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1933 Machado, Aug. 12, to resign and filee. Carlos, 1934 (June 17, 1925) convention for the superCespedes became Provisional President,
vision of international trade in arms, amAug. 13; but another army revolt, Sept. 5,
munition and implements of war, including put Ramon Grau San Martin in the presi
aircraft and airships. dency. He resigned on Jan. 15, 1934, and
June 28, The U. S Treasury banned silver the Junta put in Carlos Hevia, who was
exports. succeeded on Jan. 18 by Col. Carlos Men
June 30. In Germany, a plot by Nazl leaders dieta.
and Storm Troop commanders to overAfter conferences at the White House with
throw the regime of Chancellor Adolf HitMaxim M. Litvinoff, USSR Commissar of
ler was discovered. There were many arForeign Affairs, President Roosevelt, on
rests, executions and suicides. Ex-ChanNov. 16. declared renewal of normal diplo
cellor Gen. Kurt van Schleicher, 51, was matic relations between the United States
shot to death resisting arrest. His wife also and Soviet Russia. The first ambassador,
was killed. Alexander Troyanovsky, presented his cre
July 1. President Roosevelt went on board the dentials on Jan. 7, 1934, at the White
U. S. cruiser Houston, off Annapolis, Md., House.
and started for Hampton Roads, and Ha1934 Clyde Barrow, 28, on Jan. 16, with a machine
waii; landed in Portland, Oregon, on gun, wounded two guards at the Eastham
August 3; and then started back East (Tex.) State Prison Farm, and liberated
through the drought africted plains states. Raymond Hamilton and four other con July 17. Strike of Minneapolis truck drivers: victs. On May 23, Barrow and his girl
ended Aug. 21. chum, Bonnie Parker, 23, were shot to
July 25. Nazis in Vienna, Austria, seized the death near Arcadia, La., by officers of the
building used by the Cabinet, shot Chanlaw.
cellor Engelbert Dollfuss, 41, to death. The On Jan. 16. Edward G. Bremer, 37, was kid
police and loyal troops soon recaptured the napped for $200,000 in St. Paul, Minn,
Chancellory, with some loss of life.
Aug. 1, In Port Au Prince, the United States
relinquished control of Haiti. On Jan. 25, at Tucson, Ariz., police captured
Aug. 19, The German people approved the John Dillinger, Charles Makley, Russell
consolidation of the offices of President and Clark and Harry Pierpont, together with
Chancellor in a single Leader-Chancellor, $36,000 in money, and they were returned
Adolf Hitler, which followed the death of to jail, Dillinger to Crown Point, Ind., and
President von Hindenburg, Aug. 2. the others to Lima, O. Dillinger and &
Aug. 21, a band of robbers took $427.950 from Negro felon, Herbert Youngblood, escaped
a Rubel armed car on Bay 19th St., Brookfrom the Crown Point Prison on March 3. Dillinger was shot to death on July 22, Sept. 1, Strike orders applying to 1,000,000 outside a movie house, Lincoln Ave., Chi
employees in the cotton, silk and wool cago, by U. S. Dept. of Justice agents.
divisions, went into effect at 11:30 P. M., Youngblood was shot to death, Mch. 16, at
issued by the United Textile Workers of Port Huron, Mich.
America: The trouble was greatest in Jan. 31, The U. S. Government reduced the
Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina dollar's gold weight from 25.8 grains to
in the South, and in Maine and Rhode 15.5/21 grains 9/10 fine, making its gold
Island. The National Guard and mobs value 59.06 + per cent of the par fixed by
clashed in several states and over 20 persons the 1900 Act.
were killed. President Roosevelt's personal Feb. 19, U. S. cancelled all air mail contracts.
appeal ended the strike on Sept. 22, pendThe Army carried the air mail for 314
ing further arbitration. months, losing a dozen officers in plane Sept. 21, Hurricane winds have swept across accidents.
Honshiu, the central island of Japan. FaIn Austria, Feb. 12-15. an abortive Social
talities totaled 4,232; damage over $90,Democrat uprising in Vienna, Linz and
000,000. other places cost 100 lives, with 300 Oct. 5, In Spain, & revolutionary general wounded
strike was called by Communist and SoFeb. 17, Albert I, 58, King of the Belgians,
cialist leaders in protest against the innoted mountain climber, was killed by fall
clusion by Premier Alejandro Lerroux of ing from a cliff overlooking the River
three Catholic Popular Actionists in his Meuse, east of Namur
new cabinet. In the province of Catalonia Mch. 6, Dr. Alice L. Wynekoop, 63, was con
an independent free state was proclaimed. victed, in Chicago, of the murder of her
Sanguinary disorders occurred at Madrid, son's wife, Mrs. Rheta Gardner Wynekoop,
Barcelona and other cities and industrial 22. Nov. 21, 1933, and was sentenced, Mch.
centres. All of Spain was put under martial 24, to a 25-yr. prison term.
law. President Luis Companys' and other Mch. 22, U. S. Congress granted Philippine
Catalan rebels were captured after loyal independence, later ratified by the Philip
troops had shelled the public buildings at pine Legislature, effective in 1945 or soon
Barcelona. Warships were sent to the coast thereafter.
cities. Churches and convents were burned April 27, at Buenos Aires, the Argentine,
by anti-Catholics. anti-war pact, previously agreed on at the Oct. 9. King Alexander I (45) of Yugo Slavia Pan-American conference in Montevideo,
and Foreign Minister Jean Louis Barthou was signed by the United States, Bolivia,
(72) of France, were assassinated in MarColombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El
seilles, where the King had landed from a Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras,
warship, and was on the way to a diploNicaragua, Panama and Venezuela. It was
matic conference at Paris. The slayer, signed on Oct. 10, 1933, by Argentina,
Velichko Kerin, alias Peter Kaleman, alias Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay and
Valada G. Chernozemsky, born in Bulgaria, Uruguay, in Rio.
was sabred and beaten and stamped to May 10, drought and dust storms in the U. S.
death, but not before he had shot Gen. mid-West are destroying winter wheat.
Alfonse J. Georges and several spectators. Longshoremen and other dock laborers began Oct. 10, In Louisville, Ky., Mrs. Berry V. strikes on the U. S. Pacific and Atlantic
Stoll (Alice Speed) 26, wife of an oil coasts, marked by violence and fatalities.
operator, was beaten and taken from her A general strike of union workers was
home by a kidnapper who left a demand started on July 16, in San Francisco, but
for $50,000. On Oct. 16, she was found by quickly fizzled; the dock strikes practically
agents of the U. S. Dept. of Justice, near ended by arbitration on July 29.
Scottsburg, Ind. The kidnaper, Thomas H. May 29, The Treaty of Relations between the
Robinson Jr. was caught in California, May United States of America and the Republic
11, 1936 and on May 13 sentenced to imof Cuba was signed, abrogating the Treaty
prisonment for life. of Relations concluded between the United Oct. 22, Charles (Pretty Boy) Floyd, 30, was States and Cuba on May 22, 1903. It was
shot to death by U. S. officers near East ratified May 31, by the U. S. Senate and
Liverpool, Ohio. was put into force on June 9.
Nov. 24, In Chicago, the $100,000,000 Insull May 31, The U. S. Grand Fleet of 81 warships
mail fraud trial ended in a verdict of not and 35.000 oicers and men entered New
guilty for Samuel Insull and his 16 co-deYork Harbor for the first time in four
fendants, all former associates in the utiliyears.
ties and financial field. Included among June 14, Germany proclaimed a transfer mor
them were Harold L. Stuart, Charles B. atorium, and suspended cash payments on
Stuart, Stanley Field, Clarence W. Sills, her foreign debts.
and Edward J. Doyle. June 15, The U. S. Senate ratified the Geneva - Nov. 27, with a machine gun, George (Baby
1934 Face) Nelson (Lester M. Gillis) sh01 | 1935 the U.S. It had cost $3,694,000,000 since death U. S. Dept. of Justice Agent Herman
May, 1933. E. Hollis, and mortally wounded his as - Dec. 30, Col. Charles A. Lindbergh, wife and sociate Samuel P. Cowley, near Chicago.
child, arrived in Liverpool and took up The next day. Nelson's dead body was
residence in Wales. found in Niles Center, wrapped in a 1936 Jan. 1, The U. S. Federal Act creating Jobblanket.
insurance went into effect. Dec. 9, First clash between Ethiopian and Jan. 6, The U. S. Supreme Court, 6 to 3 Italian soldiers at or near Wai Wai, on the
(Stone, Brandeis, Cardozo), in an opinion disputed frontier of Italian Somaliland:
read by Justice Roberts, upset the AgriculDec. 15, Italy refused arbitration as to the
tural Adjustment Act, declaring it to be an frontier and demanded reparations and an
invasion of rights of the States to regulate apology; 1935--Jan. 10, fighting resumed,
their local activities. It specifically banned Italy mobilized 70,000 troops; a committee
the use of processing taxes to regulate crop of conciliation was agreed to: May 13,
production. The minority termed the deciEthiopia protested to the League of Na
sion a "tortured construction of the Contions; Oct. 3, Italian forces invaded Ethi
stitution." On Jan. 13, the Court ordered opia, Adowa bombed: Oct. 4, Adigrat oc
$200,000,000 of impounded processing taxes cupied; Oct. 6, Adowa occupied : Oct. 14,
returned to the suing processors, and, on Aksum, the Holy City, taken: Nov. 6,
Jan. 20, peremptorily ordered the taxes Makale and Gorahia occupied; 1936-March
returned at once. 29, Harar destroyed; April 13, Italian forces Jan. 20, King George V, 70, died at his farm, on North Shore of Lake Tana (Tsana);
Sandringham, England, and was succeeded April 15, Dessie taken; May 1, Emperor
by his eldest son, Prince of Wales, 42, who Haile Selassie and family fied from Addis
took title as Edward VIII. He abdicated Ababa to Jibuti, whence they went on a
on Dec. 11, 1936, and was succeeded by his British cruiser to Palestine; May 5, Premier
brother next in age, the married Duke of Benito Mussolini, in Rome, announced the
York, who became George VI. The exwar over, Ethiopia annexed, and King Vic
ruler resumed his family name as David tor Emmanuel had become Emperor of
Windsor, but soon was created Duke of Ethiopia; so decreed, May 9.
Windsor. He gave up the throne he said 1935 The Saar Territory, taken from Germany by
because he could not marry the "woman I the Versailles World War Treaty, voted,
love" Mrs. Wallis Warfield, of Baltimore, Jan. 13, to return to German ownership,
Maryland, who, on Oct. 27, had gotten a on March 1.
divorce at Ipswich, England, from Ernest Feb. 12, The $4,000,000 U. S. navy dirigible,
A. Simpson, an insurance agent. The decree balloon, Macon, sank in the Pacific several
became absolute on May 3, 1937. On June 3. miles off Point Sur, Calif.; 2 lost.
1937, at Monts, France, the couple were - Feb. 18, The U. S. Supreme Court, 5 to 4,
married. held that Congress was within its power in
Feb. 16, In Spain the Socialists and anarchists abrogating the gold clause in private con
won the department elections. There were tracts, but had gone too far in doing so in
general jail deliveries. Soon thereafter regovernment obligations..
bellion began, in Morocco, and spread to Mch. 12, The brief revolution in Greece ended,
Spain, under Gen, Francisco Franco. when ex-Premier Elentherios Venizelos fled Feb. 17, In Paraguay a revolution deposed with his wife, from Oanea to the Italian
President Eusebio Ayala. island of Rhodes. Venizelos, 71, died, Mch, Mch. 2. The U. S. renounced its guarantee of 18, in exile, at Paris.
the independence of Panama. -- April 5, The $4,880,000,000 works relief bill Mch 7, German troops began to reoccupy the was passed by both branches of Congress.
demilitarized Rhineland zone. The House approved by 317 to 70. The Floods continued in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Senate adopted it 66 to 13. The bill was
and West Virginia. signed by the President on April 8.
Mch. 25. The U. S., Britain and France April 11-14, Stresa Conference for peace rati
signed in London, a naval arms limitation fied by Britain, France, and Italy, the
treaty to go in effect on Jan. 1, 1937 and participants.
to stay in force until Dec. 31, 1942. May 6, The U. S. Supreme Court upset the April 7, In Spain the Parliament deposed Railroad Pension Act.
President N. A. Zamora, May 18, Near Moscow, the airplane Maxim
June 4, In France the first Socialist governGorky, the world's largest land plane,
ment took office, under Leon Blum. crashed, killing 48, every soul aboard. The
June 17. In Canada their New Deal Acts were pilot of another plane, which collided with
declared invalid. the Gorky in midair was killed.
June 27, The Great Lakes Exposition opened June 14, Bolivia-Paraguay war in the Chaco
in Cleveland, O. ceased, by truce, officially over, Oct. 28.
July 13, In Madrid, Jose Calvo Sotelo, 47, a Aug. 9, President Roosevelt signed the Social
monarchist leader in the Cortes (ParllaSecurity bill.
ment) was removed from his home by Aug. 15, Will Rogers, 56, comedian, and Wiley
Assault Guards for questioning as to the Post, 36, aviator, were instantly killed when
assassination of Lieut. Jose Castillo of their Post's rebuilt airplane fell 60 feet in a fog
organization. Sotelo next appeared in the 15 miles from Point Barrow, Alaska.
East Cemetery as a corpse. Death was due Aug. 29-The Queen of the Belgians, 29,
to bullet and bayonet wounds. (Princess Astrid of Sweden) was killed by
July 17, Revolt against Spain's Republican skull fracture when an automobile in which
Government begins in Morocco and spreads she and the King were riding, left the road
to Spain, included much of army and airskirting Lake Lucerne, in Switzerland, near
force and half of navy: July 18, Jose Giral the city of Lucerne, hit two trees and
became Loyalist premier; July 19, Loyalists careened into the water.
defeated Insurgents in Madrid. Insurgents Sept. 2, Storms killed 300 along the Florida
control cities of Cadiz, Huelva, Seville, Keys, including 200 war vets on relief at
Cordoba, and Grenada; July 24, Insurgents construction camps.
set up own government and, Aug. 16 take Sept. 15-Jews in Germany lost citizenship
Badajoz; Aug. 27 begin aerial bombing of with political rights.
Madrid; Sept. 4 they take Irun; Sept. 12 Oct. 21, Storm killed 2,000 in Haiti.
they take San Sebastian, and Toledo Sept. Oct. 23, Arthur (Dutch Schultz) Flegen
28: Oct. 1, Cen. Francisco Franco proheimer, 33, and 3 companions-Otto Ber
claimed head if Nationalist (Insurgent) man, Abe Frank, and Bernard Rosen
Government; Oct. 21, siege of Madrid by krantz, were fatally shot in a tavern in
Insurgents begun; Nov. 6 Loyalist governNewark, N. J.
ment moves from Madrid to Valencia. Nov. 14, À proclamation certifying the free
Aug. 23, Convicted at Moscow of plotting to dom of the Philippine Islands and the elec
kill Joseph Stalin and other Soviet leaders tion of officials chosen by ballot in the
the following were sentenced to death: islands on Sept. 17 was signed by President
Gregory Zinovieff, Leon Kameneff. T. Roosevelt a few minutes after noon. In
Smirnoff, A. Evdokimoff, T. Bakaefi, S. Manila, occurred the inaugural ceremonies
Mirachkovsky. V. Olberg, K. Bermanfor President Manuel Quezon.
Yure, Fritz David, Moses Lurrie, N. Yurie. Nov. 18, Economic sanctions against Italy
T. Reingold, R. Pickel, V. Tervoganian, P. went into effect. supported by 52 nation
Dreitzler, E. Holzmann. They were shot members of the League of Nations, and by
on Aug 25, it was announced. one non-member, Egypt. The sanctions Oct. 14, In Brussels, King Leopold, in a stateended on July 15, 1936.
ment to a Cabinet council, announced BelNov. 29, Federal dole (direct relief) ended in
gium had severed her military alliances and
Smirno, zinovecreme other so plottines
1936 was resuming her pre-war neutrality. | 1937 West Virginia, Pennsylvania and MissisOct. 30, Waterfront activity in all American
sippi. Over 500,000 homes and vast areas ports of the Pacific Coast came to a halt as
of farm lands were flooded. Including 39,000 maritime workers went on strike at
deaths indirectly due, the total was estimidnight, and picket lines were established.
mated at 900. Over 35 rescue workers were More than 100 ships were tied up in Pacific
drowned by sinking, on Jan. 30, of a steel ports, 47 of them in San Francisco. The
barge in the Mississippi near New Madrid, strike spread to New York and other
In Moscow, a treason trial, Jan. 23-30, re- Nov. 6. In London, a protocol laying down
sulted in execution of 13 of 17 defendants, rules for the conduct of submarines was
Karl Radek (Sobelsohn) got off with a signed on behalf of all signatories of the
10-yr. sentence to prison. Washington Naval Treaty of 1922. No sub
In China, Feb. 3, a military revolt in Sian, marines may sink or disable a merchant
capital of Shensi Province, brought the asvessel unless all the passengers and crew
sassination of Gen. Wang I-Cheh, chief of first are placed in "a place of safety."
the forces of the Central government of Dec. 1. In Buenos Aires, President Roosevelt
the Republic. In April, Prince Chichibue, in a speech at the opening of the Inter
oldest brother of Emperor Hirohito of Japan American Conference for the Maintenance
made with his wife, a good-will visit to of Peace called upon the nations of the New
the United States, England, and the ContiWorld to unite to help the Old World avert
nent. In May, the army-supported JapaWar. The conference, on Dec. 16, adopted
nese Cabinet of Hayashi resigned. Early the collective security convention, the non
in July the fighting in China, west of intervention protocol, and the resolution
Peiping. was renewed by the Japanese. calling upon republics that have not al
Tungchow was attacked on July 27; the ready done so to ratify existing peace
Japanese on July 29, bombed Tientsin, detreaties. On Dec. 19, the body adopted a
stroying Nankai University; on Aug. 9, neutrality convention that obligates all the
they took formal possession of Peiping: on American countries to take a common joint
Aug. 11, they landed marines at Shanghai attitude as neutrals in case of an outbreak
and shelled Nankow. Thereafter there of hostilities among any two of them. The
was almost continuous fighting in Shanggathering ended on Dec. 23, as the Foreign
hai, where on Aug. 14, Chinese misdiMinisters of Paraguay and Bolivia pledged
rected bombs killed several hundred civil. that their countries would settle the Chaco
ians, and on Aug. 22, an artillery shell fell dispute by pacific means.
in the International Settlement, destroyDec. 12, In China, Gen. Chiang Kai-shek
ing a department store and killing 400 was kidnapped at Sian by Gen. Chang
persons. The Japanese blockade of the Hsueh-Liang, and was held prisoner until
East Coast of China began on Aug. 25, COVDec. 25.
ering 800 miles and was extended in Sept. Dec. 21. The Cuban House of Representa
to cover 2,700 miles. The Dollar Line ship. tives impeached President Miguel M. Gom
President Hoover, and other vessels on the ez, and he was tried and removed from
Yangtze, were hit by stray_Chinese or office for trying to coerce the Congress as
Japanese shells. Nanking, Canton, and to legislation,
many other places in the eastern provinces - Dec. 27. Charles Mattson, 10, was kidnapped
of China were attacked by Japanese planes. from his home in Tacoma, Wash., was held
On Oct. 23, Suiyuan Province declared inawhile for ransom, then was murdered. The
dependence from China. On Nov. 8, the body was found, near Everett, Wash., Jan.
Chinese abandoned Shanghai as an ad11, 1937.
ministrative point, and the Japanese took Dec. 30. In Flint, Mich., backed by the John
controlPremier Chiang Kai-Shek moved L. Lewis Committee for Industrial Organi
his headquarters to Hankow. On Dec. 12, zation, (C.I.O.), the United Automobile
Japanese shells sank the U. S. gunboat Workers of America started its campaign
Panay, with loss of 2 lives; and several to include the nation's automobile indus
American oil carriers, (the captain of try within its ranks. It struck at the cen
one died) on the Yangtze River above ter of General Motors operations and
Nanking. Several British craft were hit halted activities in three of its unit plants.
by the shells. A number of lives were 1937 Jan. 1. In Spain, the Insurgent shelling of
lost. For these and other "accidental Madrid, was continued at intervals; Feb. 8,
bombings, the Japanese apologized and asInsurgents took Malaga The Insurgent
sumed financial responsibility. The United headquarters were (military) at Burgos,
States and Britain had made strong proand (diplomatic) at Salamanca; Bilbao, on
tests. On Dec. 14th, the pro-Japanese adJune 19; Santander, on Aug. 25; Gijon, on
ministration in Peiping announced it had Oct. 21. Warships of Great Britain, France,
restored the city's old name, Peking. DurItaly, and Germany, on Mch. 13, began to
ing the year many lepers were executed by police the coasts of Spain under the 27
the Chinese government. nation neutrality agreement. Gen. Franco, Jan. 30. Chancellor Hitler told the Reichstag on April 19, set up & one-party State, dis
that Germany annuls and repudiates the solving the Fascist and Carlist organiza
admission implied in her signature of the tions. The Insurgent battleship, Espana,
Versailles Treaty fixing upon her responsiwas sunk, April 30, by airplanes, off San
bility for the World War, and, from this tander; May 17, new Loyalist Government
time onward the German railways and the formed under Premier Juan Negrin; many
German Reichsbank are free from the were killed in an Anarchist uprising in
obligations imposed upon them by that Barcelona; Oct. 28, Loyalists shifted gov
treaty and are restored to the complete ernment to Barcelona: Nov. 28. Insurgents
sovereignty of the Reich. He issued a deproclaimed blockade of all Loyalist ports.
cree forbidding Germans to accept any Jan. 4. The U. S. Supreme Court unanimous
Nobel prize in the future and establishing ly upset the conviction and jail sentence
rival prizes for Germans only. of Dirk de Jonge, Oregon Communist, ac
Feb. 11. The General Motors Corporation cused of violating the State's Criminal
signed a strike settlement with its emSyndicalism Law. The Court asserted that
ployees, with increase of 5 cents an hour the right of peacable assembly was as fun
in wages. In some of the Michigan strikes damental as the constitutional guarantees of
court injunctions were defied. Most of the freedom of speech and freedom of the press,
big steel mills signed up. May 30, the Jan. 20. In Washington, on the main por
police were attacked by Republic Steel tico of the Capitol, his head bared to
Corp.'s strikers in South Chicago, they rain, Franklin Delano Roosevelt took for
said, and in the combat 16 workers were the second time the oath as President of
shot and killed. In June a short strike the United States.
cut off the electric currents in Michigan's Jan. 22. Floods in the valleys of the Missis
Saginaw Valley. There were several marine sippi, Alleghany and Ohio Rivers and their
workers' strikes on the East, South and branches began to bring death, homeless
West coasts. ness, privation, property destruction and Mch. 2. Quakes shook Ohio, Michigan, Inditraffic tie-ups at Pittsburgh, Portsmouth, O.,
ana. West Virginia and Kentucky. Huntington, W. Va., Louisville, Cincinnati, Mch. 18. An explosion of natural gas, which and many other places. The flood damage
had been piped-in for heating purposes, dewas more severe in Louisville, Paducah, Ky..
stroyed the Consolidated Public School in Cincinnati and Pittsburgh. In Kentucky
New London, Texas, ten minutes before over 225 persons were drowned; in Illinois,
the teachers and children were to have left 15; in Missouri, 17; in Tennessee, 10; in
for the day. The dead numbered 293. Arkansas, 28; and small numbers in Ohio. Mch. 26. In Flemington, N. J., the perjury
1937 indictment against Benjamin Heier, re- | 1937 Sociate Justice of the Supreme Court, filling sulting from testimony he gave for the de
the vacancy caused by the retirement of fense at the trial of Bruno Richard Haupt
Justice Van Devanter. The nomination mann.
was approved 13 to 4 (King, D., Burke, D., Aprit 8. The Committee for Industrial Or
Austin, R., Steiwer, R.) by the Senate ganization closed the General Motors Cor
judiciary Committee; it was confirmed by poration plant in Oshawa and drew from
the Senate, 63 to 16, on Aug. 17. Mitchell F. Hepburn, Premier of Ontario, Aug. 12. A Russian airplane under command formal notice that methods which had
of Sigismund Levanevsky, left the Mosbrought the United States almost into
Cow flying field at 10:13 A.M., bound for a state of anarchy" would not be tolerated
Alaska, and the U. S. After passing over in Ontario.
the Pole it radioed that one of its engines May 6. The dirigible balloon, Hindenburg.
was dead, due to a damaged oil pipe. Sir on its first 1937 trip from Germany was
Hubert Wilkins and other aviators flew destroyed by fire and explosions, at 7:23
over the Arctic regions for days in vain P.M., as it was about to tie up at the
search for the missing plane and its OCU. S. Naval Air Station, Lakehurst, N. J.;
cupants. In Moscow, on Feb. 27, 1939, Mik36 of the 97 passengers were fatally burned,
hall M. Voznesensky, ex-radio operator at including the commander, Capt. Ernst
the Rudolf Island station, was sentenced Lehmann.
to 20 years imprisonment for disrupting May 12, George VI and his wife, Elizabeth,
radio communications by a sit-down strike were crowned in Westminster Abbey. Lon
at the time Levanevsky and companions don, as King and Emperor and Queen and
were on their flight and during the period Empress.
of relief expeditions May 21. A Soviet airplane made a landing at
Aug. 22. Near Cody, Wyo., 14 men were the North Pole and established a permanent
burned to death and 50 injured when fire
fighters were trapped by flames in the weather and scientific station for regular air
Shoshone National Forest. The flames communication between Russia and Amer
trapped Earl Davis, U. S. Bureau of Public ica by way of the polar region. After fly
Roads foreman, nine other bureau emins over the Pole at 11:10 A.M. the plane
ployees and about 40 CCC members. went on 15 miles further where it landed on a smooth area of an ice floe at 11:35
Sept. 19. More than 125,000 Mormon church
members of the Salt Lake City region ate A.M. It had corne 560 miles from Rudolf
but one meal in order that the financial Island. The ice floe was 10 feet thick and
equivalent to the other meals might go to kept on drifting. Supply planes followed
needy brothers and sisters.
Oct. 1. In a radio address broadcast from a
friend's house in Chevy Chase, Md., ex
Senator Hugo L. Black of Ala. (recently apSea route.
pointed by President Roosevelt to be an May 24. The International Paris Exposition of 1937 was opened by President Albert Le
associate justice of the Supreme Court)
declared that he joined the Ku Klux Klan brun, accompanied by Premier Leon Blum.
"about 15 years ago" "later resigned" May 28. The official London Gazette an
and never rejoined.” He dropped the nounced that the King had granted letters
Klan he asserted "before becoming a Senpatent to the Duke of Windsor to hold and
ator." He denied blas against Negroes, enjoy for himself only the title, style or
Jews or Roman Catholics, or against any attribute of Royal Highness, so however
race or creed. that his wife and descendants, if any, shall Oct. 12. In Beirut, Syria, J. Theodore Marnot hold said title, style, or attribute.”
riner, 45, the U.S. Consul General, was June 3. In Monts, France, the Duke of
shot dead by an Armenian, Mejardich Windsor married Mrs. Wallis Warfield at
Karayan, who has a family living in the the Chateau de Cande. The French civil
United States, and who told police his moceremony was performed by the Mayor of
tive had been revenge for a vice consul's Monts. This was followed by the marriage
refusal to grant him a visa. He was exservice of the Church of England, by the
ecuted. Rev. R. Jardine, vicar of St. Paul's, Dar
Oct. 14. In Bartow, Fla., the jury by court lington, England.
order, acquitted the Tampa policemen (C. In assembly, in Philadelphia, the Presby.
A. Brown, Jr., C. W. Carlisle, John Bridges, terian Church of America, 65 to 24, re
Arlie Gilliam, kleagle of the Orlando Klan; Jected an overture calling upon its mem
F. W. Switzer and Sam E. Crosby), who bers to recognize and practice "total ab
were on trial for second-degree murder stinence" from intoxicants as the "only
following the fatal flogging of Joseph Shoetrue principle of temperance."
maker when he refused & Ku Klux Klan June 12. The Pan-American Exposition
warning to leave town. The judge ruled that opened in Dallas, Tex. A $75,000 jeweled
the State had not proved "the actual or lock at the main gate, symbolic of inter
constructive presence of any of the men national friendship, was opened by 21
at the scene of the crime. girls who inserted keys in the names
Oct. 17. A 21-passenger United Air Lines of Argentina, Brazil, Chile Colombia,
plane, west-bound, which left Cheyenne, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic,
Wyo., with 19 persons aboard, at 6:25 P.M. Ecuador El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti,
and was due in Salt Lake City at 8:42 P.M. Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay,
crashed at 10,000 ft. altitude, into Chalk Peru. UruguayVenezuela, Mexico, Texas
Mt., in the Uinta Range, south of Knight, and the United States.
Wyo. It was 15 miles south of its regular June 20. In Pennsylvania, the Bethlehem
course, in a rain-snow storm. All were Steel Corporation started evacuation of its
killed. Cambria plant under orders of Governor
Oct. 30. In California, the State Supreme Earle, who had declared martial law.
Court, 5 to 1, rejected Thomas J. Mooney's Meantime the C.I.O. had called off the
plea for a writ of habeas corpus.
Nov. 3. A resolution condemning the imJuly 2. Amelia Earhart Putnam, on an
pending visit of the Duke and Duchess of equatorial air trip around the world. who
Windsor to the United States with the had left Lae, New Guinea, on July 1.
announced purpose of studying labor conradioed at 3.20 P.M. (E. D. T.) that she
ditions was adopted unanimously by the was over the Pacific with a half hour's fuel
Baltimore Federation of Labor, a unit of supply and not in sight of land, "position
the A. F. of L. The stated_objection was doubtful." That was the last message.
labor hostility to Charles E. Bedaux, laborU. S. government war ships and airplanes
efficiency expert, sponsor of the tour, searched in vain for the plane and its two
author of a production-speed-up system. occupants.
Nov. 10. In Brazil, at Rio de Janeiro. PresiAus. 3. Wreckage of a Pan American-Grace
dent Getulio Vargas's Cabinet approved Airways flying boat, due from Cali,
and put into immediate effect a new ConstiColombia, with 11 passengers and a crew
tution. of 3, was found by a navy plane 20 miles Nov. 16. An airplane from Cologne bound for at sea from Cristobal. Among the pas
London hit in a fog, at 2:30 P.M., a factory sengers were Rex Martin and G. O. Cald
chimney in descending near Ostend, Belwell of the Bureau of Air Commerce, and
gium; 8 passengers and 3 of the crew were T, J. Wakely jr., of the Nat'l. City Bk.
killed. The passengers killed included Dobranch in Santiago, Chile.
wager and Grand Duchess Eleanore of Aug. 12. President Roosevelt nominated
Hesse bei Rhein, widow of the Grand Duke Senator Hugo Black of Alabama, to be As
Ernst Ludwig, who died Oct. 9; Grand
morhart Putnam. on an
1937 Duke George, 31, her son; Grand Duchess | 1938 ashore, May 29, on Long Island Sound near Cecilia, 26; Grand Duke George's wife,
New Rochelle. who was the daughter of Prince Andreas of - Mar. 2. Storms and floods in Southern CaliGreece; Prince Ludwig, 6; and Prince
fornia caused 81 deaths, of which 31 were Alexander.
in the Los Angeles area. Nov. 24. The 9-power treaty conference, in Mar. 13. In Austria, after the resignation of Brussels, adjourned indefinitely.
Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg and President Dec. 10. In a collision of two trains in Scot
Wilhelm Miklas, the new Chancellor, Arthur land, bound from Edinburgh for Glasgow,
Seyss-Inquart, proclaimed the political and in a snow storm, 35 passengers were killed.
geographic union of Germany and Austria. Dec. 11. Italy gave notice of withdrawal
This was ratified by a popular vote, exfrom the League of Nations.
cluding Jews, in Austria on April 10. MeanThe non-Russian commission of inquiry on
time, Chancellor Adolf Hitler, at the head Leon Trotsky announced in N. Y. City that
of German troops, which began to cross it had found him guiltless of the con
the frontier on March 11, had taken Doespiracy, sabotage and other charges against
session of Austria. The Italian Grand Counhim by the Stalin regime.
cil, headed by Premier Benito Mussolini, In Soviet Russia, the Congress, first under
voted approval. the new constitution, was chosen by secret
In Moscow, in the treason trials, all of the popular vote. Dec. 20. the U. S. Supreme Court ruled, 7 to
21 defendants were found guilty, of whom 2, that the government has no right to di
18, including N. Bukharin, A. 1. Rykoff,
H vulge intercepted phone messages.
G . Yagoda, N. N. Kreitinsky, G. T - Dec. 21. The Lincoln Vehicular Tunnel under
Grinko and A. P. Rosengoltz, were sentthe Hudson River between 'N. Y. City and
enced to death and were shot; imprisonment Weehawken, N. J., was opened (one tube)
was meted to c. G. Rakovsky (20 yrs.): to traffic.
S. A. Bessonor (15 yrs.), and Dr. D. D
Pletney (25 yrs.) Dec. 23. The Cuban Amnesty bill was signed, proceedings against ex-President Machado
In the Kazakhstan Republic 19 "traitors" were dropped, and he was released by the
were convicted and shot, including exU. S. Court in N. Y. City.
president U. Kolumbetoft and ex-chief Dec. 28. As the day ended the Irish Free
prosecutor S. Yeskarayeff. State became the State of Eire (Ireland).
Mar. 18. Mexico nationalized the petroleum Dec. 29. Seven members of the Christopher
industry. Columbus good-will flight to South Amer
Mar. 21. President Roosevelt removed Arthur ica died when their plane crashed in the
E. Morgan as Chairman of the Tennessee mountains near Cali, Colombia.
Valley Authority and put H. A. Morgan in Dec. 30. The yacht Aafje was towed to Los
his place. Angeles after her owner, Dwight Faulding.
March 28. New Reform Government of Reand her navigator, Jack Morgan, had been
public of China set up at Nanking. slain and cast overboard.
Apr. 5. The 1938 N. Y. State Constitutional 1938 Jan. 5. AU. S. bombing plane vanished off
Convention opened in Albany. San Pedro, Calif., with 7 Navy men aboard; Apr. 11. Richard Whitney, 49, ex-president cadet fier s. P. Hawkins was lost in the
of the N. Y. Stock Exchange, and head of search.
the collapsed bond brokerage firm of RichJan, 9. An Argentine plane crashed in Uru
ard Whitney & Co., Broad St., N. Y. City, guay: 9 persons died, including a son of
was sentenced to 5 to 10 years in State ex-President Justo of Argentina.
Prison, on each of two indictments, to Jan. 10. A plane from Seattle, Wash., for
which he had pleaded guilty, which charged Chicago fell in the mountains of Montana,
him with having misused $105.000 of the northwest of Bozeman; 9lives were lost.
trust fund established by his father-in-law, Jan. 11. The hydroplane, Samoan Clipper,
the late George R. Sheldon, and with the from American Samoa for Auckland, New
theft of $109,000 from the fund of the N, Y. Zealand, with 7 aboard, vanished near Pago
Yacht Club, of which he was treasurer. Pago.
The sentences run concurrently. He entered Jan. 16. Insurgent planes from Majorca began
Sing Sing prison on April 12. daily bombing of Barcelona; Feb. 1, Loyalist Apr. 25. Britain (The United Kingdom) and Cortes, at Montserrat, near Barcelona, got
Eire (Ireland) signed an accord under & message of sympathy from 60 U. S. Sena
which Britain gives up naval control (Adtors; Feb. 22, Insurgents recaptured Teruel:
miralty property and rights) of the ports March 6, Insurgent cruiser, Baleares, sunk
of Cobh (Queenstown), Bere Haven, and off Cartagena by Loyalist gunboat: March
Lough Swilly; and Eire agrees to pay 7, air raids kill 1,000 in Barcelona: In
£10,000,000 by Nov. 20, 1938, in final settlesurgents take Lerida; April 15, they reach
ment of Britain's claim to land annuities, the sea at Lerida cutting Loyalist Spain in
default of which since 1932 led to the two; Oct. 10, Italy begins token withdrawal
tariff war that has hurt Irish agriculture, of 10,000 troops; Dec. 23, Insurgents begin
These tariffs are now thereby abolished; final campaign against Barcelona, which
Eire agrees to continue until 1987 annual falls on Jan. 26, 1939.
payments covering damage to property durJan. 12. The first session of the U. S. S. R.'s
ing the land troubles, as provided in the “Red Parliament'', the supreme Soviet,
Anglo-Irish agreement of 1925. The Dail elected under the new constitution, opened
Eireann approved, on April 29. the pact. in the Kremlin Great Palace. Joseph Stalin
May 4. The steamship (motorship) Lafayette, was among the delegates.
was destroyed by fire at Havre, France. - Jan. 13. A commission of the Church of
She had arrived from New York on April England has reported that the creation
28. was in the drydock for an overhauling. narrative in Genesis is mythological with
and was scheduled to leave for New York a symbolic rather than a historic value.
There was a strike on one of the company's Jan. 18. Ecuador decreed explusion of alien
other ships, the Champlain, and a sailor Jews, except those in agriculture.
confessed to setting small fires on her on In Ste. Hyacinthe, Quebec, 47 persons died
May 10. in a fire at the College of the Sacred Heart. May 14. King Solomon's long-vanished seaFeb. 1. Collision of U.S. Navybombing
port, where he built and operated ships planes killed 11 persons off San Pedro,
and smelted copper, at the northern end Calii.
of the eastern arm of the Red Sea, has been -- Feb. 20. Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden
found buried under the sands near Aquaba, resigned from the British Cabinet. He was
about half a mile from the present shore at odds with Prime Minister Neville Cham
line. berlain and a majority of his colleagues on
June 19. In a train wreck, due to a bridge how to seek settlements with Italy and
collapse in a flooded creek in Montana, Germany. He took with him into retirement
east of Miles City, 47 persons were killed. Viscount Cranborne, Under-Secretary for
July 17. Douglas G. Corrigan, of Los Angeles, Foreign Affairs.
flew from Brooklyn across the Atlantic to King Carol of Rumania by proclamation abol
Dublin, without permit or passport. ished parliamentary government and re
July 26. In N. Y. City, John W. Wards, 26, placed it by a Fascist corporative Chamber
a former bank clerk, ended an 11-hour stay and Senate. The King's constitution was
on an 18-inch ledge and dived headlong to backed Feb. 24 by a popular vote-4,165,193
death at 10:38 P.M. from the 17th floor of for; 5,313 against.
the Hotel Gotham, in N. Y. City. Feb. 24. Peter Levine, 12, son of Murray July 29. The hydroplane Hawaii Clipper, with Levine, vanished from his home in New
15 aboard, for Manila, vanished when about Rochelle, N. Y. Parts of his body drifted
565 miles from there; 15 persons were lost.