網頁圖片
PDF
ePub 版

25 Mysteries of Life and Matter A gathering of college students was told recently 10. What is the nature of the atom, molecule by Charles F. Kettering, of the research labora- and the electron? tories of the General Motors Corporation, that

11. What are proteins, carbo-hydrates and fats?.

12. What is the nature of hormones? there are 25 unanswered problems relating to life

13. What is the nature of vitamins? on this earth. They are as follows:

14. How to use farm products more effectively. 1. How to cure many diseases-colds, cancer, 15. What is mass or matter? ills of old age, etc.

16. How do catalysts work? 2. How plants fix sun's energy.

17. The what and why of solubility. 3. What is friction?

18. What is energy? 4. What makes glass transparent, metals opaque? 19. What is the photo-electric effect? 5. How do fuels burn in an engine cylinder?

20. What can be done with chemiluminescence? 6. What is magnetism?

21. What is a lubricant and how does it work? 7. What is electricity?

22. What does & molecule look like? 8. What is fatigue of metals?

23. What are enzymes, viruses, etc.? 9. What is the nature of light and other electro 24. How do our minds function? magnetic waves?

25. What is immunity to disease?

Rate of Speed of a Falling Body

Source: Āviation and Army Records The speed of a falling body is regulated by the the end of the nth second is given in feet by mulforce of gravitation. Theoretically, the drawing - 1 tiplying the square of the time in seconds by 16. down power of the earth is modified by the pull

1 Thus at the end of the first second it has fallen of the moon and the sun.

16 feet, at the end of the second second 2 X 2 X 16

= 64 feet, at the end of the third second 3 X 3 X 16 The experimental department at Wright Field of

= 144 feet; at the end of the fifth, 5 X 5 X 16 = the Army Air Corps has stated that a man falling

400 feet. Conversely, to find the time in seconds to from any altitude with a parachute pack attached fall any distance, divide the distance in feet by 16 never attains a velocity of greater than 118 miles and extract the square root; thus to fall a mile per hour and does not lose consciousness.

divide 5,280 by 16, which gives 330, and the square In the first second of its descent a body falls 16 root of 330 is a little over 18, the number of seconds feet; second second, 16 + 32 = 48 feet; third second, which is the vacuum time to fall a mile. Owing to 16 + 64 = 80 feet; fourth second, 16 + 96 = 112 feet; the resistance of the air, it takes about 19 seconds fifth second, 16 + 128 = 144 feet; nth second, 16 + 32 for a bomb to reach the earth when dropped from (n-1) feet. The total distance fallen by a body at an airplane a mile high.

The Dionne Quintuplets

The Dionne quintuplets-Emilie, Yvonne, Cecile, four guardians, including their father. The othMarie and Annette--were born to Mr. and Mrs. | ers are Percy D. Wilson, official guardian for the Oliva Dionne (May 28, 1934) in Callander, Ontario, i province of Ontario: Dr. Dafoe. and Judge J. A. Canada. Dr. Allan R. Dafoe, a country doctor, de- | Valin. In their charge are the children's regimen. livered the babies all of whom were born within ! living conditions, entourage, consisting of nurses. a half hour in the log farm home of their par- guards and servants. and the administration of ents. The aggregate weight of the babies at birth the estate, estimated (1940) at $750.000. Through was 13 pounds 6 ounces but they have developed a business manager, Keith Munro, the guardians in weight until they are about 30 per cent heavier also negotiate the various commercial contracts tban the average child of their age. Dr, Dafoe | which bring the children additional income Varyreports they have grown into normal, healthy ing from five to six figures in amount. children with all the likes and dislikes of any Premier Hepburn informed the father (Sept. 12, other child. The children enjoy good health and 1941) that the Ontario Government had accepted the only ailments to bother them have been colds. in principle" the suggestions of Dionne that the Their health improved after their tonsils and family be reunited under one roof. The quintuplets adenoids were removed by operation (1938).

have lived apart from their parents and seven By act of the Ontario legislature the quin sisters and brothers since their birth. The Premier tuplets are wards of the Crown. Technically, un indicated that the entire family would live together der this act, their affairs are run by & board of again as soon as a new home could be constructed.

SoundHow Far, How Fast, Does It Go?

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Source: Scientific Records. On a day in Dec., 1933, a dynamite explosion set, plosion by one of the "zones of silence" usually off on the Arctic island of Nova Zembla was de- | encountered in such experiments, a zone in which tected at Berlin, more than 2,000 miles away.

the noise is unheard although it is heard both Thunder, which is the loudest common noise,

closer to the explosion and farther away.

This also explains longer distance records, such never has been heard unmistakably more than

as the one from Nova Zembla. about 20 miles from the flash.

Such long-distance sound waves do not travel in Continual cannon fire has been heard 100 miles

the ordinary air close to the ground but in the rarer away and somewhat doubtfully as far as 300 miles. I and less resistant air 50 or 60 miles UD. These high

The landing of the great Siberian meteor, which 1 level sound waves gradually bend downward again fell on June 30, 1908, was heard 400 miles away and toward the earth, so that they travel in a vast bowaffected weather instruments in Europe.

shaped curve. The world's loudest noise, the volcanic explosion "How far away was that flash of lightning?" is of the Island of Krakatoa in 1883, was heard by a common question. The answer is that sound human ears as far off as Bangkok, something more travels through hot summer air (100°) at 1,266 feet than 1,400 miles.

& second. In zero weather sound flies through dry At La Courtine in France, in 1924. tons of excess air at 1,088 to 1,150 feet a second war munitions were exploded, under scientific con-| Speed of sound (feet per second) in other metrol and reports obtained from listeners and instru diums-ice-cold vapor, 4,708; vapor at 60 degrees, ment stations in all directions over Europe. The | 5,657: ice-cold water, 4,938; granite, 12,960; iron maximum distances unmistakably recorded in this | (hot). 15,480 to 17,390; steel, cast, 16,360; wood instance were but little more than 200 miles.

(oak), 12,620; brick, 11,980; glass, 16,410 to 19,690; This distance was separated from the actual ex. I clay rock, 11,420; gold, 5,717 to 6,890, silver, 8,658.

The Apostles' Creed The English form of the Apostles' Creed, as now He descended into hell; the third day He rose again said in the Roman Catholic Church, is as follows: from the dead, He ascended into heaven; sitteth at

the right hand of God the Father Almighty: from "I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator

thence He shall come to judge the living and the of heaven and earth. And in Jesus Christ, His only

dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost; the Holy Son, our Lord; who was conceived by the Holy Catholic Church; the communion of saints; the Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under forgiveness of sins; the resurrection of the body. Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried; I and life everlasting. Amen."

ft.

Important Tunnels of the World

Source: Railroad and Other Records
(Figures in parentheses show length and year completed or put in operation)
UNITED STATES

Taft-(8.750 it.) In the Bitter Root Mountains. Alameda-Oakland, Calif.; vehicular, under Inner Constructed in 1908-1909 for the Chicago, MIIHarbor, 4,500 ft.

waukee & Puget Sound Railroad. Baltimore, Md., railroad (Baltimore & Ohio)- Pittsburgh-Vehicular, under Mt. Washington.

Under Howard St., over 7,000 ft., 1894; (Penn-1 5,889 ft., 1924. sylvania), under Hoffman St., 3,400 ft., 1871; St. Clair-Under St. Clair River from Sarnia, Ont.. under Wilson St. 4,960 ft., 1873; under Win I to Port Huron, Mich., 2 miles; opened 1891. chester St., 2,190 ft., 1873.

Southern Pacific and Central Pacific Railroad Bitter Root Mountains, Mont.-Idaho, railroad, tunnels: Chatsworth Park, through Coast Range 10,100 ft.

Mountains, in Los Angeles County, Cal.. 1.4 Busk-Ivanhoe, Colo.- Originally railroad, but now miles; San Fernando, through Spur 1.32 miles;

automobile highway, 9,600 ft., under Rocky Mts., Siskiyou, on Shasta Line, 3, 107.7 ft. long: began at Continental Divide.

operation Oct. 5, 1887; Shasta, 3,654.6 ft. long: Cascade, Wash.--Railroad (Great Northern), under operation began Sept. 1, 1926Norden, on the

Cascade Mts., 41,152 ft. (7.79 miles), straight as Ogden route, in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, a rifle bore. 1929.

between Norden and Eder, built on a tangent: Cumberland, Tenn.---Under Cumberland Mts. 8,000 10.325 feet long, opened to traffic on Oct. 15. 1925.

Strawberry-Through the Wasatch Mountains. Detroit (1) railroad (Mich. Central), under De Sutro--Drains the Comstock Lode in Nevada, 412

troit River to Windsor Can., 2,668 ft. excl. miles; opened 1879. approaches, 1910; (2) vehicular, under Detroit

CANADA River, to Windsor, Can., 2,200 ft. excl. ap Connaught-Through Selkirk Mountains, under proaches, 1930.

Rokers. Pass, British Columbia; on Canadian Gallitzin-Railroad (Pennsylvania), under Alle Pacific Railway, double track, five miles long,

gheny Mts. at Gallitzen, Pa., 3,600 ft., 1854; completed 1916. also a parallel tube, 3,600 It., 1904; also new Spiral-The tunnels on the Canadian Pacific RailPortage Tunnels, 1,610 ft., 1855.

way, between Hector and Fields, B. C., conGunnison, Col.-Irrigation, 6 miles, 1909.

sist of two spiral tubes, the westerly, 3,255 feet Hoosac, Mass.--Railroad, under Hoosac Mts., 44 long, under Cathedral Mountain; and the eastmiles, 1873.

erly, 2,921 feet long, under Mt. Ogden, with the Moffat, Colo.-Railroad (6.1 miles) (Denver & Salt Kicking Horse River between. Lake)--under James Peak, Rocky Mts., at Con

ENGLAND hental. 1927. East end of tube is 9,198 it, above Liverpool-Birkenhead Vehicular Under the River sea level. The railway cut-off leading to the Mersey. Opened by the King in 1934; bored tunnel was opened in June 1934. In driving the

through solid rock; distance from Old Haymarket, Railroad Tunnel the pioneer bore type of con Liverpool, to Chester St., Birkenhead, 2.13 miles. struction was used, in which a small tunnel Blackwell-Under River Thames, England, 115 parallel to and 75 feet from the Railroad miles; opened 1897. Tunnel was driven simultaneously, with the Severn-From Monmouthshire to Gloucestershire, heading in the Railroad Tunnel and used for England, 442 miles; opened 1886. power lines, transportation, etc. When the Rail

Totley-34 miles. road Tunnel was completed the Pioneer Tunnel

CONTINENTAL EUROPE became available to Denver for use as a water

Alberg-Under the Alps at the Arl Mountains and tunnel.

extends from Langen to St. Anton, 69 miles; Mt. Roberts, Juneau, Alaska--13 miles.

opened 1884. New York City--Railroad, 3 (6 tubes) under Hud

Col des Montets-On the electric railway from son River, 10 (22 tubes) under East River, 2

Fayet, France, to the Swiss frontier; length, under the city, river to river, and 3 (6 tubes)

1882 meters (about 1 1/6 miles); opened in 1918. under Harlem River. Vehicular, 2 (3 tubes)

Loetschberg-Through the Alps, under Hudson; under East River, 1 (2 tubes).

in Oberland,

Switzerland, 47,685 feet; opened June 20, 1913, There are 118 miles of tunnel now in use in

costing nearly $10,000,000. the New York City water supply system. On the

Mont Cenis-Italy to France, under the Col de completion of the Delaware system this will be

Frejus, 42,150 feet, opened 1871. increased to 235 miles. The new Croton aqueduct

Mont d'Or-Between from Croton Lake to the 135th St. (Manhattan)

France and Switzerland.

was bored through October 2, 1913. The tunnel gate house is 3094 miles long, of which 2912 miles is tunnel, driven from 42 shafts and inclines

pierces the Jura Mountains from Fresne to Val

lorbe, and is 334 miles long. from 21 feet to 391 feet deep, and from six por

Nice-Cuneo--Under the Alps; opened tals. The two longest tunnels are respectively 842

for ratl and 9 miles long. The maximum depth of tunnel

traffic in 1928. There are 2 tunnels on the line:

one of 5.939 metres, at the Col de Braus; one of is about 500 feet. Put in service in 1890. Shandaken tunnel of the Catskill water supply

3,888 metres under Mont Grazian. system carries the water of Schoharie creek under

Sam port--In the Pyrenees Mountains, from Pau. the Catskill mountains from the northerly side to

France, to Canfranc, in Spain; over 4 miles: the southerly side. It is 18 miles long. was driven

opened in 1928.

st. Gothard-Through the Alps, connects Goschefrom 1 portal and from 8 shafts from 260 to 647

nen with Airolo, in Switzerland, 48,927 feet: feet deep. The maximum depth of the tunnel below the surface is about 2,200 feet. Put in

begun in 1872, opened on May 27, 1882; cost, service in 1924. At the other end of the Catskill

$23,800,000; now electrined. system, deep under the Boroughs of The Bronx,

Simplon-Through the Alps, 64,971 feet; opened Manhattan, Queens and Brooklyn, there are two

1905: twin tunnel opened in 1921; electrified. distributing tunnels (called City Tunnels), which

Wasserfluh-In the Alps, between Bunnader now distribute Catskill water and will distribute

and Lichtensteig, Switz., 2 miles, opened 1909. Delaware water to the different parts of the City.

Italy-Railway double-track tunnel under EtruCity Tunnel No. 1 is 18 miles long and from 15 scan Appennine Mountain range; length, 11.3 feet to 11 feet in diameter. It was driven from miles; begun in 1920, finished in 1930; cost 25 shafts and is from 200 feet to 750 feet deep.

$100.000.000, including the other tunnels on the Connections to street mains are made through 22 61 miles of electrified railway connecting Bologna shaits. Put in service in 1917. City Tunnel No. 2 and Florence; dedicated in April, 1934; 98 workis 20 miles long. generally 17 feet in diameter. men lost their lives during construction. driven from 18 shafts and is generally 520 feet Vosges In France President Albert Lebrun forto 750 feet deep. Connections to street mains are mally opened, on Aug. 8, 1937, the Vosges Tunnel, made through 15 shafts Put in service March which provides a new access to the recovered 31. 1936.

province of Alsace. The tunnel is nearly seven Franklin-Railroad. A. T. & S. F.. (5600 ft.) miles long and was bored for approximately

opened 1900; 30 miles east of San Francisco. two miles through solid granite. It extends New Musconetcong-Railroad, Lehigh Valley. (4895 from Saint-Die to Sainte-Maria-Aux-Mines. Ls

ft.), near Pattenburg, N. J. Constructed 1926 25 feet wide and 20 feet high and is equipped 1928.

with a single track. The maximum grade is 16 Bergen Hi-Railroad, Delaware, Lackawanna & per cent. Western (4280 it. ) in N. J.

Trans-Andine Ry. (South America) Tunnel 3.463 New Kingswood-Railroad, Baltimore & Ohio, ! yards long. 10,512 feet above sea level and affords

(4211 ft.) In Allegheny Mountains, W. Va. direct communication between Valparaiso and Constructed in 1910.

Buenos Aires; opened April 5. 1910. Kennerdell-Railroad, Pennsylvania (3500 ft.), in Khojak Pass-India, Quetta to Landabar, 2 miles. Pennsylvania, constructed 1913-1915.

Otira-In New Zealand, 51 miles.

Fastest Scheduled Trains in the World
Source: The Railway Gazette, London, England. Figures are based on runs in Europe through 1938,

and in United States through Summer of 1940.
DIESEL TRACTION (over 72 m.p.h.)
FOREIGN

Dis-
Railway
Train
From

To

tance Time Speed

Miles Min. m.p. Germany.. Fliegende Kolner Hamm..

Hanover .......

109.7 79

83.3 FDt 520. Bielefeld... Hamm.

41.6 30 83.2 Fliegende Kolner Berlin (200) Hanover... 157.9

83.1 Fliegende Kolner Hanover ..... Hamm..... 109.7 80 82.3 FDt 520.... Hanover.... Bielefeld...

68.0 50 81,6 FDt 51.... Hanover

Berlin (200) 157.9 117 81.0 FDt 52.,... Berlin (Zoo).... Hanover ..... 157.9 118 80.3 FDt 584.... Halle...

Magdeburg.....

53.5 40 80,2 FDt 45..... Berlin (Schles).. Breslau...

204.7 154 79.7 FDt 231. Bremen, ...Hanover..... 76.0

78.6 FDt 551 & 572 Berlin (Anhalter) Leipzig ..... 102.1

78.5 FDt 583... Magdeburg..... Halle...

53.5

78.3 FDt 45. Breslau......... Oppeln...

50.8

78.1 Fliegende I burger... Berlin (Lehrter). Hamburg .... 178.2

78.0 Fliegende Hamburger.. ... Hamburg ....... Berlin (Lehrter) 178.2

77.4 FDt 45 & 46 Oppeln......... Heydebreck.... 25.8

77.4 FDt 52 & 23

Hanover.......
... Bremen ........

76.0
FDt 22 & 23... Beriin (Lehrter). Hamburg. . 178.2

76.9
FDt 571...
Leipzig .........
Berlin (Ah'iter) 102.1

76.6 FDt 515 & 520.. Magdeburg ..... Halle..........

53.5

76.4 FDt 25 & 28.... Berlin (Lehrter). Hamburg ...... 178.2 140 76,3 FDt 46......... Breslau......... Berlin (Schles). 204.7

161

76.2 FDt 33..... .... Halle.......... Berlin (A'h'lter) 100.4 79 76.2 FDt 459........ Liegnitz ..... Breslau ...

40.5

75.9 FDt 33 & 49.... Greiburg ... Baden (Oos)... 64.0 51 75.3 Fliegende Kolper Hanover....... Berlin (Zoo).... 157.

9 126 75.2

[graphic]
[blocks in formation]

UNITED STATES
Burlington..... Zephyr .........East Dubuque.. Prairie du Chien
..Union Pacioc.. City of Denver.. Grand Island... Columbus ......

Burlington..... Zephyr......... La Crosse....... Prairie du Chlen
.. Union Pacific...City of Denver. North Platte....Kearney.....

Santa Fe...... Two trains*..... La Junta...... .Dodge City ....
Union Pacifc.. "City" Services. North Platte.. Grand Island...

..City of Denver.. Julesburg ....... North Platte...]
Burlington..... Denver Zephyr.. Aurora ......... Galesburg ....

Zephyr ..... Prairie du Chien. La Crosse...
Santa Fe...... Super-Chief ..... Dodge City ..... Hutchinson,...
Chicago & NW The 400.

Evanston.......Racine......
Santa Fe...... El Capitan.. ...Dodge City ..... La Junta.....
Florida E. Coast Henry M. Flagler Cocoa Rockledge Titusville..
Burlington..... Zephyr ....... .. North La Crosse Miner.....

....Aurora ......... Oregon......
Santa Fe...... El Capitan.... Dodge City. ... Newton .....
Union Pacific.. City of Denver.. Kearney........ North Platte...

Sterling ...... Julesburg .....

Kearney.... Grand Island.
Burlington..... Denver Zephyr.. Fort Morgan... McCook.......

Denver......... Fort Moran..

Hastings....... Lincoln .....
Chicago & N.W. The 400 ..., Milwaukee......

Evanston....
Sante Fe.. Super-Chief ..... Dodge City .. La Junta....
Union Pacific.. City of Denver.. La Salle.

Sterling ......
Burlington..... Denver Zephyr.. McCook,.... Oxford.....
Rock Island... Rocket ......... Jollet ..... Ottaw&.

Norton .....
Union Pacinc.. City of Denver. Columbus...... Grand Island
Chicago & N.W.The 400.... Wyeville..

Eau Claire...
..... Santa Fe...... Super-Chief ..... Newton........Hutchinson....

54.6 62.4 57.7 95.0 202.4 137.2

81.2 124.6

57.7 120.2

49.8 202.4

19.1 26.6 60.5 153.1 95.0 57.5 42.2 176.3 78.0 96.5 72.9 202.4 93.6 54.1 44.3 69.8 62.4 84.2 32.9

84.0 81.4 80.5 80.3 78.3 77.7 77.3 77.1 76.9 76.7 76.6 76.4 76.4 76.0 75.6 75.3 75.0 75.0 74.5 74.5 74.3 74.2 74.1 74.0 73.9 73.8 73.8 73.5 73.4 73.2

[merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors]

Colby.........

| 73.1

2 runs.........

46 47 147

[ocr errors]

STEAM TRACTION (over 68 m.p.h.)

FOREIGN Belgium ....... National .....

. Brussels (Midl.). Bruges.......

12 runs.... . Bruges......... Brussels ( Midi.). Germany...... State....

.. Hamburg ....... Berlin (Lehrter).
Great Britain..L.N.E.R. .. Coronation ..King's Cross ....York..........
Germany...... State..... FD 26...... ..Berlin (Lehrter). Hamburg ......
Great Britain, .G.W.R...

Cheltham Flyer. Swindon.......Paddington.....
IL.N.E.R.

Silver Jubilee... King's Cross.... Darlington..
West Riding Ltd King's Cross.... Leeds ........

West Riding Ltd. Leeds.......... King's Cross
Belgium..... Tational ....12 runs..........Ostend Quay.... Bruges.....

157

57.

4 57.4 178.2 188.2 178.2

77.3 232.3 185.7 185.7 13.6

149

65 198 163 164 12

73.3 72.7 71.9 71.8 71.4 70.4 68.4 68.6 68.0

U.S

81.0 78.4

UNITED STATES
Milwaukee .....Hlawatha.. ...Sparta..

Portage....
Hiawatha.. . New Lisbon,... Portage.....
Chippewa.. Sturtevant...... Deerfield....
Hiawatha.. Portage......

Watertown..
Hiawath& .

Columbus ....
Pennsylvania... Detroit Arrow... Englewood...... Fort Wayne...
Milwaukee.... Hiawatha....... New Lisbon..... La Crosse .....
Pennsylvania... Detroit Arrow... Fort Wayne..... Englewood.

Juniata .... Plymouth....... Fort Wayne....
Y.C ..20th Cent. Ltd..Elkhart ........Toledo ........

Portage, .......

[blocks in formation]
[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

STEAM TRACTION (over 68 m.p.h.)-Continued

UNITED STATES

Country

[blocks in formation]

DI tance T Miles

[ocr errors]

172.0

11.9

120

18 55

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

50

56

19

[ocr errors]

5

:

2.0

:

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

U S
Milwaukee.... Hiawatha. Wisconsin Dells. Mauston ...

19.2
Hiawatha.....
Deerfield.......

Milwaukee ... 61.1
Hiawatha.... Chicago..... Milwaukee... 85.0 7171.8

Hiawatha. Milwaukee... Portage...... 92.9 78 | 71.5
Pennsylvania. .. Liberty Ltd... Plymouth..... Fort Wayne 64.1 54 71.2
N, Y. Central.. 20 Cent. Ltd.. Toledo....... Elkhart ...... 133.0 113 70.6
Illinois Central. Daylight.. Kankakee...... Gibson City... 54.1 4670.6
Pennsylvania.. Broadway Ltd. Englewood .. Fort Wayne 140.9

70.5 Milwaukee, ... Hiswatha....... La Crosse...... Sparta...

24.6 21

170.3 N. Y. Central.. Pacemaker...... Elkhart .... Toledo....

133.0 114 70.0 Milwaukee ..... CopperC'try Ltd. Western Avenue. Deerfield... 21.0

70.0
Pennsylvania.. Golden Arrow ... [Plymouth.... Fort Wayne.... 64.1
Milwaukee.....Hiawatha....... Portage.....,

New Lisbon.... 43.1 37 69.9
Chicago & E. III. Zipper, ........ Villa Grove. Chicago Heights 118.5 102
Seashore.......Cruiser ......... Absecon..... Haddonfield .... 45.3 39
Pennsylvania...Trail Blazer..... Gary...... Plymouth...... 58.9 51
N. Y. Central.. New Eng. States Toledo..... Elkhart ...... 133.0 116
Seashore....... Boardwalk Flyer Broadway ..... Atlantic City 57.3
Pennsylvania, .Broadway Ltd...Fort Wayne. Englewood . 140.9

123
Trail Blazer..... Plymouth..... Fort Wayne.. 64.1
Chicago & E. iii.

III. Daylight....... Farmer City.. Gibson City.. 20.6 18
Reading ........ Crusader...

Crusader.......West Trenton.. Jenkintown... 21.7
N. Y. Central .. Two trainst ....JElkhart .... Toledo......

133.0 17
Big Four......N. Y. Express... Granite City ..., Hillsboro..... 48.9
Milwaukee.....Hiawatha....... Winona.... Red Wing.. 62.4
Pennsylvania... Golden Arrow ...Gary......

Plymouth ..., 58.9
Milwaukee.....Hiawatha....... Chicago...... Milwaukee.... 85.0

Hiawatha....... Portage.... Milwaukee..... 92.9
....No. 27..... ... Western Avenue. Sturtevant..... 58.9
ELECTRIC TRACTION (over 68 m.p.h.)

FOREIGN
Italy ........

R 527 ...
....... Rome.......... Naples

1 Mergellina).. 130.5 108
R 525 & 527....
Mian .........
. Bologna

135.6 1 113
....R 525..... ..... Rome...... Naples

(Mergellina).. 130.5
R 528.... Naples
(Mergellina).. Rome....

130.5
R 524 & 528.... Bologna ........Milan...... 135.6

70.8 R 524 & 528... Florence...... Bologna.

70.8 R 524

Naples
(Mergellina). Rome.

130.5

70.5 France..... National (8.W.)Sud Express.... Poitiers....., Angouleme

70.1

60 70.1 Italy .....

State..........
...R 625 & 527.... Bologna....... Florence......

60.21 52 69.4 UNITED STATES U.S. .C.S.S. & S.B...One run........ Davis .......... Lake Park.

14.3

171.5 Pennsylvania, . Congressional...N. Philadelphia. Newark..... 76.0 ...No. 403........ Newark (Del.)..Baltimore.... 56.4

70.5 .. Three trainsi ... Newark ........ N. Philadelphi 76.0

70.2 East Wind...... N. Philadelphia, Trenton...... 27.9 Two trains..... Baltimore..... Wilmington.... 68.4

69.6 Broadway Ltd.. Newark..... N. Philadelphia 76.0

69.1 Sea Plane....... Trenton.... Elizabeth......

42.6

69.1 ... Two trains/l..... Newark.... Trenton...... 48.1

68.7 Seven runs... ... Baltimore. ... ... Wilmington.... 68.4

68.4 ... Two trains ..... Newark ........ N Philadelphia 76.0 1 67 | 68.1 *Super-Chief and El Capitan. Commodore Vanderbilt and New England States. Broadway Limited, Congressional and St. Louisan. Congressional and East Wind. || East Wind and No. 206. Senator ana No. 202.

Some Fast Railway Runs in the U. S. .
Source: World Almanac questionnaire

| Time, M.P Date Railroad

Run

Miles H. M. S. Hour May, 1893 N Y Central & HR...... Crittenden-"Empire State Exp."

| 112.5 Aug. 1895 Pennsylvania.....

Landover--Anacosta...,

5.1

| 102 Mar., 1902 Burlington Route...... Eckley-Wray .............

98.7 Jan. 1903 N Y Central& HR

Palmyra Macedon...

7.29

109.35 April, 1904 Michigan Central ....

Crisman Lake.....

2.73

105 July, 1904 Ph.ladelphia & Reading

Egg Harbor-Brigantin

4.8

115.20 July, 1904 Great Western (England).. Paddington-Bristor...

118.5

84.6 Oct., 1904N, Y, Central & H R.,n, Croton-Ossinind...

105 April, 1911 200h Century Ltd.," on L. Shore ore Toledo-Fikhart .....

75.28 April.1927 Florids East Coast ........ Miami - St. Augustine..

310

60.4 June, 1927 Pennsylvania. ...

Washington, D, C.-N. Y,

224.5

72.0 Jan., 1928 | New York Central Special... Granite City, N.-Beren. O.

536.1

67.3 May, 1932 | London & North Eastern .... Grantham-London........

105.50

63.3 June, 1932| Great Western (England).... Swindon London ........

77 25

81.6 May, 1934Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. Denver Chicago (non-stop).... 1015,31 13

77.6 July, 1934 Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul.. Chicago Milwaukee...

85.0

75.46 July, 1934 | Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul... | Edgebrook-Oakwood...

61.4

92.62 Oct., 1934 Union Pacific.... Dix-Potter-Nebraska....

120 Oct. 1934 Union Pacific-C. &

Los Angeles Chicago...

2287

58.8 Oct1934 Union Pacific ........ Cheyenne Omaha ...........

84 Jan., 1935 Pennsylvania.....

Philadelphia--Washington

134

73.1 Jan., 1935 Pennsylvania ... Wilmington--No. Pt., Md....

80.8 April, 1935) N. Y., N, H. & H. (New Haven).. New Haven-Boston....

156.8

65.78 April, 1935 N. Y., N. H. and H..

Providence-Boston.......

43.8

86.65 Oct., 1936 Chicago. Burlington & Quincy. Chicago Denver.........

1017.23

83.3 May 1937 Santa Fe... I Chicago-Los Angeles, Calif., 2228.8

63.9 May 1937 Santa Fe ... LaJunta, Col.-Dodge City, Kag... 202.4

87.3 Nov. 1939 Chicago, Rock Island and Paciflo.. Rook Island. In -Chicago......... 181 1 2

65.5

[merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

Ives.

1799

1833

ad

Hoe

1916

1857

Great Inventions
Source: Historical and Scientific Records

AMERICAN
Invention
Inventor | Date

Invention

Inventor ( Date Lightning rod........ Franklin 1752 Engraving, hall-tone.

1893 Submarine, torpedo Bushnell.. 1776 Motion picture machine.... Edison...

1893 Steamboat..

Fitch
1787 Submarine, even keel..... ..Lake.....

1894 Cotton gin...... Whitney ... 1793 Automobile, gasoline Selden...

1895 Stearnboat ...... ... Fulton..... 1793 Airplane, experimental. ....

Langley..

1896 Carding machine Whittemore.... 1797 Plow, disk......

Hardy ....

1896 Plow, cast iron.. ... Newbold..... 1797 Oil flotation for ore extractEngine, steam,

ing..................

. Elmore..

1899 sure........... ...Evans.....

Steel alloy, high-speed ... Taylor & White 1901 Propeller, screw.

Stevens.....

1804 Radio broadcaster...... Stubblefield.... 1902 Paper, machine

Telephone, radio...... Poulsen and for making ..... Dickinson, John 1809

Tessenden..... 1902 Magpet, electro.....

Henry ........
1828 Airplane, motor-driven.....

..Wright Bros., Mowing machine.

Manning......
..1831

Orville, Wilbur 1903
Telegraph, magnetic.... Morse.... 1832 Automatic Acceleration
Reaper ...........
Schnebley-

railway motors..... Westinghouse, G. 1904 Hussey ...

Gyroscope compass Pistol (revolver).

Colt......

1835
stabilizer ............

Sperry ....

11905 Harvester............ Moore... 1836 Radio vacuum tube.... de Forest. 1907 Match, phosphorus.....,

Phillips.. 1836 Lens, fused bifocal......... Borsch... 1908 Rubber, vulcanized. Goodyear 1839 Airplane, hydro...... Curtiss.... 1911 Ether, use as an anaesthetic Long.

1842 Electric filter (telephone)... Campbell. 1911 Lathe, turret...,

Fitch
1845 Lamp, mercury vapor......

Hewitt... 1912 Tire, pneumatic.....

Thompson.

1845

Tungsten, ductile......... Coolidge.... 1912 Printing press, rotary.....

.1846 Gasoline, cracked ........ JBurton. W. 1913 Sewing machine.,...

Howe.....

1846 Radio receiver, heterodyne Fessenden..... 1913 Pin, safety ...... .......

Hunt.

1849 Tungsten (drawn) Alament Turbine, hydraulic... Francis

1849 lamp ...................

Coolidge......

1913 Engine, electric (locomot.) Vall

1851 Bomb, depth....

Tait....... Elevator, with brake...... Otis.

1852 Gas - Alled Incandescent Collar, paper...........

Hunt

1854

lanp................... Langmuir.... 1916 Steel ..........: Kelly ... X-ray tube...

Coolidge.....

11916 Shoe sewing machi

McKay.

1860 Airplane, autogyro ........ de la Cierva... 1920 Machine gun........

Gatling.. 1861 Condenser microphone
Monitor, warship ....
Ericsson... 1861

(telephone)....

Wente....... 1920 Motion picture projector ... Sellers

1861 Voice reinforcernent (tele Printing press, web... Bullock ..... 1865 phone).................1

.. Maxfield. 1920 Paper, from wood pulp.

Lacquers, nitro cellulose....Flaherty ..... 1921 fite process......

Tilghman....

1866 Gasoline, anti-knock (lead Block signals, railway......

av
Hall.........

1867
ethyl) ............

Midgely..
.

1922 Paper, suinte process.... Tilghman

1867

Bromine, from sea water...JEdgar and
Mower, lawn....

Hills.........
1868

| Kramer ..... 1924 Refrigerator car, rallway.. David

1868

Lens, achromatic fused bi-
Typewriter.....
Sholes & Glidden 1868

focal...................Drescher.... 1924 Air brake..... Westinghouse...1869

Orthophonic phonograph... Harrison..... 11924 Cellulold.....

Hyatt.

11870 Vitamin D, by irradiation. Steenbock..... 1924 Car couppler....

Janney...

1873 Circuit breaker (oll blast).. Hilliard ... 11925 Telegraph, quadrus

Edison...

1874 Engine, gas, compound.... JEickemeyer.... 1926 Coal gas (water)...

Lowe.
1875 Permalloy (telephone)..... Elman.......

1926 Telephone.........

Bell...
1876 Dynamic loudspeaker ..... Rico.........

1927 Talking machine. ...,

Edison....

1877 Color photography, conWelding, electric..... Thomson..

1877

trolled penetration process Mannes and Lamp, Incandescent.

Edison....
1878

Godowsky..... 1928 Lamp, arc. ........

Brush..

1879 Nylon (Ober-forming synPen, fountain, ...

Waterman..... 1884 thetic polyamides... ...Carothers...... 1930 Pen, fountain...

Wirt

1885 Refrigerants, low - boiling! Trolley car, electrie.. Van Depoele

fluorine compounds....... Midgely and and Sprague.., 1884-87

Co-workers... 1930 Aluminum, electrolytic pro

Rubber (neoprene) chlorocess...........

1885 prene.....

. Carothers and Linotype........ Mergenthaler... 1885

Collins......

1930 Transformer, A.

Stanley .... 1885 Dynamic loudspeaker...... Kellogg .... 1931 Monotype...

Lanston.....

1887 High-capacity A. C. Railway Motor, split-phase induc

motory..

Jungk..... 1933 tion......

Tesla ..... 1887 A. C. receiving tubes (radio) Freeman and

1888 Adding machine.......... Burroughs.

| Wade .......

1933 Calcium carbide..

Willson .....

1888

Pushbutton elevator......Kinnard..... 1934 Photo film, transparent....Eastman

Television ....

Zworykin, V. K. 1934 Goodwin.. 1888 Glass seal for electric disMeter, induction..... Shallenberger... 1888 charge tubes...

Scott.......: .. 1936 Suicon carbide....... Acheson....... 1891 Terrain clearance indicator Steel alloy.... Harvey ..... 1891

: Espenschled .... 1936 Automobile, gasoline...... Duryea, C. E.. 1892 Feedback amplifier (telep.) Black..

1937 M

1892 otor, A. C.............. Tesla......... Bell's fundamental telephone patent, No. 174,465, between Baltimore and Washington, May 24. 1844.

"What hath God wrought." for an "improvement in telegraphy" was issued to

Prof. Joseph Henry of Princeton University said him on March 7, 1876. It is the one referred to in

he, Henry, invented the electro-magnetic telegraph, the American table above.

when at the Albany Academy, in 1830. According to the Georgia Legislature, Dr. Craw

In July, 1786, John Fitch moved a small skift ford W. Long of that state discovered ether as an

by steam on the Delaware River at Philadelhpia. anaesthetic in 1842. A bust of Dr. W. T. Morton, | The engine had & 3-inch cylinder which moved a & Boston dentist, is in the Hall of Fame. N. Y.

screwpaddle an endless chain with paddles fixed University, as the pioneer in the use of ether as on it and placed on the sides of the boat. Later an anaesthetic. This was in 1846.

Fitch tried oars in the sides of the skift which were The first patent to S. F. B. Morse was issued moved by cranks and beams. This gave a speed of June 20. 1840, for Telegraph Signs. First testing 7 miles an hour. In 1788 he got a patent. In Aug. of his apparatus was made in 1835. In Sept., 1837, | 1787 he gave a trial of a boat at Philadelphia with he exhibited the telegraph at New York University a 12-inch cylinder engine and with 6 oars working to visitors; in Oct., 1837, he fled his caveat at the perpendicularly on each side of his new 45-ft. boat Patent Omce; first message sent over 10 miles of which had a 12-ft. beam. In 1796 on Collect Pond. wire at New York University, Jan. 24, 1838, "Atten- N. Y. City he exhibited a yawl which had a screw tion the Universe! By Kingdoms Right Wheel!" propeller at the stern. The experiments were then The first public message was sent over the line under the patronage of Robert R. Livingston.

Hall..nitaler...

« 上一頁繼續 »