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landed once in the mountains to refuel. in N. Y. City, Nov. 4, and died Nov. 6. U. S. President-elect Herbert Hoover, wife and party. made a tour of Latin America. They left San Pedro, Calif., on the battleship Maryland, on Nov. 19, there on Dec. 18; in Rio de Janeiro, on Dec. 21, reaching Norfolk and Washington on Jan. 6, 1929. 1929 The Jones Law, an amendment making more drastic the National Prohibition Act, passed by the Senate 65 to 18, on Feb. 19: by the House, 283 to 90 on Feb. 28. and approved by President Coolidge on March 2. The Papal State, extinct since 1870, was recreated under the name of the State of Vatican City, under the terms signed at Rome, Feb. 11. They went into effect May 7.


In Mexico a revolution under Gen. J. G.
Escobar began in March. Roman Catholic
leaders denied complicity. The rebellion
ended in May; 4,000 killed, 11,000 wounded.
Fire, explosion and chemical fumes from X-
ray Alms (nitrogen-dioxide) killed 124_at
the Cleveland, O., Clinic Hospital of Dr.
George W. Crile, May 15.

Settlement of the dispute between Chile and
Peru over the provinces of Tacna and Arica
was announced by President Hoover award-
ing Tacna to Peru and Arica to Chile. The
treaty was signed in Lima, June 3.
Convicts revolted in Clinton State Prison,
Dannemora, N. Y., July 22; three guards
killed; part of prison plant burned.
President Hoover, on July 24, proclaimed
the Kellogg-Briand Anti-War Treaty in
effect (at 1:22 P. M.) under which 62 lead-
ing powers pledge themselves to renounce
war as an instrument of national policy.
At the State Prison at Auburn, N. Y., on
July 28, the convicts rioted, seized the
-prison arsenal and distributed arms.
Guards, state troopers and militiamen.
drove the prisoners to cover with machine
guns, rifles and tear bombs. The damage
to property was $450,000. Two prisoners
were killed.

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The Graf Zeppelin dirigible balloon, with 20 passengers, left Friedrichshafen, Germany, on Aug. 14, and went east around the world, over Russia, and Asia, at Tokio (Aug. 19) over the Pacific at Los Angeles (Aug. 26); at Lakehurst, N. J. (Aug. 29)). She had left Lakehurst on Aug. 8. She left there on Sept. 1, and landed at Friedrichshafen on Sept. 4.



A mutiny, on Oct: 3, of convicts at the Colo-
rado State Penitentiary, at Canon City,
lasted until Oct. 4, when the four leaders of
the revolt killed themselves and the rest
surrendered. Seven guards and five felons 1931
were killed. The chapel, mess hall, and
two cell-houses were burned.

Albert B. Fall, former Secretary of the In-
terior, was found guilty in the Supreme
Court of the District of Columbia of ac-
cepting a bribe of $100,000 from Edward
L. Doheny in the leasing of the Elks Hills
naval oil reserve during the Harding Ad-
ministration. He was sentenced, on Nov.
1, to $100,000 fine and a year in prison.
which he entered July 20, 1931.
Late in October the prices of stocks began to
go downwards, and this movement at New
York and elsewhere continued through the
rest of the year, with occasional brief ral-
lies. Declines in stock values up to the
end of 1929 reached $15,000,000,000. It was
testified in 1932 before a U. S. Senate Com-
mittee that the 1929-1931 stock losses af-
fected 25,000,000 persons, and totaled $50,-

The Atlantic coast, from N. Y. City north-
ward to Newfoundland and Nova Scotia
was shaken, on Nov. 18, by an earthquake.
A tidal wave swept the south coast of the
Burin Peninsula, Newfoundland, drowning
over 40 persons.

Commander Richard E. Byrd started from his base, Little America, in the Antarctic, at 3.29 (10.29 p.m. New York time), Nov 28, on a 1,600-mile flight to the South Pole and back, with Bert Balchen as pilot, Harold I. June as radio operator, and Capt. Ashley C. McKinly as photographer, in the tri-motored airplane he took to the Antarctic. The party got back on Nov. 29, at 5.10 p.m. (N. Y. time), and reported that they reached the Pole on Nov. 29, about 8.55 a.m. (N. Y. time) dropped a U. S. flag there (it was 16° below zero); circled over the polar plateau, and, on the return journey.

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landed once in the mountains to refuel.
Following a strike, on Dec. 4, at the Cus-
toms Office. U. S. Marines declared mar-
tial law in Port-au-Prince, and in Cape
Hatien, Haiti; 500 more marines were
sent to Haiti; on Dec. 6, marines killed
5 and wounded 20 in a force of 1,500 peas-
ants advancing on Aux Cayes.
Long-term armed felons in the State Prison
at Auburn, N. Y., captured Warden Edgar
S. Jennings and several guards on Dec.
11. Six convicts were shot to death. George
A. Durnford, chief keeper, was killed.
Floods and rains in the valley of the River
Tarn in Southern France, Mch. 5, killed
over 400, and destroyed 4,000 homes, and
also other structures, mostly at Montauban
and at Moissac.

Fire, April 21, killed 320 convicts in the
Ohio State Penitentiary, Columbus.
The London Naval Reduction Treaty was
signed there, April 22. The Senate ratified
the treaty on July 21, and the President
signed it on July 22. It was proclaimed
by President Hoover in effect on Jan. 1.
1931. Its terms expired on Dec. 31, 1936.
The Allied Reparation Commission estab-
lished under the Treaty of Versailles to col-
lect the war indemnity from Germany,
ended its labors at a meeting at Paris, May
17, simultaneously with the conclusion of
the Dawes plan regime and the official com-
mencement of the Young plan.

The Bolivian government was overthrown,
June 22, by rebels: the Peruvian Govt..
Aug. 22-27; the Argentine Govt., Sept. 6:
the Brazil Govt., Oct. 24.

The last French soldiers of the army of oc-
cupation at the Kehl bridgehead of the
Rhine were withdrawn, June 28, to Stras-
bourg, and Baden was entirely freed.
Evacuation of the Rhineland was completed
on June 30.

Joseph F. Crater, a justice of the State Supreme Court, N. Y. City, vanished on-the night of Aug. 6.

A hurricane, on Sept. 3, struck the City
of Santo Domingo and nearby country;
2,000 were killed, 6,000 injured, with dam-
ages estimated at $40,000,000.

The British dirigible balloon, R-101, on Oct.
5. hit a wooded hill, and burned up, near
Allone, France, on the way from Croydon to
India; 47 killed.

In Belgium, in the Valley of the Meuse, be-
tween Liege and Huyann, dense fog. on
Dec. 5, killed 75 persons and many cattle.
The Bank of United States, at N. Y. City.
was closed, Dec. 11, by the State au-

The Panama Republic's government, headed
by F. H. Arosemena, was overthrown: 10
were killed, Jan. 2.
Constitutional guarantees were restored, Feb.
8, in Spain. They had been suspended by
Premier Rivera on Sept. 23, 1923; the na-
tional election was held on April 12: King
Alfonso fled from Madrid on April 14; and
a republic was proclaimed; a new Parlia-
ment was elected on June 28, and Alcalo
Zamora was chosen president.

The Peruvian Government was upset by
revolution, on Mch. 1; that of Chili, on
July 24; Paraguay, Oct. 26; Salvador, Dec. 3.
Earthquakes killed 1,000 in Managua, Nicar-
agua, Mch. 31, and destroyed many build-
The King and Queen of Siam and party ar-
rived in Victoria, B. C., on April 16: on
April 22 they settled in Scarborough, near
N. Y. City, and the King had a cataract
removed from his eye, on May 10; they
left on July 28 for Canada and Siam.
President Hoover, on June 20, proposed a 1-
year moratorium on intergovernmental
debts, to begin July 1. This took effect.
A tidal wave, on Sept. 10, killed 1,200 per-
sons in Belize, British Honduras, and
destroyed buildings.

Great Britain, on Sept. 21, suspended the
gold standard for 6 months. She was fol-
lowed by Denmark, on Sept. 28, and Fin-
land on Oct. 12: Japan, Dec. 13.
Jack (Legs) Diamond, was assassinated in
Albany, N. Y., Dec. 8, a day after his ac-
quittal of kidnapping.

1932 Joseph Kahahawai, a Hawaiian, on trial in
Honolulu on a charge of attacking the wife
of Lieut. Thos. H. Massie, a naval officer
on the U. 8. N. receiving ship. Alton, was
kidnapped and slain, Jan. 8, after the jury
had disagreed.


counsel to the legislative committee in its
inquiry into the city government. Walker
had been a witness before that committee.
After passing over the Virgin Islands, where
15 persons were killed, a hurricane ripped
across Puerto Rico, Sept. 27, killing 245,
injuring 3,329; destroying 36,249 buildings,
damaging 30,046; and leaving over 41,000
families in need of food; property loss.

Earthquakes on Dec. 26, killed 70,000 persons
in the Kaoti district of the northwest Prov-
ince of Kansu, China.

1933 The U. S. Marines withdrew from Nicaragua
on Jan. 2, and on Feb. 2, Gen. Sandino
ended his rebellion.

1932 In Shanghai, Chinese gangsters, on Jan. 15, 1932
slew a Buddhist priest from Japan, Hideo
Minakami. This was the first of a series
of troubles which led, on Jan. 27, to the
landing of Japanese marines, and warfare.
The Spanish Parliament, Jan. 19, by decree
dissolved the Society of Jesus (Jesuits).
The Jesuits were, by decree of the Franco
government, in January, 1940, readmitted
to Spain, and their property was restored.
Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Jr., 19 months
old (born at Englewood, N. J., June 22,
1930), was kidnapped, between 8 and 10
p. a., Mch. 1, from the new Lindbergh
home near Hopewell, N. J., in the Sourland
Mountain region, northwest of Princeton.
The body, reduced almost to a skeleton,
was found on May 12, in a thicket near a
roadway, less than 5 miles from the babe's
home, and between Hopewell and Prince-
ton. The discovery was made by a negro
teamster who had stopped his wagon and
had stepped into the woods on an errand.
Meantime, John F. Condon, for Col. Lind-
bergh, had paid $50,000 in Bronx Borough
to an alleged agent of the kidnapers, and
Gaston B. Means, Washington, had col-
lected $100,000 from Mrs. Evelyn Walsh
McLean, on the promise to restore the
Lindbergh baby. Means was sent to prison.
On Sept. 10, 1934, Bruno Richard Haupt-
mann, 35, married, father of a baby boy.
carpenter, paroled German convict who had
entered the United States unlawfully, at
N. Y. City, in 1923, was arrested near his
home in the Wakefield section of the
Bronx, after he had passed a ransom bank-
note at a gasoline filling station; over $14.-
000 of the ransom money was found hidden
He was indicted in the
in his garage.
Bronx on Sept. 26, on an extortion charge;
on Oct. 8, he was indicted in Hunterdon
on a burglary-murder
County, N.
charge; on Jan. 3, 1935, he was put to
trial in Flemington and was identified by
Col. Lindbergh, by Condon and others; a
part of the kidnap ladder was sworn to
have come from his attic; he denied his
guilt under oath and testified he got the
ransom money from the late Isador Fisch
The jury, on which several women served
convicted Hauptman on Feb. 13. and
Supreme Court Justice T. W. Trenchard
sentenced him to die in the week of Mch
2. An appeal was taken to the State Cour
of Errors and Appeals, which sustained the
conviction. The U. S. Supreme Court re-
Governor Harold G
fused to interfere.
Hoffman gave Hauptmann a month's re-
prieve, characterizing the trial in Fleming-
ton as unfair, and adding that such :
The State
crime suggested an accomplice.


Board of Pardons refused to commute th
sentence. He was executed on April 3

Congress, Mch. 2, passed a joint resolution
proposing to the States an amendment to
the Federal Constitution, under which Con-
gress would meet each year on Jan. 3, and
the terms of the President and Vice-Presi-
It wa
dent would begin on Jan. 20.
adopted by the States.
Ivar Kreuger, 52, unmarried, Swedish "match
king," shot himself to death, Mch. 12, in

Revolution, June 4, in Chili.

In Siam, a bloodless revolution changed the
government from an absolute into a lim-
ited monarchy, June 24.


Zachary S. Reynolds, 20, a son of R. J
Reynolds. cigarette
found shot to death, July 6, in his home.
Winston-Salem, N. C.

The Lausanne Reparations Conference ad-
journed, July 9, after agreeing that Ger-
many can settle in full for $714,000,000.
A treaty was signed in Washington between
Canada and the United States, July 18, for
the proposed development of the St. Law-
rence waterway into an ocean lane and
power project.

The British Imperial Economic Conference
opened in Ottawa, Can., July 21. It finally
agreed on tariffs to mutualize the trade
of the Empire.

James J. Walker, resigned, Sept. 1, as Mayor
of N. Y. City, and went to Europe.
ended the charges on which he was being
tried before Gov. Roosevelt on removal pro-
by Samuel Seabury,
ceedings, initiated

An epidemic of "bank holidays" in the
United States began on Feb. 14, in Michi-
gan, when Gov. W. A. Comstock ordered
all banks in that State closed for 8 days.
All banks in the United States were closed
by proclamation of President Roosevelt be-
ginning on March 6. The Stock and Com-
modity Exchanges in New York City and
elsewhere also closed, beginning March 6.
and reopened mostly on March 15.
banks reopened, such as were fit, gradually.
from March 9, onward.


The movement to collect hoarded gold from the people commenced early in March. Congress on the 9th, in special session granting the President dictatorial power A presidential over all forms of money.

ban on gold exports began on April 19. On
June 5 the President signed an Act of
the gold-payment
Congress outlawing
clause in all monies, and other public and
private contracts. In October the Govern-
ment commenced to buy domestic and for-
eign gold above the market price, for
the purpose of raising commodity prices.
Feb. 24, banned mortgage
Minnesota, on
foreclosures on farms and homes. The
movement spread to other States. The
was sustained by the
Minnesota action
U. S. Supreme Court in a 5-to-4 decision.
The German Reichstag (Parliament) Build-
ing, in Berlin, was 'destroyed on Feb. 27 by
fire. The Supreme Court found Marinus
van der Lubbe, a young Dutch Communist,
guilty, and he was beheaded on Jan. 10,
1934, in Leipzig, in Saxony.

Earthquakes in Southern California on Mch.
10, at Long Beach and near by, killed 130
persons and caused $50,000,000 damage.
The U. S. Navy dirigible balloon, Akron, was
beaten down in a storm, on April 4, off
Barnegat, N. J.; 73 persons were drowned,
including Rear Admiral W. A. Moffett, the
Aviation Chief.

The World Economic Conference opened, in
London, June 12, but came to naught.
Spain, by Parliamentary edict, on May 17,
disestablished the church.

The Century of Progress Exposition opened in
Chicago, on May 27, and closed at midnight
of Nov. 12; it reopened in 1934 on May 26
and closed on Oct. 31; attendance (1933)
22,320,456; (1934) 16,306,090-total, 38,626,-

The U. S. Congress, on June 13, passed the
National Industrial Recovery Act (signed
June 16) which, with the Agricultural Ad-
justment Act (signed May 12) gave the
President control of agriculture and in-
dustry. The N. R. A. was killed by the
U. S. Supreme Court on May 27, 1935, and
the A. A. A. processing taxes on Jan. 6, 1936.
In Germany, on June 22, the Hitler Govern-
ment began to proscribe all political parties
Labor Party (Nazis), beginning with the
Social Democratic Party. At the same time
the campaign was under way to reduce by
law the percentage of Jews in government
life, in industry, and in the professions.
Kidnapping, in Albany, July 7, of John J.
O'Connell, Jr., was followed by that of
Charles F. Urschel (July 23, Oklahoma
City); Jake the Barber, Chicago; and
others. At San Jose, Calif., Nov. 9, Brook
was seized,
L. Hart, a young merchant,
bound, beaten, and flung into San Fran-
cisco Bay, following a demand for ransom.
A mob on Nov. 26, after the body was
found, broke into the jail, and dragged
forth and hanged Thomas H. Thurmond
and John Holmes.

In Rome, July 15, a 10-yr. peace pact was
signed by Italy, France, Germany and
Great Britain.

An army revolt in Cuba caused President


Machado, Aug. 12, to resign and flee. Carlos 1934 Cespedes became Provisional President. Aug. 13; but another army revolt, Sept. 5, put Ramon Grau San Martin in the presidency. He resigned on Jan. 15, 1934, and the Junta put in Carlos Hevia, who was succeeded on Jan. 18 by Col. Carlos Mendieta. After conferences at the White House with Maxim M. Litvinoff, USSR Commissar of Foreign Affairs, President Roosevelt, on Nov. 16. declared renewal of normal diplomatic relations between the United States and Soviet Russia. The first ambassador, Alexander Troyanovsky, presented his credentials on Jan. 7, 1934, at the White House.

1934 Clyde Barrow, 28, on Jan. 16, with a machine
gun, wounded two guards at the Eastham
(Tex.) State Prison Farm, and liberated
Raymond Hamilton and four other con-
victs. On May 23, Barrow and his girl
chum, Bonnie Parker, 23, were shot to
death near Arcadia, La., by officers of the

On Jan. 16, Edward G. Bremer, 37, was kid-
napped for $200,000 in St. Paul, Minn.
He was released on Feb. 7, in Rochester,
On Jan. 25, at Tucson, Ariz., police captured
John Dillinger, Charles Makley, Russell
Clark and Harry Pierpont, together with
$36,000 in money, and they were returned
to jail, Dillinger to Crown Point, Ind., and
the others to Lima, O. Dillinger and a
Negro felon, Herbert Youngblood, escaped
from the Crown Point Prison on March 3.
Dillinger was shot to death on July 22,
outside a movie house, Lincoln Ave., Chi-
cago, by U. S. Dept. of Justice agents.
Youngblood was shot to death, Mch. 16, at
Port Huron, Mich.

Jan. 31, The U. S. Government reduced the
dollar's gold weight from 25.8 grains to
15.5/21 grains 9/10 fine, making its gold
value 59.06+ per cent of the par fixed by
the 1900 Act.

Feb. 19, U. S. cancelled all air mail contracts.
The Army carried the air mail for 312
months, losing a dozen officers in plane

In Austria, Feb. 12-15, an abortive Social
Democrat uprising in Vienna, Linz and
other places cost 100 lives, with 300

Feb. 17, Albert I, 58, King of the Belgians,
noted mountain climber, was killed by fall-
ing from a cliff overlooking the River
Meuse, east of Namur.

Mch. 6, Dr. Alice L. Wynekoop, 63, was con-
victed, in Chicago, of the murder of her
son's wife, Mrs. Rheta Gardner Wynekoop,
22, Nov. 21, 1933, and was sentenced, Mch.
24, to a 25-yr. prison term.

Mch. 22, U. S. Congress granted Philippine
independence, later ratified by the Philip-
pine Legislature, effective in 1945 or soon

April 27, at Buenos Aires, the Argentine,
anti-war pact, previously agreed on at the
Pan-American conference in Montevideo,
was signed by the United States, Bolivia,
Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El
Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras,
Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela. It was
signed on Oct. 10, 1933, by Argentina,
Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay and
Uruguay, in Rio.


May 10, drought and dust storms in the U. S. mid-West are destroying winter wheat. Longshoremen and other dock laborers began strikes on the U. S. Pacific and Atlantic coasts, marked by violence and fatalities. A general strike of union workers started on July 16, in San Francisco, but quickly fizzled; the dock strikes practically ended by arbitration on July 29. May 29, The Treaty of Relations between the United States of America and the Republic of Cuba was signed, abrogating the Treaty of Relations concluded between the United States and Cuba on May 22, 1903. It was ratified May 31, by the U. S. Senate and was put into force on June 9. May 31, The U. S. Grand Fleet of 81 warships

and 35.000 officers and men entered New York Harbor for the first time in four years.

June 14, Germany proclaimed a transfer moratorium, and suspended cash payments on her foreign debts.

June 15, The U. S. Senate ratified the Geneva

(June 17, 1925) convention for the supervision of international trade in arms, ammunition and implements of war, including aircraft and airships.

June 28, The U. S. Treasury banned silver exports. June 30, In Germany, a plot by Nazi leaders and Storm Troop commanders to overthrow the regime of Chancellor Adolf Hitler was discovered. There were many arrests, executions and suicides. Ex-Chancellor Gen. Kurt van Schleicher, 51, was shot to death resisting arrest. His wife also was killed.

July 1, President Roosevelt went on board the U. S. cruiser Houston, off Annapolis, Md., and started for Hampton Roads, and Hawaii; landed in Portland, Oregon, on August 3; and then started back East through the drought afflicted plains states. July 17. Strike of Minneapolis truck drivers; ended Aug. 21.

July 25, Nazis in Vienna, Austria, seized the building used by the Cabinet, shot Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss, 41, to death. The police and loyal troops soon recaptured the Chancellory, with some loss of life. Aug. 1, In Port Au Prince, the United States relinquished control of Haiti.

Aug. 19, The German people approved the consolidation of the offices of President and Chancellor in a single Leader-Chancellor, Adolf Hitler, which followed the death of President von Hindenburg, Aug. 2. Aug. 21, a band of robbers took $427,950 from a Rubel armed car on Bay 19th St., Brooklyn.

Sept. 1, Strike orders applying to 1,000,000 employees in the cotton, silk and wool divisions, went into effect at 11:30 P. M., issued by the United Textile Workers of America: The trouble was greatest in Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina in the South, and in Maine and Rhode Island. The National Guard and mobs clashed in several states and over 20 persons were killed. President Roosevelt's personal appeal ended the strike on Sept. 22, pending further arbitration.

Sept. 21, Hurricane winds have swept across Honshiu, the central island of Japan. Fatalities totaled 4,232; damage over $90,000,000.

Oct. 5, In Spain, a revolutionary general strike was called by Communist and Socialist leaders in protest against the inclusion by Premier Alejandro Lerroux of three Catholic Popular Actionists in his new cabinet. In the province of Catalonia an independent free state was proclaimed. Sanguinary disorders occurred at Madrid, Barcelona and other cities and industrial centres. All of Spain was put under martial law. President Luis Companys and other Catalan rebels were captured after loyal troops had shelled the public buildings at Barcelona. Warships were sent to the coast cities. Churches and convents were burned by anti-Catholics.

Oct. 9, King Alexander I (45) of Yugo Slavia and Foreign Minister Jean Louis Barthou (72) of France, were assassinated in Marseilles, where the King had landed from a warship, and was on the way to a diplomatic conference at Paris. The slayer, Velichko Kerin, alias Peter Kaleman, alias Valada G. Chernozemsky, born in Bulgaria, was sabred and beaten and stamped to death, but not before he had shot Gen. Alfonse J. Georges and several spectators. Oct. 10, In Louisville, Ky., Mrs. Berry V. Stoll (Alice Speed) 26, wife of an oil operator, was beaten and taken from her home by a kidnapper who left a demand for $50,000. On Oct. 16, she was found by agents of the U. S. Dept. of Justice, near Scottsburg, Ind. The kidnaper, Thomas H. Robinson Jr. was caught in California, May 11, 1936 and on May 13 sentenced to imprisonment for life.

Oct. 22, Charles (Pretty Boy) Floyd, 30, was shot to death by U. S. officers near East Liverpool, Ohio.

Nov. 24, In Chicago, the $100,000,000 Insull mail fraud trial ended in a verdict of not guilty for Samuel Insull and his 16 co-defendants, all former associates in the utilities and financial field. Included among them were Harold L. Stuart, Charles B. Stuart, Stanley Field, Clarence W. Sills, and Edward J. Doyle.

Nov. 27, With a machine gun, George (Baby



Face) Nelson (Lester M. Gillis) shot death U. S. Dept. of Justice Agent Herman E. Hollis, and mortally wounded his associate Samuel P. Cowley, near Chicago. The next day, Nelson's dead body was found in Niles Center, wrapped in blanket. Dec. 9, First clash between Ethiopian and Italian soldiers at or near Wai Wai, on the disputed frontier of Italian Somaliland; Dec. 15, Italy refused arbitration as to the frontier and demanded reparations and an apology; 1935-Jan. 10, fighting resumed. Italy mobilized 70,000 troops; a committee i of conciliation was agreed to: May 13, Ethiopia protested to the League of Nations; Oct. 3, Italian forces invaded Ethiopía, Adowa bombed; Oct. 4, Adigrat occupied; Oct. 6, Adowa occupied; Oct. 14, Aksum, the Holy City, taken; Nov. 6, Makale and Gorahia occupied; 1936-March 29, Harar destroyed; April 13, Italian forces on North Shore of Lake Tana (Tsana); April 15, Dessie taken; May 1, Emperor Haile Selassie and family fled from Addis Ababa to Jibuti, whence they went on a British cruiser to Palestine; May 5, Premier Benito Mussolini, in Rome, announced the war over, Ethiopia annexed, and King Victor Emmanuel had become Emperor of Ethiopia; so decreed, May 9.

1935 The Saar Territory, taken from Germany by the Versailles World War Treaty, voted, Jan. 13, to return to German ownership. on March 1.

Feb. 12, The $4,000,000 U. S. navy dirigible,
balloon, Macon, sank in the Pacific several
miles off Point Sur, Calif.: 2 lost.
Feb. 18, The U. S. Supreme Court, 5 to 4.
held that Congress was within its power in
abrogating the gold clause in private con-
tracts, but had gone too far in doing so in
government obligations.

Mch. 12, The brief revolution in Greece ended,
when ex-Premier Elentherios Venizelos fled
with his wife, from Canea to the Italian
island of Rhodes. Venizelos, 71, died, Mch.
18, in exile, at Paris.

April 5, The $4,880,000,000 works relief bill
was passed by both branches of Congress.
The House approved by 317 to 70. The
Senate adopted it 66 to 13. The bill was
signed by the President on April 8.
April 11-14, Stresa Conference for peace rati-
fied by Britain, France, and Italy, the

May 6, The U. S. Supreme Court upset the
Railroad Pension Act.


May 18, Near Moscow, the airplane Maxim Gorky, the world's largest land crashed, killing 48, every soul aboard. The pilot of another plane, which collided with the Gorky in midair was killed. June 14, Bolivia-Paraguay war in the Chaco ceased, by truce, officially over, Oct. 28. Aug. 9. President Roosevelt signed the Social Security bill.

Aug. 15, Will Rogers, 56, comedian, and Wiley Post, 36, aviator, were instantly killed when Post's rebuilt airplane fell 60 feet in a fog 15 miles from Point Barrow, Alaska. Aug. 29-The Queen of the Belgians, 29, (Princess Astrid of Sweden) was killed by skull fracture when an automobile in which she and the King were riding, left the road skirting Lake Lucerne, in Switzerland, near the city of Lucerne, hit two trees and careened into the water.

Sept. 2, Storms killed 300 along the Florida Keys, including 200 war vets on relief at construction camps.

Sept. 15-Jews in Germany lost citizenship with political rights.


Oct. 21, Storm killed 2,000 in Haiti. Oct. 23, Arthur (Dutch Schultz) Flegenheimer, 33, and 3 companions-Otto Berand Abe Frank, Bernard Rosenkrantz, were fatally shot in a tavern in Newark, N. J. Nov. 14, A proclamation certifying the freedom of the Philippine Islands and the election of officials chosen by ballot in the islands on Sept. 17 was signed by President Roosevelt a few minutes after noon. Manila, occurred the inaugural ceremonies for President Manuel Quezon. Nov. 18, Economic sanctions against Italy went into effect, supported by 52 nationmembers of the League of Nations, and by one non-member, Egypt. The sanctions ended on July 15, 1936.


Nov. 29, Federal dole (direct relief) ended in


the U. S. It had cost $3,694,000,000 since May, 1933.

Dec. 30, Col. Charles A. Lindbergh, wife and child, arrived in Liverpool and took up residence in Wales.

1936 Jan. 1, The U. S. Federal Act creating Jobinsurance went into effect.

Jan. 6, The U. S. Supreme Court. 6 to 3 (Stone, Brandeis, Cardozo), in an opinion read by Justice Roberts, upset the Agricultural Adjustment Act, declaring it to be an invasion of rights of the States to regulate their local activities. It specifically banned the use of processing taxes to regulate crop production. The minority termed the decísion a tortured construction of the Constitution." On Jan. 13, the Court ordered $200,000,000 of impounded processing taxes returned to the suing processors, and, on Jan. 20, peremptorily ordered the taxes returned at once.

Jan. 20, King George V, 70, died at his farm.
Sandringham, England, and was succeeded
by his eldest son, Prince of Wales, 42, who
took title as Edward VIII. He abdicated
on Dec. 11, 1936, and was succeeded by his
brother next in age, the married Duke of
York, who became George VI. The ex-
ruler resumed his family name as David
Windsor, but soon was created Duke of
Windsor. He gave up the throne he said
because he could not marry the "woman I
love" Mrs. Wallis Warfield, of Baltimore,
Maryland, who, on Oct. 27, had gotten a
divorce at Ipswich, England, from Ernest
A. Simpson, an insurance agent. The decree
became absolute on May 3, 1937. On June 3.
1937, at Monts, France, the couple were

Feb. 16, In Spain the Socialists and anarchists
won the department elections. There were
general jail deliveries. Soon thereafter re-
bellion began, in Morocco, and spread to
Spain, under Gen. Francisco Franco.
Feb. 17, In Paraguay a revolution deposed
President Eusebio Ayala.

Mch. 2, The U. S. renounced its guarantee of
the independence of Panama.

Mch 7, German troops began to reoccupy the demilitarized Rhineland zone.

Floods continued in Pennsylvania, Maryland,
and West Virginia.

Mch. 25. The U. S., Britain and France
signed in London, a naval arms limitation
treaty to go in effect on Jan. 1, 1937 and
to stay in force until Dec. 31, 1942.
April 7, In Spain the Parliament deposed
President N. A. Zamora.

June 4, In France the first Socialist govern-
ment took office, under Leon Blum.
June 17. In Canada their New Deal Acts were
declared invalid.

June 27, The Great Lakes Exposition opened
in Cleveland, O.

July 13, In Madrid, Jose Calvo Sotelo, 47, a
monarchist leader in the Cortes (Parlia-
ment) was removed from his home by
Assault Guards for questioning as to the
assassination of Lieut. Jose Castillo of their
organization. Sotelo next appeared in the
East Cemetery as a corpse. Death was due
to bullet and bayonet wounds.
July 17, Revolt against Spain's Republican
Government begins in Morocco and spreads
to Spain, included much of army and air-
force and half of navy; July 18, Jose Giral
became Loyalist premier; July 19, Loyalists
defeated Insurgents in Madrid. Insurgents
control cities of Cadiz, Huelva, Seville,
Cordoba, and Grenada; July 24, Insurgents
set up own government and, Aug. 16 take
Badajoz; Aug. 27 begin aerial bombing of
Madrid; Sept. 4 they take Irun; Sept. 12
they take San Sebastian, and Toledo Sept.
28; Oct. 1, Cen. Francisco Franco pro-
claimed head of Nationalist (Insurgent)
Government; Oct. 21, siege of Madrid by
Insurgents begun; Nov. 6 Loyalist govern-
ment moves from Madrid to Valencia.
Aug. 23, Convicted at Moscow of plotting to
kill Joseph Stalin and other Soviet leaders
the following were sentenced to death:
Gregory Zinovieff, Leon Kameneff, T.
Smirnoff, A. Evdokimoff, T. Bakaeff, S.
Mirachkovsky, V. Olberg, K. Berman-
Yure, Fritz David, Moses Lurrie, N. Yurie,
T. Reingold, R. Pickel, V. Tervoganian, P.
Dreitzler, E. Holzmann. They were shot
on Aug 25, it was announced.
Oct. 14, In Brussels, King Leopold, in a state-
ment to a Cabinet council, announced Bel-
gium had severed her military alliances and


was resuming her pre-war neutrality.
Oct. 30, Waterfront activity in all American
ports of the Pacific Coast came to a halt as
39,000 maritime workers went on strike at
midnight, and picket lines were established.
More than 100 ships were tied up in Pacific
ports, 47 of them in San Francisco. The
strike spread to New York and other
Eastern and Gulf Ports.
Nov. 6. In London, a protocol laying down
rules for the conduct of submarines was
signed on behalf of all signatories of the
Washington Naval Treaty of 1922. No sub-
marines may sink or disable a merchant
vessel unless all the passengers and crew
first are placed in "a place of safety."
Dec. 1. In Buenos Aires, President Roosevelt
in a speech at the opening of the Inter-
American Conference for the Maintenance
of Peace called upon the nations of the New
World to unite to help the Old World avert
War. The conference, on Dec. 16, adopted
the collective security convention, the non-
intervention protocol, and the resolution
calling upon republics that have not al-
ready done SO to ratify existing peace
treaties. On Dec. 19, the body adopted a
neutrality convention that obligates all the
American countries to take a common joint
attitude as neutrals in case of an outbreak
of hostilities among any two of them. The
gathering ended on Dec. 23, as the Foreign
Ministers of Paraguay and Bolivia pledged
that their countries would settle the Chaco
dispute by pacific means.

Dec. 12, In China, Gen. Chiang Kai-shek
was kidnapped at Sian by Gen. Chang
Hsueh-Liang, and was held prisoner until
Dec. 25.

Dec. 21. The Cuban House of Representa-
tives impeached President Miguel M. Gom-
ez, and he was tried and removed from
office for trying to coerce the Congress as
to legislation.

Dec. 27. Charles Mattson, 10, was kidnapped from his home in Tacoma, Wash., was held awhile for ransom, then was murdered. The body was found, near Everett, Wash., Jan. 11, 1937.

Dec. 30. In Flint, Mich., backed by the John L. Lewis Committee for Industrial Organization, (C.I.O.). the United Automobile Workers of America started its campaign to include the nation's automobile industry within its ranks. It struck at the center of General Motors operations and halted activities in three of its unit plants. 1937 Jan. 1. In Spain, the Insurgent shelling of Madrid, was continued at intervals; Feb. 8, Insurgents took Malaga. The Insurgent headquarters were (military) at Burgos. and (diplomatic) at Salamanca; Bilbao, on June 19; Santander, on Aug. 25; Gijon, on Oct. 21. Warships of Great Britain, France, Italy, and Germany, on Mch. 13, began to police the coasts of Spain under the 27nation neutrality agreement. Gen. Franco, on April 19, set up a one-party State, dissolving the Fascist and Carlist organizations. The Insurgent battleship, Espana, was sunk, April 30, by airplanes, off Santander; May 17, new Loyalist Government formed under Premier Juan Negrin; many were killed in an Anarchist uprising in Barcelona; Oct. 28, Loyalists shifted government to Barcelona; Nov. 28, Insurgents proclaimed blockade of all Loyalist ports. Jan. 4. The U. S. Supreme Court unanimously upset the conviction and jail sentence of Dirk de Jonge. Oregon Communist, accused of violating the State's Criminal Syndicalism Law. The Court asserted that the right of peacable assembly was as fundamental as the constitutional guarantees of freedom of speech and freedom of the press. Jan. 20. In Washington, on the main portico of the Capitol, his head bared to rain, Franklin Delano Roosevelt took for the second time the oath as President of the United States. Jan. 22. Floods in the valleys of the Mississippi, Alleghany and Ohio Rivers and their branches began to bring death, homelessness, privation, property destruction and traffic tie-ups at Pittsburgh, Portsmouth, O., Huntington, W. Va., Louisville, Cincinnati, and many other places. The flood damage was more severe in Louisville, Paducah, Ky., Cincinnati and Pittsburgh. In Kentucky over 225 persons were drowned; in Illinois, 15; in Missouri, 17; in Tennessee, 10; in Arkansas, 28; and small numbers in Ohio,


West Virginia, Pennsylvania and Mississippi. Over 500,000 homes and vast areas of farm lands were flooded. Including deaths indirectly due, the total was estimated at 900. Över 35 rescue workers were drowned by sinking, on Jan. 30, of a steel barge in the Mississippi near New Madrid, Mo.

In Moscow, a treason trial, Jan. 23-30. resulted in execution of 13 of 17 defendants, Karl Radek (Sobelsohn) got off with a 10-yr. sentence to prison.

In China, Feb. 3, a military revolt in Sian, capital of Shensi Province, brought the assassination of Gen. Wang I-Cheh, chief of the forces of the Central government of the Republic. In April, Prince Chichibue, oldest brother of Emperor Hirohito of Japan made with his wife, a good-will visit to the United States, England, and the Continent. In May, the army-supported Japanese Cabinet of Hayashi resigned. Early in July the fighting in China, west of Peiping, was renewed by the Japanese. Tungchow was attacked on July 27; the Japanese on July 29, bombed Tientsin, destroying Nankai University; on Aug. 9, they took formal possession of Peiping; on Aug. 11, they landed marines at Shanghai and shelled Nankow. Thereafter there was almost continuous fighting in Shanghai, where on Aug. 14, Chinese misdirected bombs killed several hundred civilians, and on Aug. 22, an artillery shell fell in the International Settlement, destroying a department store and killing 400 persons. The Japanese blockade of the East Coast of China began on Aug. 25, covering 800 miles and was extended in Sept. to cover 2,700 miles. The Dollar Line ship. President Hoover, and other vessels on the Yangtze, were hit by stray Chinese or Japanese shells. Nanking, Canton, and many other places in the eastern provinces of China were attacked by Japanese planes. On Oct. 23, Suiyuan Province declared independence from China. On Nov. 8, the Chinese abandoned Shanghai as an administrative point, and the Japanese took control. Premier Chiang Kai-Shek moved his headquarters to Hankow. On Dec. 12. Japanese shells sank the U. S. gunboat Panay, with loss of 2 lives; and several American oil carriers, (the captain of one died) on the Yangtze River above Nanking. Several British craft were hit by the shells. A number of lives were lost. For these and other "accidental" bombings, the Japanese apologized and assumed financial responsibility. The United States and Britain had made strong protests. On Dec. 14th, the pro-Japanese administration in Peiping announced it had restored the city's old name, Peking. During the year many lepers were executed by the Chinese government.

Jan. 30. Chancellor Hitler told the Reichstag that Germany annuls and repudiates the admission implied in her signature of the Versailles Treaty fixing upon her responsibility for the World War, and, from this time onward the German railways and the German Reichsbank are free from the obligations imposed upon them by that treaty and are restored to the complete sovereignty of the Reich. He issued a decree forbidding Germans to accept any Nobel prize in the future and establishing rival prizes for Germans only.

Feb. 11. The General Motors Corporation signed a strike settlement with its employees, with increase of 5 cents an hour in wages. In some of the Michigan strikes court injunctions were defied. Most of the big steel mills signed up. May 30, the police were attacked by Republic Steel Corp.'s strikers in South Chicago, they said, and in the combat 16 workers were shot and killed. In June a short strike cut off the electric currents in Michigan's Saginaw Valley. There were several marine workers' strikes on the East, South and West coasts.

Mch. 2. Quakes shook Ohio, Michigan, Indiana. West Virginia and Kentucky. Mch. 18. An explosion of natural gas, which had been piped-in for heating purposes, destroyed the Consolidated Public School in New London, Texas, ten minutes before the teachers and children were to have left for the day. The dead numbered 293. Mch. 26. In Flemington, N. J., the perjury

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