of property of Lawrence Washington's son Augustine,

Virginia had declined to purchase the estate. This the father of George Washington.

Association, founded by Miss Ann Pamela CunLawrence Washington, elder half brother of

ningham of South Carolina, is the oldest patriotic George Washington, is said to have built the orig

association of women in America. It is incorpoinal house (1743) and renamed the plantation

rated under the laws of Virginia and holds Mount Mount Vernon, in honor of Admiral Vernon, under

Vernon "in trust for the people of the United whom he had served in the West IndiesLawrence

States." Washington died in 1752 and two years later the

The Mansion and grounds are open to visitors title passed to George Washington.

every day during the year, including Sundays and To Mount Vernon (1759) George Washington

holidays. took his wife, who was Martha Dandridge Custis,

The Association is pledged to restore the Mansion widow of Daniel Parke Custis, and here he lived

and its surroundings as far as possible to their the life of a southern planter during the years

appearance in Washington's time, and to preserve preceding the American Revolution. From Mount !

the home and tomb of Washington for future Vernon he went forth to become Commander-in-1

generations. The income derived from the entrance Chief of the revolutionary forces, and to Mount

Tee of 25 cents maintains the estate. The organ. Vernon he returned (1783). At this time the ization consists of a Regent and Vice Regents remodeling of the mansion, which had been planned

representing the various states, who serve without before the Revolution, was completed. The build

remuneration. The present regent is Mrs. Horace ings. gardens and grounds were enlarged and Mann Towner, elected in 1937. developed in accordance with General Washington's

General Washington wrote of Mount Vernon: own plans. The mansion and thirteen other build “No estate in the United States is more pleasantly ings can still be seen today, and much of the situated

situated than this.

It lies in a high, dry and original furniture has been restored. From Mount healthy country, 300 miles by water from the sea, Vernon General Washington again went forth

and on one of the finest rivers in the world... (April 14, 1789) by highway, ferry and barge to be I can truly say I had rather be at Mount Vernon come the first president of the United States, and with a friend or two about me than to be attended returned to it after eight years of service. Two at the seat of government by the officers of state years later, (1799) he died and was buried there. and the representatives of every power in Europe."

English Rulers
Source: Official Government Records


Son of Ealhmund, of Kent, King of Wessex, founded Heptarchy


839 Ethelwulf... Son of Egbert, defeated Danes, by sea and land.....


858 Ethelbald... Second son of Ethelwull......

858 860 Ethelbert... Third son of Ethelwulf.....,

858 866 Ethelred.... Fourth son of Ethelwulf, killed by Danes in battle...

866 871 Alfred, G't.. Filth son of Ethelwulf, defeated the Danes, author


901 Ed'ard, Eld. Son of Alfred the Great, fought the Danes......

901 Athelstan... Eldest son of Edward the Elder.

925 940 Edmund... Brother of Athelstan, murdered by a freebooter..

940 946 Edred.... Brother of Edmund...

946 955 Edwy .... Eldest son of Edmund, died of grief ....

e .................

955 958 Edgar..... Second son of Edmund, suppressed piracy ...

958 975 Edward.. "The Martyr," Son of Edgar, drove out Oslac, the Earl,

975 979 Ethelred II. The Unready, half-brother of Edward, massacred Danes....

979 1016 Edmund....Ironside," eldest son ot Ethelred, fought Canute, "King of London" 1016

1016 C'n'te, Dane By conquest and election, divided country with Edmund....

1017 1035 Harold I.... Harefoot, son of Canute, first ruled north of the Thames..

1035 1040 Hardicanute Son of Canute, had been Danish King, mother a Norman.

1040 1042 Edward..... The Confessor, son of Ethelred II, canonized ............

1042 1066 Harold II...Brother-in-law of Edward the Confessor, slain in battle...

1066 1066 HOUSE OF NORMANDY William I...JObtained Crown by conquest over Harold, at Hastings.....

1066 1087 William II.. Third son of William I, surnamed Rufus, killed by arrow......

1087 1100 Henry I..... Youngest son of William I, surnamed Beauclere.....

1100 1135
Stephen.... Third son of Stephen, Count of Blois, by Adela, fourth daughter of
Willam I.....

1135 1154
Henry II.... Son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, by Matilda, only daughter of Henry I. 1154 1189
Richard L... Eldest surviving son of Henry II, surnarned Coeur de Lion ...

1189 1199 John..... Sixth and youngest son of Henry II, surnamed Lackland....


| 1216 Henry III .. Eldest son of John, first King buried at Westminster........


1272 Edward I.... Eldest son of Henry III, surname Longshanks......

1272 | 1307 Edward Il... Eldest surviving son of Edward I; deposed by Parliament.Jan.7.1327 1307 1327 Edward III.. Eldest son of Edward II of Carnarvon........


1377 Richard II.. Son of Black Prince and grandson of Edward III (deposed)..... 1377 1399

Henry IV.... Son of John of Gaunt (Ghent), 4th son of Edward III...


1413 Henry V..... Eldest son of Henry IV, hero of Agincourt.....


1422 Henry VI.... Only son of Henry V. (deposed 1461), died in the Tower of London. 1422 1471

Edward IV.. His grandfather was Richard, son of Edmund, 5th son of Edward

III., and his grandmother, Ann, was great-granddaughter of

Lionel, third son of Edward III: Edward IV was 6 ft., 3 in, tall. 1461 1483 Edward V... Eldest son of Edward IV. murdered in the Tower of London......

1483 1483 Richard III. ("Crookback") Brother of Edward IV, fell at Bosworth Field ..... 1483 1485

Henry VII... Son of Edmund, eldest son of Owen Tudor, by Katherine, widow of

Henry V.; his mother, Margaret Beaufort, was great-grand-
daughter of John of Gaunt........

1485 1509 Henry VIII.. JOnly surviving son of Henry VII.; 2 of his 6 queens were beheaded..

1509 1547 Edward VI.. Son of Henry VIII, by Jane Seymour, his third queen.........

1547 1553 Maryl...... Daughter of Henry VIII., by Catharine of Aragon.....


1558 Elizabeth ... Daughter of Henry VIII., by Anne Boleyn who was beheaded....

1558 | 1603
James I.....Son of Mary Queen of Scots, granddaughter of James IV., and
Margaret, daughter of Henry VII.....

1603 1625 Charles I.... Only surviving son of James 1.: beheaded at London..


1649 COMMONWEALTH DECLARED MAY 19, 1649 The Crom - Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector..............

1653 1658 wells ....... Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector, resigned Jay 25, 1659......

1658 HOUSE OF STUART (RESTORED) Charles II... Eldest son of Charles I, died without issue.......

1660 | 1685 James II ... Second son of Charles I. (Deposed 1688. Interregnum Dec. 11, 1689, to Feb. 13. 1689)....

1685 1701 William III I Son of William Prince of Orange, by Mary, daughter of Charles I. 1 Son of William


1689 and Mary II Eldest daughter of James II, and wile of William III...

1694 Anne....... Second daughter of James II. Her children died before her... HOUSE OF HANOVER

1702 Georgel.... Son of Elector of Hanover, by Sophia, daughter of Elizabeth daughter of James I...,

1714 1727 George II... Only son of George I., married Caroline of Brandenburg.....

1727 1760 George III.. Grandson of George II, married Charlotte of Mecklenburg.......

1760 1820 Hls son, George IV, was Prince Regent, from Feb., 1811, owing

to the mental condition of George III. George IV... Eldest son of George III., married Caroline of Brunswick......


1830 William IV.. Third son of George III, married Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, .. 1830 1837 Victoria..... Daughter of Edward, Duke of kent, fourth son of George Ill.....

1837 1901
Edward VII. Eldest son of Victoria, married Alexandra, Princess of Denmark.... 1901 1910

George V.... Second son of Edward VII, married Princess Mary of Teck. ... 1910 1936
Edward VIII Eldest son of George V, proclaimed, never crowned; acceded, Jan. 20,

1936; abdicated under date of Dec. 11, 1936; later he was created
His Royal Highness, Duke of Windsor. He retired to the Continent
and, at Monts. France, married Mrs. Wallis Warteld, of Baltimore:

Md.. June 3, 1937; appointed Governor of the Bahamas, July, 19401 1936
George VI...Next eldest son of George V., born Dec. 14, 1895; married, April 7,

1923, Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon; acceded to throne, Dec. 11:1

crowned, May 12, 1937....... The name of the Royal Family was changed to Windsor by a proclamation (July 17, 1917). Lady Jane Grey, daughter of the Marquis of Dorset and wife of Lord Dudleywas named by Edward VI just before his death, as his successor to the crown; and she was proclaimed (July 10, 1553) Queen by the Council of State, the Council proclaimed (July 19) Mary as Queen. Lady Jane was seized, and she and her husband pleaded guilty to treason and were beheaded.

Rulers of Scotland
Source: Donald A. MacKenzie, Scottish historian




ITA.D. Pictish Dynasty 761 Brude VI.

878 Eochald.

1124 David I. 555 Brude I. 763 Kenneth. 889 Donald II.

1153 Malcolm IV. 584 Garnait I. 775 Alpin II.

900 Constantine II. 1165 William (the Lyon), 601 Nechtan I. 780 Drust III. 943 Malcolm I.

1214 Alexander II. 621 Kenneth I. 780 Talorcan II. 954 Indult,

1249 Alexander III. 633 Garnalt II. 782 Talorcan III. 962 Dub (Du).

1286 Margaret. 637 Brude II. 784 Conall. 966 Culen

1292 John Baliol. 642 Talorc. 789 Constantine, 971 Kenneth II.

1298 Sir W. Wallace, Reg 653 Talorcan 1. 820 Angus II.

995 Constantine III. 1306 Robert I, the Bruce. 657 Garnalt III. 834 Drust IV. 997 Kenneth III,

1329 David Ií. 663 Drust I. 836 Eoganan. 1005 Malcolm IL.

1370 Robert II. 672 Brude III. 839 Wrad. 1034 Duncan I.

1390 Robert III. 693 Terain. 842 Brude VIL 1040 Macbeth.

1406 James I. 697 Brude IV.

1057 Lulach.

1437 James II. 706 Nechtan II. Scottish Dynasty 11058 Malcolm III.

1460 James III 724 Drust II.

843 Kenneth I (S.C. Mac-11093Donald III. (Bain). 1488 James IV. 726 Alpin I. 858 Donald I. (Alpin). 1094 Duncan II.

1513 James V. 750 Brude V. 862 Constantine 1. 1097 Edgar

1542 Mary. 752 Angus I. (again). 877| Aed.

1107 Alexander I.

1567 James VI. The first royal Stuart was Robert II (1316-1390). He was called the "Steward," and was a son of Walter, the steward of Scotland by the latter's wife, Marjorie, daughter of King Robert the Bruce.

James VI of Scotland succeeded to the throne of England as James I and was crowned in 1603 Margaret (1286), the "Maiden of Norway," granddaughter of Alexander, was recognized by the States of Scotland although a female, an infant, and a foreigner. She died on her passage to Scotland. In the competition for the vacant throne, Edward I of England decided in favor of John Balliol.

Scotlae State


Welsh Sovereigns and Princes

Source: National Chronicles of the Country
Independent Princess, A.D. 630 to 1292 Dafydd ap Llywelyn..

1240 Cadwallawn, King of Gwynedd.....

630 Llywelyn ap Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. ......... 1246 Cadwaladyr, his son....

634 Idwal, son


English Princes, Since A.D. 1301 Rhodri, or Roderic...

728 Edward, b. 1284 (Edwd. II), cr. Pr. of Wales 1301 Cynan and Howel ..

755 | Edward the Black Prince, s. of Edwd. III... 1343 Mervyn, son-in-law...

818 Richard (Richard II), s. of the Black Prince 1376 Rhodri the Great, son..

844 Henry of Monmouth (Henry V) Anarawd, son of Rhodri

1399 877 Edward of Westminster, son of Henry V


1454 Hywel Dda, the Good

943 Edward of Westminster (Edward V)..... 1471 Iago ab Idwal (or Ieuaf).

Edward, son of Richard III (d. 1484)........ 1483 Hywel ab Ieuaf, the Bad....

Arthur Tudor, son of Henry VII.

1489 Cadwallon, his brother

984 Henry Tudor (Hen. VIII), s. of Henry VI 1503 Maredudd ab Owain ap Hywel Dda 985 Henry Stuart, son of James I (d. 1612)

1610 Idwal ap Meyric ap Edwal Voel. 992 Charles Stuart (Charles I), s. of James I. ...

1616 Aedan... 998 Charles (Charles II), son of Charles I

1630 Llewelyn ap Sitsyhit.

1015 James Francis Edward, "The Old Pretender" Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig... 1023 (d. 1766) ...

1688 Gruffydd ap Llywelyn ap Seisyll

1039 George Augustus (Geo. II), s. of George I... 1714 Bleddyn ap Cynfyn..

1067 Frederick Lewis, s. of George II (d. 1751)... 1729 Trahaern ap Caradog.....

1073 George William Frederick (George III) ... 1751 Gruffydd ap Cynah ab Iago...

1079 George Augustus Frederick (George IV).. 1762 Owain Gwynedd... 1137 Albert Edward (Edward VII).......

1841 Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd

1169 George (George V)


............. 1901 Llywelyn Fawr, the Great....

1194 Edward (installed July 13, 1911)......... 1910



Russian (Muscovy) Rulers

Source: Historical Records Dukes of Kiel (Kiey) (850) Ruric or Rurik: Vasali-Chouiski: (1610) Ladislaus of Poland: (1613) (879) Oleg: (913) Igor 1: (945) Olga, his widow: | Michael-Feodorovitz, of the house of Romanov (055) Swiatoslaw 1: (973) Jaropalk 1: (980) Vald-descended from John II; (1645) Alexis. his son. imir: (1015) Swiatopalk; (1018) Jaroslaf: (1054) 1 (1676) Feodor m; (1682) Ivan V, and Peter I

brothers of Feodor III. Isiaslaf 1: (1073) Swiatoslaw II; (1078) Wsewolod

Czars, or Emperors, of Russia-Peter I. the I: (1093) Swiatopaik : (115) Vladimir 11: (1120) foregoing, since known as Peter the Great (took videlati (1132) Jaropalk II: (1138) Wiatschelaw, I the title of emperor in 1721); (founded the city of and Wsewolod II: (1146) Isiaslaf II, and Igor II; 1 St. Petersburg, later called Petrograd, and. still (153) Rotislaf: (1149) Jurie, or George I, who later, Leningrad); (1725) Catherine, his widow: built Moscow.

(1721) Peter II, son of Alexis Petrovitz, and grandGrand Dukes of Vladimir-(1157) Andrew I: son of Peter the Great; deposed; (1730) Anne. (175) Michael 1: (1177) Wsewolod ID; (1213) | Duchess of Courland, daughter of the Czar Ivan: Jurie, or George II; (1217) Constantine: (1238) (1740) Ivan VI, infant, grand-nephew of Peter the Jorasla n. then his son: (1245) Alexander Nevski: Great, kept in prison, murdered in 1764: (1741) 11263) Jaraslas III: (1270) Vasali, or Basil I: Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great: (1762) (1275) Dmitri, or Demetrius I; (1281) Andrew II: Peter III, son of Anne, deposed and succeeded by (1294) Daniel-Alexandrovitz; (1303) Jurie, or his consort, Catherine II, known as Catherine the George III, deposed; (1305) Michael III: (1320) Great, daughter of a Prussian general of high Vasali. or Basil II; (1325) Jurie or George III. rank: (1796) Paul, her son, murdered in 1801: restored; (1327) Alexander II.

(1810) Alexander I, son of Paul; (1825) Nicholas I, Grand Dukes of Moscow-(1328) Ivan, or John brother of Alexander I; (1855) Alexander II, son I: (1340) Simeon; (1353) John II: (1359) Demetrius of Nicholas; assassinated: (1881) Alexander ID: IÍ, Prince of Susdal; (1362) Demetrius III, Don (1894) Nicholas II, son of Alexander III. The czar skoi; (1389) Basil III, Temnoi; (1425) Basil IV. and his family were assassinated in 1918. He had

Czars of Muscovy-(1462) Ivan (Basilovitz), or abdicated in 1917, after the revolution of March 12. John III (took title of Czar, 1482); (1505) Basil V: The General Secretary of the Communist Party, (1533) Ivan, the Terrible; (1584) Feodor, or Theo- Joseph Vissarionovitch Stalin, was chosen premier dor 1, and his son, Demetrius; (1598) Boris of Soviet Russia in 1941, just before the Germans Godonov, usurper; (1605) Feodor II; (1606) began the war against his country "to abolish Demetrius, impostor, a Polish monk, succeeded by Bolshevism."

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