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Fire destroyed a large part of Salem, Mass., 1917 matic relations with Germany, Feb. 3: 15,000 homeless: $12,000,000 loss, June 25.

United States declared a state of war ex1915 British naval victory. North Sea, off Dogger

isted with Germany, April 6; Russian Czar Bank, Jan. 24; German official submarine

abdicated, March 15. President Wilson "blockade" of Great Britain began, Feb.

signed Selective Military Conscription Bill, 18: British "Orders in Council" to pre

May 18; registration (ages 21-30) June 5: vent commodities reaching or leaving Ger

First American troops landed in France, many, March 1; Second Battle of Ypres,

June 26; Russia proclaimed @ republic, April 22-28 (first poison gas attack of war):

Sept. 15; first American killed in battle in April 30; on May 1, a German submarine

World War by airplane bomb (1st Lieut. W. fired on and hit with a torpedo & ship

T. Fitzsimmons, M.R.C.) after U. S. entry. called the Gulflight, which was American

Sept. 4; Mata Hari, Dutch dancer and spy. owned and was flying the American flag.

shot in France by firing squad, Oct. 15; Two members of the crew, both Americans,

first shot by American troops, in France, died as a result of this attack; Italy re

Oct. 27: first American casualties in France, nounces treaty of Triple Alliance, May 4;

Nov. 3: Bolshevists under Lenin seized steamship Lusitania sunk by German sub

supreme power in Russia, Nov, 7 (Gen. marine of Head of Kinsale, Ireland, May

Ludendorf in his memoirs says that the 7; 1,195 lives lost, of which 124 were

German government had sent Lenin from Americans. The submarine was the U-20,

Switzerland, after the Russian Revolution, commanded by Capt. Schweiger. The iden

across Germany and Sweden to Russia to tity of the ship was not known to those on

propagate Bolshevism); Battle of Cambrai, the submarine, it was stated at Berlin, in

Nov. 20-Dec. 4; United States declared s May, 1935, by Capt. Karl Scherb, the officer

state of war existed with Austria, Dec. 7; who first sighted the British liner. Only

Jerusalem captured, Dec. 9; U. S. Gov't took one torpedo was fired, he said; steamship

over control of railroads, Dec. 28. Arabic sunk, Aug. 19; Allied forces land at Halifax disaster, Dec. 6: explosion of a muniSalonica, Oct. 5, Nurse Cavell shot at Brus

tion ship in harbor in collision caused fire sels, Oct. 12.

that laid in ruins one-third of the city: 1915 Earthquake killed 29,978 in central Italy, Jan. killed 1,226, with 400 others missing: de13.

stroyed 3,000 houses. Panama-Pacific International Exposition The 18th (Prohibition) Amendment to the opened (San Francisco). Feb. 20; the Pana

Constitution was submitted to the States ma-California Exposition was held in San

by Congress on Dec. 18. The first State Diego.

(Mississippi) ratifed it on Jan. 8, 1918, and 1916 Germans attacked, Verdun, Feb. 21-28; rebel

on Jan. 16, 1919, the 36th State (Nebraska) rising in Dublin, April 24 (Patrick H

ratified it, whereupon, by proclamation of Pearse and others were executed, May 3;

the Secretary of State, Jan. 29, 1919, it beSir Roger Casement was hanged, Aug. 3):

came effective one year from that date, the German submarine, Deutschland ar

Jan, 16, 1920. By Feb. 25, 1919, the Legisrived at Norfolk, Va., July 9 (on her sec

latures of 45 States had ratifed it: the 46th ond trip she reached New London, Conn.,

State, New Jersey, ratified it on March 9, Nov. 1): naval battle off Jutland, May 31:

1922. It was not ratified by Connecticut Third Battle of Ypres, June 2; sinking of

and Rhode Island. The Volstead (ProhiBritish warship Hampshire, with Lord

bition Enforcement) Act was passed by Kitchener aboard (12 sailors saved), by

Congress in Oct. 1919, and went in effect German mine in Orkneys, Scotland, June

Jan. 17. 1920. President F. D. Roosevelt. 5: Battle of Somme, July 1-10; Second Bat

on Mch. 22, 1933, signed a bill passed by the tle of Somme, July 14-Aug. 5; Capt. Fryatt

new Congress, amending the Volstead Proexecuted, July 27; David Lloyd George be

hibition Enforcement Act, to legalize 3.2 came British Premier, Dec. 6; Wilson's

per cent. beer and wine. The Act went into peace note published, Dec. 20.

effect on April 7, 1933. The adoption of Gregory Rasputin, the "Mad Monk," killed

the 21st Amendment (repealing the 18th in Petrograd (Leningrad), in Dec. He exer

Amendment) by 37 States was proclaimed cised, it was alleged, mesmeric influence

in force Dec. 5, 1933. over the Czar and Czarina, one or both. 1918 President Wilson made 14 Points of Peace Columbus, New Mexica, raided by Pancho

speech in Congress, Jan. 8; peace signed Villa (Doroteo Arango), March 9; Pershing

at Brest-Litovsk between the Bolsheviks entered Mexico to punish Villa, March 15

on the one side, and Germany, Austriafight at Parral, Mexico, April 12; agree

Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey on the ment, May 2; Protocol of withdrawal signed.

other, March 3 (by it Russia gave up the Nov. 24. Villa was ambushed and killed on

Baltic provinces, Lithuania and Finland): July 18, 1923, at Parral, in Durango

peace signed between Germany and Finland, A bomb hidden in a sachel, on the line of the

March 7; Battle of the Somme, March 21, Preparedness Day parade in San Francisco

to April 6; Paris bombarded by long range killed 10, wounded 40, July 22, at 2:06 p.m.

guns at distance of 75 miles, March 23; The explosion occurred on the west side of

British naval forces raid Zeebrugge and Steuart St., a few feet from the corner of

Ostend, April 22; pro-German plot disMarket St. James Rolph, Jr., was Mayor

covered in Ireland. Sinn Fein leaders arand was a marcher in the parade. The

rested, May 17: Battle of the Alsne, May unions had refused to take part. Thomas

27-June 5; Fifth All Russian Congress of J. Mooney, 33, an iron moulder and a

Soviets adopted a written constitution of labor organizer, Mrs. Mooney, Warren K.

the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet ReBillings, a shoe worker: Israel Weinberg,

publics, July 10, and put in operation withand Edward D. Nolan were arrested and

out a popular vote or referendum. indicted for the murder of one of the vic

Czar Nicholas of Russia, the Empress Alextims. Billings was sentenced to life im

andra; the daughters, Olga, Tatiana, Marie prisonment; Mooney was sentenced to

(Anastasia?); the son. Alexis: Prince Doldeath: Mrs. Mooney and Weinberg were

gorolkofi, Dr. Bodkin, a lady-in-waiting acquitted; Nolan was set free without a

and a nurse were shot by Bolshevik orders trial, President Woodrow Wilson inter

at Ekaterinburg. July 16; at Perm. also, ceded for Mooney and on Nov. 28, 1918,

July 12, the Bolshevists assassinated the the latter's sentence - was commuted to life

Czar's brother, Grand Duke Michael, and imprisonment, after the California Su

at Alapalievsky, north of Ekaterinburg. preme Court had refused a new trial. In

they killed the Grand Dukes Sergius Mik1932 (April 21). Gov. Rolph refused to

halllovitch, Igo Constantinovich and Ivan pardon Mooney. Thereafter, several times

Constantinovich. An alleged survivor of there were vain appeals to the California

the massacre, the Grand Duchess Anastasia, Supreme Court and the U. S. Supreme

youngest daughter of the Czar, was brought Court, to give Mooney & new trial. The

to the U. S., in 1930, by the Princess assertion was that he had been convicted

Xenia of Greece. She called herself Mme. on perjured testimony. Mooney was par

Anastasia Nikolaevna Tschaikowsky. doned unconditionally on Jan. 7, 1939, by

German retreat across the Marne begins, the new Governor of California, Culbert L.

July 19; Battle of St. Mihiel, Sept. 12-16; Olson, who, in his campaign, had an

United States troops take St. Mihiel, Sept. nounced his intention to that effect. Bil

13; Battle of Meuse-Argonne, Sept. 20 to ling's sentence was commuted Oct. 16, 1939,

Nov. 11; Franco-American attack in Arand he was set free.

gonne, Sept. 26; British attack breaks HinBlack Tom dock explosion and fire. Jersey

denburg line, Sept. 27; Bulgaria signs armisCity, July 30; 2 killed, $22,000,000 loss.

tice and surrenders, Sept. 29: Ferdinand 1917 Germany began unrestricted submarine war

of Bulgaria abdicates, Oct. 5. United fare. Feb. 1; United States broke off diplo

States troops capture St. Etienne, Oct. 6.

Wilswithoutere

isonmensentence and on

inere we court Mooney had been con par

16.

1918 Three French soldiers, Corporals Rene

strike, Oct. 31. Beaufils and Jean Duroca. and Machine 1920 The League of Nations came automatically Gunner Pierre Seyler, were the last lives

into existence under the Versailles (World lost in France in the World War. They

War) Peace Treaty when representatives of fell at Dom-le-Mesnil, on the Meuse, one

13 nations met at Geneva on Jan. 10 and minute before the bugles sounded "Cease

began the organization. The first Assembly fring" at 11 A. M., Nov. 11, 1918.

met in November, that year, when delegates Allies capture Cambrai, le Cateau and Ron

from 42 countries admitted 6 others. croy, Oct. 9; Allies occupy Ostend, Bruges Frederick A. Parmenter, shoe factory payand Lille, Oct. 17; Germans in third peace

master at South Braintree, Mass., was note accept President Wilson's terms and

robbed of $15.000 and shot to death. Nicola recall submarines to their bases, Oct. 20:

Sacco and Bartolomeo Venzetti, anarchists British and Italians cross the Plave, Oct.

from Italy, were convicted, July 14, 1921, 27; armistice granted to Turkey, Oct. 30:

of the murder of Parmenter and were Hungarian Republic proclaimed in Buda

executed Aug. 23, 1927. pest, and Republic of German Austria in --- International Court of Justice adopted by Vienna, Nov. 1; Austria accepts truce

League of Nations, Aug. 2. terms, Nov. 4; United States troops reach The Nineteenth Amendment, giving suffrage Sedan, Nov. 7; revolution in Kiel and

to women, was proclaimed in effect, Aug. Hamburg, Nov. 7; Bavaria proclaimed a re

26. public, Nov. 8; the Kaiser abdicates, Nov. Wall St., N. Y., bomb explosion, killed 30; g; he flees to Holland, Nov. 10; armistice

injured 100; did $2,000,000 damage, Sept. in World War signed in Marshal Foch's railway coach, near Rethondes, in the for- 1921 President Harding signed Joint resolution est of Compiegne, France, 3 miles east of

(passed by House, June 30, by Senate July the town of Compiegne, and 21 miles

1) of Congress declaring peace with Gernorthwest of Senlis, Nov. 11; German fleet

many and Austria, July 2. The treaty was surrenders to British, Nov. 21; United

signed Aug. 25, in Berlin, by United States Státes troops enter Mainz, Dec. 6: Ameri

and German representatives; was ratified can troops crossed Rhine, Dec. 13.

Sept. 17 by the German National Council; Malbone St., Tunnel rail wreck (Brighton

ratified by the United States Senate (66 line, Brooklyn); 97 killed, 100 hurt. Noy. 2.

to 20) on Oct. 18. 1919 Peace Conference opened informally in Paris, Arkansas River floods and rain swept away Jan. 12; formally inaugurated in Versail

665 houses in Pueblo, Col., property loss les, Jan. 18; treaty signed at Versailles,

over $20,000,000; 106 dead, June 3-4. June 28; by the Treaty Plenipotentiaries of Collapse and explosion of dirigible balloon. Germany and the Allied Powers: Presi

ZR-2 over Hull, England; 62, including 17 dent Wilson gave the treaty to the Senate,

U. S. Naval men, were killed, Aug. 24.
July 10: ratified by the German National Explosion of a new gas plant in Oppau, on
Assembly, July 10, by the British Par-

the Rhine, Germany, killed hundreds and liament, July 25; and by King George,

destroyed property worth millions, Sept. 21. July 31: by the King of Italy, Oct. 7: by Gerald Chapman and George ("Dutch") France, Oct. 13, and by Japan, Oct. 27:

Anderson, on Oct. 24, held up a mail wadefeated in the United States Senate. Nov.

gon at Broadway and Leonard St., N. Y. 19.

City, and stole 4 sacks of registered mail, The German National Assembly, at Weimar on

containing $1,454,129, of which $100,000 Aug. 11, promulgated the constitution,

was cash and negotiable securities. They which, in Article 48, provided that the

escaped, but were caught and convicted. President's control of the army was subject

and on Aug. 23, 1922, were sentenced to 25 to the responsibility of the Chancellor. How

years in the Federal prison at Atlanta, Ga. ever, in the event of civil disorder the Chan

Chapman escaped, on Mch. 27, 1923; Ancellor could act on his own initiative, "11

derson on Dec. 30, 1923. The latter was necessary, with the help of the armed

killed in the midwest Oct. 31, 1925. Chapforces." It was also provided that the

man was hanged in the Conn. State Prison, Chancellor could suspend a number of the

Wethersfield, on April 6, 1926. He had articles of the Constitution which guaran

been convicted of killing a policeman in teed the liberties of the citizens, freedom of

a store robbery at New Britain.
speech, writing and public meeting. This
Hitler was able to do upon the burning of

Limitation of Armaments Conference met in the Reichstag: and his dictatorship there

Washington, Nov. 11, 1921-Feb. 6. 1922. after was founded on Article 48.

Its terms expired Dec. 31, 1936. The Communist International, or Comintern,

1922 Roof of Knickerbocker (movie) Theatre colwas organized in March, in Russia. Karl

lapsed in Washington, D. C., 98 died from Marx, in Germany in 1862, had formed the

injuries, Jan, 28. International Working Men's Association,

Dirigible balloon Roma (built in Italy for which existed until 1874. The Second

the United States) exploded, by contact International dated from 1889.

with electric wires, descending at HampIn Amritsar, religious metropolis of the Sikhs.

ton, Va., 34 died of injuries, Feb, 21. in Punjab Province, British India, April 11,

The Portuguese aviators, Admiral Cago & mass meeting of protest against the arrest

Coutinho and Commander Saccadura Ca. of agitators refused to disperse and was fired

bral, left Lisbon, Portugal, March 22, arupon by British soldiers under Gen. Dyer;

riving at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, April 19, at least 400 persons were killed and over

with stops at Cape Verde and Natal, cor1,000 wounded

ering 4,293 nautical miles. This was the

first airplane crossing of the South AtThree U. . Navy, seaplanes left Trepassy,

lantic. Newfoundland, May 16; one, the N-C 4.

Fourteen republics of Russia combined, in reached the Azores, May 17; Lisbon, May

convention in Moscow, as the Union of 27; Plymouth, England, May 31; Harry

Soviet Socialist Republics, Dec. 20. InC. Hawkes and MacKenzie Grieve fell in

cluded were the White Russian, the Ukrainmid-ocean on an attempted flight. May 18. from Newfoundland to Ireland, but

ian, and the Trans-Caucasian Soviet Re

publics. were rescued: John Alcock and A. W.

1923 French and Belgian troops began occupation Brown made, June 14-15, & non-stop air

of the Ruhr, Jan. 11.
flight from Newfoundland to Ireland: a
British dirigible balloon, R-34, left Scot-

On May 17. 76 persons, 41 of them children.

were burned or crushed to death at the land. July 2. and descended in Mineola.

Cleveland Rural Graded School in CamL. I.. July 6. It left for England. July 10. and arrived there July 13. The U. S. trans

den, s. c. continental air flight, New York to San

Earthquake, followed by fires and tidal waves, Francisco and return, Oct. 8-18, was won

destroyed part of Tokio and Yokohama. by Lieut. W. B. Maynard and Lieut. Alex.

99,331 were killed, Sept. 1.

The revolt in Bavaria, organized by Gen. Pearson.

Ludendorff and Adolf Hitler, ended on The Wartime Prohibition Law, designed as a

Mar. 9. when the Beer Putschists marched measure to conserve grain during the war,

in Munich. Ludendorff was captured but was enacted in November, 1918, and be

later was paroled. Hitler was wounded. came effective June 30, 1919.

several others died, in the fighting. Hitler Mayaguez Theater fire, June 20, San Juan,

was captured Nov. 12 and imprisoned P. R.; 150 died.

Nikolai Lenin (M. Vladmir Ilich Ulianov. Steel workers strike all over U. S., beginning

Lenin) 54, head of the Soviet Russian Sept. 22: railway strike in England began

government, died on Jan. 21, of apoplexy, in Sept. 27; soft coal miners in U. 8. began

Gorka, 20 miles S. E. of Moscow. He had 1924 been seriously ill since May, 1933). For some 1927 600U. S. marines and several war vessels time he had been progressively paralyzed.

were ordered to Nicaragua, Jan. 6, to proThe death certificate of Dr. Otfried Foers

tect American interests. The marines were ter, of Breslau, named the trouble as ar

withdrawn early in 1933. . terio-sclerosis. Lenin's father had died

Civil War in China caused over 400 British comparatively young from the same cause.

troops to be landed in Shanghai, Jan. 27; Allies and Germany, in Agreement of London,

1,200 U. S. marines got there on March 5, accepted Dawes Reparation Plan, Aug. 16;

and Japan, France, Spain, Portugal and French troops began evacuation of Ruhr

Holland put over 15,000 soldiers ashore. At Aug. 18; the Agreement was formally signed

Nanking, March 23, Cantonese troops Aus. 30, at London by Germany and the

shelled the burning Standard Oil plant. powers concerned, and Owen D. Young of

and killed several foreigners, including Dr. the United States assumed duties as Agent

J. E. Williams of Shawnee, O., Vice PresiGeneral of Reparation Payments.

dent of Nanking University. N. F. Leopold. Jr., 19, and Richard Loeb, 19, - The U. S. Supreme Court voided the Doheny kidnapped for ransom and killed Robert

oil reserve leases Feb. 28. President CooFranks, 13, in Chicago, May 22; they

lidge cancelled the Naval Reserve oil leases, pleaded guilty, July 21, and were sen

March 17. tenced to prison for life. Loeb was killed Albert Snyder, art editor of "Motor Boating," by a fellow convict, Jan. 28, 1936.

was killed, March 20, in his home, Queens The Prince of Wales began his American

Village, L, I., N. Y. His wife, Ruth Brown tour in N. Y., Aug. 29; and left there for

Snyder, and her lover, Henry Judd Gray. England, Oct. 25.

married, a corset salesman, of E. Orange, The ZR-3, dirigible (Los Angeles), left Fried

N. J., confessed, and were convicted, May 9, richshafen, Germany, Oct. 12, 12:35 A. M.;

of murder. They were executed in Sing arriving in New York, Oct. 15, 8:3:40 A, M.;

Sing, Jan. 12, 1928. reached Lakehurst, N. J., 9:55 A. M.

Floods in the Mississippi River and its lower On Christmas Day, in the Babb Switch

branches began early in April and for six School, Hobart, Okla., 35 parents and

weeks inundated 20,000 square mlles in Arkschool children perished in a fire that

ansas, Louisiana, Mississippi Missouri. started when a candle ignited a holiday

Tennessee and Kentucky. The property tree.

loss was put at $270,000,000; over 4,000,000 1925 A storm in Missouri, Southern Illinois and

acres of crops were destroyed, also 25,000 Indiana killed over 830 persons, injured

horses, 50,000 cattle, 148,000 hogs. 1,300 3,800; property loss $10,000,000.

sheep, and 1,300,000 poultry; 600,000 persons - 200 were killed by the explosion of bombs in

were made for a time homeless, and several the Cathedral of Sveti Kral, in Sofia, at

hundred were drowned. Tornadoes killed 22 the funeral of Gen. Georghieff, who was as

in Illinois, April 19. and 250 on May 9 in

Arkansas, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, sassinated April 14. Earthquakes in Japan killed 381, and caused

Louisiana, Missouri, Texas and Wyoming. $50,000,000 property loss, May 23.

Capt. Charles A. Lindbergh, alone in his Earthquakes partly destroyed the city of

monoplane, the Spirit of St. Louis, hopped Santa Barbara, Calif., June 29.

off. May 10, at San Diego, Calif. He reached John T. Scopes, in court' in Dayton, Tenn.,

St. Louis May 11; left there May 12 and

landed the same day at Mineola, N. Y. was found guilty of having taught evolution in the local High School and was fined $100

He left there on May 20, reached Paris

May 21, flew to Brussels, May 28; Brussels and costs, July 24. William J. Bryan, chief

to London, May 29; England back to Paris. counsel for the prosecution, died in Dayton on July 26. Clarence Darrow. chief defense

June 3: Paris to Cherbourg, June 4, where counsel, died March 13, 1938.

he boarded the U.S. Navy Cruiser, MemThe 2 Nine Power Treaties of the Washing

phis, on the deck of which was the boxedton Arms Conference were ratified in Wash

up Spirit of St. Louis. The ship arrived ington by the U. S., France, Japan, Italy,

on June 10 at the Virginia Capes: Lind

bergh was welcomed June 11, by President Great Britain, China, Portugal, Belgium and Holland. Aug. 5.

Coolidge, in Washington, in New York The U. S. Navy rigid dirigible airship Shen

City on June 13, by Mayor J. J. Walker andoah (which had left Lakehurst, N. J.,

and Gov. A. E. Smith; he returned to on Sept. 2, bound for St. Paul) was torn

Washington and on June 16 flew his Spirit to pieces at 5 A. M., Sept. 3, by a thunder

of St. Louis to Mineola, N. Y., and was

welcomed in Brooklyn, On June 17 he flew squall while passing over Ava, Ohio; 14

to St. Louis. of the crew were killed, including Lieut.

Later (Dec., 1927-Feb., 1928) Com. Zachary Lansdowne, Sept. 3.

he flew from Washington, non-stopto --- Germany ratified the Locarno treaties, Nov.

Mexico City, thence to Panama and South 27. They were ratified by Great Britain,

America, and to St. Louis. In 1931-32, he

and his wife flew to Ottawa, thence to AlGermany, France, Belgium, Italy, Poland, and Czechosloyakia, in London, Dec. 1.

aska, Japan, and China. In 1933 (July-Dec.)

the couple toured in their plane Greenland. They went into effect on Sept. 14, 1926.

western Europe, upper South America and 1926 The anthracite strike, which began Sept. 1,

the West Indies. 1926. was secretly settled, in Philadelphia.

A tornado at St. Louis killed 87. injured Feb. 12; work resumed Feb. 18.

1,500, and destroyed 1,000 houses, Sept. 29. A general British strike, due to coal miners'

Rains and floods, beginning Nov. 2, and laststrike and lockout, and involving 2,500,000

ing several days, devastated the river valworkers, began May 3; called off May 12,

leys of New England, particularly in but the coal miners stayed out for months.

Vermont, and the Canadian Province of - The Sesquicentennial Exposition, in Phila

Quebec. Over 120 persons were killed in delphia, opened, May 31. It closed Nov. 30.

Vermont. 21 were killed. 80 buildings wrecked, and $85,- | 1928 Pan-American Conference in Havana. Cuba: 000.000 of property and ammunition de

opened by President Coolidge, Jan. 16: stroyed by explosions and fires when light

ad journed Feb. 20. ning struck the navy munitions reservations

Trotsky. Kameneff, Zinovieff, Rakovsky, and at Lake Denmark, N. J., July 10.

Radek exiled by the Soviets from White The Assembly of the League of Nations, in

Russia, Jan. 16.
Geneva, Sept. 8, unanimously admitted

The St. Francis water-supply dam. 40 miles
Germany to the League and to a permanent

north of Los Angeles, collapsed: 450 lives Council seat and increased the non-perma

lost, 700 houses swept away nent members of the Council from 6 to 9. A hurricane swept over the West Indies and A tropical hurricane from the ocean swept

Florida, Sept. 12-17, killing 60 on the Leethe east coast of Florida, and into Alabama

ward Isles, 660 on Guadeloupe, 200 on Puerand Mississippi, Sept. 18, killing 372:

to Rico, and 1500 to 2500 in Florida. Dam6.281 were hurt, 17,884 families temporarily

age, $85,000,000 in Puerto Rico, $25.000.000 made homeless. 5,000 homes were destroyed.

in Florida, $7,000,000 elsewhere. The greatest damage was in Miami and its

Soviet Russia inaugurated the Five-Year suburbs. Fort Lauderdale, Hollywood,

Plan of agricultural and industrial developDania and Hialeah, where the dead num

ment, Oct. 1. . bered 250. 110 bodies were found at Moore The balloon, Graf Zeppelin, under Capt. Haven. In the Bahamas, at Turks and

Hugo Eckener, with crew of 38. and 20 Caicos Islands 17 were killed; over 10 died

passengers, left Friedrichshafen, Germany. at Bimini.

on Oct. 11, and on Oct. 15, reached N. Y. A hurricane killed over 600 in Havana and

City and anchored at Lakehurst, N. J. other places in Cuba, Oct. 20. On the Isle

She left there Oct. 29, and reached Friedof Pines, 40 were killed,

richshafen on Oct, 31.

1929 landed once in the mountains to refuel. 1929 landed once in the mountains to refuel. in N. Y. City, Nov. 4, and died Nov. 6.

Following a strike, on Dec. 4. at the CusU.S. President-elect Herbert Hoover, wife

toms Ofce, U. S. Marines declared marand party. made a tour of Latin America.

tial law in Port-au-Prince, and in Cape They left San Pedro, Calif., on the battle

Hatien, Haiti; 500 more marines were ship Maryland, on Nov. 19, there on Dec.

sent to Haiti; on Dec. 6, marines killed 18; in Rio de Janeiro, on Dec. 21, reaching

5 and wounded 20 in a force of 1,500 peasNorfolk and Washington on Jan. 6, 1929.

ants advancing on Aux Cayes. 1929 The Jones Law, an amendment making more Long-term armed felons in the State Prison drastic the National Prohibition Act, was

at Auburn, N. Y., captured Warden Edgar passed by the Senate 65 to 18, on Feb. 19;

S. Jennings and several guards on Dec. by the House, 283 to 90 on Feb. 28, and

11. Six convicts were shot to death. George approved by President Coolidge on March 2.

A. Durnford, chief keeper, was killed. The Papal State, extinct since 1870, was re-19 30 Floods and rains in the valley of the River created under the name of the State of

Tarn in Southern France, Mch. 5. killed Vatican City, under the terms signed at

over 400, and destroyed 4.000 homes, and Rome, Feb. 11. They went into effect

also other structures, mostly at Montauban May 7.

and at Moissac. In Mexico & revolution under Gen. J. G. Fire, April 21, killed 320 convicts in the Escobar began in March. Roman Catholic

Ohio State Penitentiary, Columbus. leaders denied complicity. The rebellion The London Naval Reduction Treaty was ended in May; 4,000 killed, 11,000 wounded.

signed there, April 22. The Senate ratified Fire, explosion and chemical fumes from X

the treaty on July 21, and the President ray Alms (nitrogen-dioxide) killed 124 at

signed it on July 22. It was proclaimed the Cleveland, O., Clinic Hospital of Dr.

by President Hoover in effect on Jan. 1, George W. Crile, May 15.

1931. Its terms expired on Dec. 31, 1936. Settlement of the dispute between Chile and The Allied Reparation Commission estabPeru over the provinces of Tacna and Arica

lished under the Treaty of Versailles to colwas announced by President Hoover award

lect the war indemnity from Germany, ing Tacna to Peru and Arica to Chile. The

ended its labors at a meeting at Paris, May treaty was signed in Lima, June 3.

17, simultaneously with the conclusion of Convicts revolted in Clinton State Prison.

the Dawes plan regime and the oincial comDannemora, N. Y., July 22; three guards

mencement of the Young plan. killed; part of prison plant burned.

The Bolivian government was overthrown, President Hoover, on July 24, proclaimed

June 22, by rebels; the Peruvian Govt., the Kellogg-Briand Anti-War Treaty in

Aug. 22-27; the Argentine Govt., Sept. 6; effect (at 1:22 P. M.) under which 62 lead

the Brazil Govt., Oct. 24. ing powers pledge themselves to renounce The last French soldiers of the army of ocwar as an instrument of national policy. .

cupation at the Kehl bridgehead of the At the State Prison at Auburn, N. Y.. on

Rhine were withdrawn, June 28, to StrasJuly 28, the convicts rioted,' seized the

bourg, and Baden was entirely freed. prison arsenal and distributed arms.

Evacuation of the Rhineland was completed Guards, state troopers and militiamen,

on June 30. drove the prisoners to cover with machine

Joseph F. Crater, a justice of the State Suguns. rifles and tear bombs. The damage

preme Court, N. Y. City, vanished on the to property WAS $450,000. Two prisoners

night of Aug. 6. were killed.

A hurricane, on Sept. 3, struck the City The Graf Zeppelin dirigible balloon, with 20

of Santo Domingo and nearby country: passengers, left Friedrichshafen, Germany.

2.000 were killed, 6,000 injured, with damon Aug. 14, and went east around the

ages estimated at $40.000.000. world, over Russia, and Asia, at Tokio

The British dirigible balloon, R-101, on Oct. (Aug. 19) over the Pacific at Los Angeles

5. hit a wooded hill, and burned up, near (Aug. 26); at Lakehurst, N. J. (Aug. 29)).

Allone, France, on the way from Croydon to She had left Lakehurst on Aug. 8. She left

India; 47 killed. there on Sept. 1, and landed at Friedrichs

In Belgium, in the Valley of the Meuse, behafen on Sept. 4.

tween Liege and Huyann, dense fog. on - A mutiny, on Oct: 3, of convicts at the Colo

Dec. 5. killed 75 persons and many cattle. rado State Penitentiary. at Canon City. - The Bank of United States, at N. Y. City. lasted until Oct. 4, when the four leaders of

was closed, Dec. 11, by the State authe revolt killed themselves and the rest

thorities. surrendered. Seven guards and five felons ' 1931 The Panama Republic's government, headed were killed. The chapel. mess hall, and

by F. H. Arosemena, was overthrown: 10 two cell-houses were burned.

were killed, Jan. 2. Albert B. Fall, former Secretary of the In

Constitutional guarantees were restored. Feb. terior, was found guilty in the Supreme

8. in Spain. They had been suspended by Court of the District of Columbia of ac

Premier Rivera on Sept. 23, 1923: the nacepting a bribe of $100,000 from Edward

tional election was held on April 12; King L. Doheny in the leasing of the Elks Hills

Alfonso fled from Madrid on April 14; and naval oil reserve during the Harding Ad

a republic was proclaimed; a new Parliaministration. He was sentenced, on Nov.

ment was elected on June 28, and Alcaló 1. to $100.000 fine and a year in prison,

Zamora was chosen president. which he entered July 20, 1931.

The Peruvian Government was upset by Late in October the prices of stocks began to

revolution, on Mch. 1; that of Chili, on go downwards, and this movement at New

July 24: Paraguay, Oct. 26: Salvador, Dec. 3. York and elsewhere continued through the

Earthquakes killed 1,000 in Managua, Nicarrest of the year, with occasional brief ral

agua, Mch. 31, and destroyed many buildlies. Declines in stock values up to the

ings. end of 1929 reached $15,000,000,000. It was

The King and Queen of Siam and party artestified in 1932 before a U. S. Senate Com

rived in Victoria, B. C.. on April 16: on mittee that the 1929-1931 stock losses af

April 22 they settled in Scarborough, near fected 25,000,000 persons, and totaled $50,

N. Y, City, and the King had a cataract 000.000,000.

removed from his eye, on May 10: they ---- The Atlantic coast, from N. Y. City north

left on July 28 for Canada and Siam. ward to Newfoundland and Nova Scotia

- President Hoover, on June 20, proposed a 1was shaken, on Nov. 18, by an earthquake.

year moratorium on intergovernmental A tidal wave swept the south coast of the

debts, to begin July 1. This took effect. Burin Peninsula, Newfoundland, drowning

A tidal wave, on Sept. 10, killed 1.200 perover 40 persons.

sons in Belize, British Honduras, and Commander Richard E. Byrd started from

destroyed buildings. his base, Little America, in the Antarctic,

Great Britain, on Sept. 21, suspended the at 3.29 (10.29 D.m. New York time). Nov

gold standard for 6 months. She was fol28, on a 1,600-mile flight to the South Pole

Towed by Denmark, on Sept. 28, and Finand back, with Bert Balchen as pilot. Har

land on Oct. 12: Japan, Dec. 13. old I. June as radio operator, and Capt.

- Jack (Legs) Diamond, was assassinated in Ashley C. McKinly as photographer, in the

Albany, N. Y., Dec. 8, a day after his actri-motored airplane he took to the Ant

quittal of kidnapping arctic. The party got back on Nov. 29, at 5.10 | 19 32 Joseph Kahahawal, a Hawaiian, on trial in p.m. (N. Y. time), and reported that they

Honolulu on a charge of attacking the wife reached the Pole on Nov. 29, about 8.55 a.m.

of Lieut. Thos. H. Massie, a naval officer (N. Y. time) dropped & U. S. flag there

on the U. 8. N. receiving ship, Alton, was (it was 16' below zero); circled over the

kidnapped and slain, Jan. 8, after the jury polar plateau, and, on the return journey,

had disagreed.

menate coal mawinent son Apresia Dowo

1932 In Shanghai, Chinese gangsters, on Jan. 15,

slew a Buddhist priest from Japan, Hideo Minakami. This was the first of a series of troubles which led, on Jan. 27, to the

landing of Japanese marines, and warfare. The Spanish Parliament, Jan. 19, by decree dissolved the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). The Jesuits were, by decree of the Franco government, in January, 1940, readmitted

to Spain, and their property was restored. Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Jr., 19 months

old (born at Englewood, N. j., June 22,
1930), was kidnapped, between 8 and 10
p. 2., Mch. 1, from the new Lindbergh
home near Hopewell, N. J., in the Sourland
Mountain region, northwest of Princeton.
The bodyreduced almost to a skeleton,
was found on May 12,' in a thicket near a
roadway, less than 5 miles from the babe's
home, and between Hopewell and Prince-
ton. The discovery was made by a negro
teamster who had stopped his wagon and
had stepped into the woods on an errand.
Meantime, John F. Condon, for Col. Lind-
bergh, had paid $50,000 in Bronx Borough
to an alleged agent of the kidnapers, and
Gaston B. Means, Washington, had col-
lected $100.000 from Mrs. Evelyn Walsh
McLean, on the promise to restore the
Lindbergh baby. Means was sent to prison.
On Sept. 10, 1934, Bruno Richard Haupt-
mann, 35, married, father of a baby boy,
çarpenter, paroled German convict who had
entered the United States unlawfully, at
N. Y. City. in 1923, was arrested near his
horne in the Wakefield section of the
Bronx, after he had passed a ransom bank-
note at a gasoline filling station over $14,-
000 of the ransom money was found hidden
in his garage. He was indicted in the
Bronx on Sept. 26, on an extortion charge:
on Oct. 8, he was indicted in Hunterdon
County, N. J., on a burglary-murder
charge; on Jan. 3, 1935, he was put to
trial in Flemington and was identified by
Col. Lindbergh, by Condon and others; a
part of the kidnap ladder was sworn to
have come from his attic; he denied his
guilt under oath and testified he got the
ransom money from the late Isador Fisch
The jury, on which several women served
convicted Hauptman on Feb. 13. and
Supreme Court Justice T. W. Trenchard
sentenced him to die in the week of Mch
2. An appeal was taken to the State Cour!
of Errors and Appeals, which sustained the
conviction. The U. S. Supreme Court re-
fused to interfere. Governor Harold G
Hoffman gave Hauptmann a month's re-
prieve, characterizing the trial in Fleming.
ton as unfair and adding that such
crime suggested an accomplice. The State
Board of Pardons refused to commute th:
sentence. He was executed on April 3

1936.
Congress, Mch. 2, passed a joint resolution

proposing to the States an amendment to the Federal Constitution, under which con. gress would meet each year on Jan. 3. and the terms of the President and Vice-President would begin on Jan. 20. It wa:

adopted by the States. Ivar Kreuger, 52, unmarried, Swedish "match

king," shot himself to death, Mch. 12, in

Paris.
Revolution, June 4, in Chili.
In Siam, a bloodless revolution changed the

government from an absolute into a lim

ited monarchy, June 24. Zachary S. Reynolds, 20, a son of R. ) Reynolds, cigarette manufacturer, was found shot to death, July 6, in his home. Winston-Salem, N. C. The Lausanne Reparations Conference ad

journed. July 9, after agreeing that Germany can settle in full for $714,000,000. A treaty was signed in Washington between

Canada and the United States, July 18, for the proposed development of the St. LawTence waterway into an ocean lane and

power project. The British Imperial Economic Conference

opened in Ottawa, Can., July 21. It finally agreed on tariffs to mutualize the trade

of the Empire. James J. Walker, resigned, Sept. 1, as Mayor of N. Y. City, and went to Europe. That ended the charges on which he was being tried before Gov. Roosevelt on removal proceedings, initiated by Samuel Seabury, |

1932 counsel to the legislative committee in its

inquiry into the city government. Walker

had been & witness before that committee. After passing over the Virgin Islands, where

15 persons were killed, a hurricane ripped across Puerto Rico, Sept. 27, killing 245, injuring 3,329; destroying 36,249 buildings, damaging 30,046; and leaving over 41.000 families in need of food; property loss.

$30,000,000. Earthquakes on Dec. 26, killed 70.000 persons

in the Kaoti district of the northwest Prov

ince of Kansu, China. 1933 The U. S. Marines withdrew from Nicaragua

on Jan. 2, and on Feb. 2, Gen. Sandino

ended his rebellion. An epidemic of "bank holidays" in the

United States began on Feb. 14, in Michigan, when Gov. W. A. Comstock ordered all banks in that State closed for 8 days. All banks in the United States were closed by proclamation of President Roosevelt beginning on March 6. The Stock and Commodity Exchanges in New York City and elsewhere also closed, beginning March 6. and reopened mostly on March 15. The banks reopened, such as were fit, gradually,

from March 9, onward. --- The movement to collect hoarded gold from

the people commenced early in March, Congress on the 9th, in special session granting the President dictatorial power over all forms of money. A presidential ban on gold exports began on April 19. On June 5 the President signed an Act of Congress outlawing the gold-payment clause in all monies, and other public and private contracts. In October the Government commenced to buy domestic and foreign gold above the market price, for

the purpose of raising commodity prices. Minnesota. on Feb. 24, banned mortgage

foreclosures on farms and homes. The movement spread to other States. The Minnesota action was sustained by the

U. S. Supreme Court in a 5-to-4 decision. The German Reichstag (Parliament) Build

ing, in Berlin, was destroyed on Feb. 27 by fire. The Supreme Court found Marinus van der Lubbe, a young Dutch Communist, guilty, and he was beheaded on Jan. 10,

1934, in Leipzig, in Saxony. Eartbquakes in Southern California on Mch.

10, at Long Beach and near by. killed 130

persons and caused $50,000,000 damage. The U. S. Navy dirigible balloon, Akron, was beaten down in a storm, on April 4, oft Barnegat, N. J.; 73 persons were drowned, including Rear Admiral W. A, Moffett, the Aviation Chief. The World Economic Conference opened, in

London, June 12, but came to naught. - Spain, by Parliamentary edict, on May 17,

disestablished the church. The Century of Progress Exposition opened in

Chicago, on May 27, and closed at midnight of Nor. 12; it reopened in 1934 on May 26 and closed on Oct. 31; attendance (1933) 22,320, 456; (1934) 16,306,090-total, 38,626,546. The U. S. Congress, on June 13, passed the National Industrial Recovery Act (signed June 16) which, with the Agricultural Ad. justment Act (signed May 12) gave the President control of agriculture and industry. The N. R. A. was killed by the U. S. Supreme Court on May 27, 1935, and

the A. A. A. processing taxes on Jan. 6, 1936. In Germany, on June 22, the Hitler Government began to proscribe all political parties except the National Socialist German Labor Party (Nazis), beginning with the Social Democratic Party. At the same time the campaign was under way to reduce by law the percentage of Jews in government

life, in industry, and in the professions. Kidnapping, in Albany, July 7, of John J.

O'Connell, Jr., was followed by that of Charles F. Urschel (July 23, Oklahoma Čity): Jake the Barber Chicago; and others. At San Jose, Calll., Nov. 9. Brook L. Hart, a young merchant, was seized, bound, beaten, and flung into San Francisco Bay, following a demand for ransom. A mob on Nov. 26, after the body was found, broke into the Jail, and dragged forth and hanged Thomas H. Thurmond and John Holmes. In Rome, July 15, a 10-yr. peace pact was

signed by Italy, France, Germany and Great Britain. An army revolt in Cuba caused President

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