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Reich and Italy were determined at all times to respect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Yugoslavia, and, second, that the Axis powers had agreed not to request from the Yugoslav Government during the war the right to march through or transport troops over Yugoslav terri
tory. --Germany widened its blockade of Britain to in
clude Iceland, and extends it to within three
miles of Greenland. -Marshal Rodolfo Graziani resigned as Chief of
the Italian General Staff and was succeeded by General Mario Roatta. Graziani's command in Libya was taken over by General Italo Gariboldi, who becomes also the new Governor of the
Colony. March 26-There were outbreaks, because of the
Axis-Yugoslav pact, among the peasantry of Central Serbia, and the mountaineers of Monte
negro. --Martial law prevailed in several Syrian cities
following two days of riots in which 12 persons were killed in Damascus and Aleppo. -Japan's Foreign Minister, Yosuke Matsuoka, on his arrival in Berlin from Moscow, said, in a message to the German people: "the Japanese nation is with you in joy or sorrow." Japan, he said, believes in the Reichsfuehrer and in the outstanding qualities of the German people and will not lag behind you in fidelity, courage and firm determination to arrange the world on the
basis of the new order." March 27-In Yugoslavia, a revolt occurred, headed
by Gen. Dusan Simovitch, the Chief of Aviation. The Cabinet of Cvetkovitch, which had put the country into the Axis, quit in a body; Chief Regent, Prince Paul, fled from Belgrade; King Peter II (17) was proclaimed as ruler, and took charge of the army, navy and the government: a new cabinet was appointed, headed by Simovitch, with Momtchilo Nincich as Foreign Minister; the Regents resigned; the King appealed to all Serbs, Croats and Slovenes to go on with
their normal work.' -Military mobilization was begun as officers ar
rived from Sarajevo, Bosnia, where, on June 28, 1914, Archduke Francis of Austria and his wife were assassinated by Gavrillo Princip, a Serb student. King Peter took the oath March 28, when Gen. Simovitch informed the Reich that Yugoslavia would faithfully respect "all outstanding engagements and strive for absolute neutrality enforced by the Yugoslav Army. In Eritrea the mountain city, Cheren, which had been under British seige for two weeks, was surrendered by Italian troops. In Ethiopia, the British took the Moslem city of Harar. In Libya, Italian and German forces occupied El Agheila,
on the endge of the Sirte Desert. -President Roosevelt, at sea, signed the bill mak
ing $7,000,000,000 available at once to produce
war materials for Great Britain and her allies. --Prime Minister Churchill signed in London the
agreement whereby the Atlantic base sites in territories under British control will be leased to the United States for 99 years, in return for 50 U. S. destroyers now serving in the British
Navy. March_28-In a night battle in the Ionian Sea (in
the Eastern Mediterranean) between British and Italian naval squadrons, in which capital ships as well as cruisers fought, five Italian vessels were sunk-three cruisers and two destrovers. Rome stated that the British lost a heavy cruiser and two other craft. London denied any loss of ships or crews, but said two aircraft were missing British warships, it was stated, sank the Italian cruisers Pola, Zara and Fiume, and the destroyers Maestrale and Vincenze Gioberti. The battle lasted through the night. At daybrenk hundreds of survivors were still clinging to objects in the water; 800 were saved. According to British officers their cruiser, Orion, first saw the Italian feet early on March 28, notified the main British fleet and spent the rest of that day "flirting with the enemy ships, finally "luring them into range of British battleship guns, and then the fight was on. The British called it
“The Battle of Cape Matapan.' March 29-German planes again attacked Bristol
in a "starvation raid." - Germany ordered all nationals out of the Prov
ince of Serbia. Italians began leaving by the hundred and British women also were advised
to go quickly. March 30--Under authority of the 1917 Espionage Act, and because of iniormation that crews on Italian and other interned ships were secretly disabling the engines therein, the U. S Coast Guard seized 28 Italian, two German and 35 Danish ships under German control, and detained those aboard; one Italian vessel was taken over
at Boston; five in Newark, N. J.; four in Philadelphia; two in Baltimore; two in Newport News, Va; three in Norfolk, Va., and others in Wulmington, N. 0.; Savannah, Ga., Jacksonville, Fla., New Orleans, Houston, Tex., Mobile, Ala.; Portland, Ore.; San Juan, P. R., and Cristobal, Canal Zone; 16 of the Danish ships were tied up in New York, seven in Baltimore, three in Boston, two each in Philadelphia, Los Angeles, Jacksonville and Norfolk, and one each in Port
land, Me., and Grays Harbor, Wash. --British warships attempting to intercept & con
yoy of four French merchant ships laden with "important war material for Germany'' were fired on by French shore batteries in Algeria. The British vessels, it was said, refrained "in the interests of humanity" from firing on the merchantmen, but scored hits on the shore guns. Vichy said its ships had been passing from French Morocco to Algeria and denied war materials
were being transported for Germany. March 31-The Liverpool Cotton Exchange closed
for the duration. -The Continental Oil Co. was promoted by the
German Government to exercise exclusive control of German oil interests--from the oil fields themselves to the transportation of oil in tankers to Germany and the distribution of oil within the country and within the German-dominated continent.
1941-APRIL April 1--Congress, in affirmation of the Monroe
Doctrine, passed a joint resolution declaring that the United States would not recognize "any transfer, and would not acquiesce in any attempt to transfer any geographic region in this hemisphere from one non-American power to another non-American power." If such an attempt is made, this government will consult immediately with the other American republics in compliance with the consultative declaration of the Panama
conference of 1939. -Wheat has been planted in the hundreds of acres
of park lands surrounding the Palace of the League of Nations, at Geneva. The grounds have been requisitioned by the Swiss State. ---British forces took possession of Asmara, capital
of Eritrea. -Mexico, Cuba, Venezuela, Peru and Ecuador took
possession of German and Italian merchant ships in their ports and held the crews; eight or more of the crafts had been damaged by those aboard,
and several were scuttled. -Mexico and the United States signed an agree
ment for the reciprocal use of airfields. -Gov, J. P. Heil, of Wisconsin, wired the Presi
dent for Federal troops, to avoid "bloodshed and possible loss of life at the Allis-Chalmers defense plant in Milwaukee. The local police had turned fire hose and the tear gas guns of their armored riot car on striking members of the Congress of Industria Organizations' United Automobile Workers Union, and the strikers retaliated with rocks, bricks, bottles and eggs. More than 30 persons were injured, several
seriously. -After a sit-down C.1.0, strike in the Dearborn,
Mich. (River Rouge) Ford auto plant, a general strike was called there, and 85,000 workers were
made idle. April 2-The Ford and Allis-Chalmers plants suspended production in Dearborn, Mich., and Milwaukee. Both concerns have large defense contracts. - The British Admiralty announced that a submarine operating in the Mediterranean had sunk an Italian submarine and the 3,645-ton tanker Laura Corrado. Simultaneously, the commanderin-chief of the East Indies station reported the sinking by aircraft of the 1,526-ton Italian destroyer Pantera. -The Peruvian Government has cancelled its contract with the (German) Luftansa Airline,
and has taken possession of its planes. April 3-Recapture, by Axis forces, of Benghazi, the Eastern Libyan capital, was announced officially in Cairo, headquarters of the British Army of the Nile, where it was stated that the evacuating troops had "inflicted considerable casualties" on the German and Italian troops and tank units as they withdrew from the Mediterranean coastal city of about 60.000 normal population. The place had been captured eight weeks before from the Italians when they were fighting alone, before the Germans joined them in the African
campaign. -In Budapest, Count Paul Teleki, 61, Premier of Hungary, was found dead in his bed
A government announcement said he committed suicide by
shooting himsell. --In Yugoslavia, Vladimir Matchek, political leader of the Croats, informed the government he would rejoin it and accept the post of First Vice Premier He called upon the military eligibles of his people to enter wholeheartedly into the general mobilization for the defense of the land "against the threat of aggression.' German and Italian diplomatic staffs quit Bel
grade. April 4-German armed forces moved toward Yugo
slavia through Hungary, Rumania and Bulgaria; four divisions of Tyrolean mountaineers passed into Italy. Hungarian roads and railroads are choked with troops and equipment moving southward to take up positions in forts nea Szeged, Mohacs and Nagy Kanizsa; two German divisions passed through Budapest in & stream of arms, men and armored cars, into the Tisza Valley toward the Yugoslav Banat. From the Carpathian Range they are crossing Slovakia into Ruthenia. Every train from Belgrade was
crowded with refugees. Germany and France signed an agreement by
which unoccupied France will send to occupied territory, 755,000 head of cattle, 600,000 head of pigs and calves, 36,000 tons of vegetable oil, 100,000 tons of salt, 60,000 tons of fresh vegetables, 8,000 tons of cheese and 643,450 gallons of wine. Occupied France will send in return 800,000 tons of grain, 200,000 tons of sugar, 100.000 tons of bran and 800,000 tons of potatoes. -German planes raided Bristol, England; British planes attacked Brest. In the Mediterranean German aircraft bombed a convoy near Crete, hitting & 12,000-ton British troop transport, Berlin said. - The U. S. government rejected the German and Italian protests against the seizure of Axis ships and rebuked the two powers for violation of law while their ships were enjoying this nation's hospitality. President Roosevelt charged the Italian Naval attache with ordering the sabotage. Secretary Hull said that of the 27 Italian vessels in ports 25 were so badly damaged that extensive repairs in shipyards would be necessary to make
possible their navigation. April 5-The encirclement of Yugoslavia by German armed forces proceeded; eight new divisions jammed the Hungarian roads, armored unit concentrated at Bela Crkva, on the Rumanian frontier one and one-half hours from Belgrade, and the first Reich troops entered Albania, some of them by airplane transports. Russia and Yugoslavia signed, in Moscow, a fiveyear friendship and non-aggression pact, in which it was stipulated that in the event of aggression against one of the contracting parties on the part of a third power, the other contracting party undertakes to observe a policy of
friendly relations towards that party.' -In Italian East Africa, British forces took Adowa
and Adigrat; in Ethiopia, British South African troops crossed the Awash River and got within
80 miles of Addis Ababa. April 6-Chancellor Hitler, in an Order of the Day to the German Army of the East (broadcast at 5 a.m, by Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels)
proclaimed war on Yugoslavia. -The Yugoslav government moved to Vranes, 75
miles south of Sarajevo. German planes bombed Belgrade. The Gerrcan troops "advanced on all fronts" but met "strong resistance," particularly in the Struma Valley, where Britain's Australasian soldiers had been stationed, Athens said some areas in Thrace and Macedonia had been
taken by the enemy, -Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, was sur
rendered to the British without resistance. It had been occupied by the Italians since May 5,
1936. -In Cyrenaica, Italian and German armored and
motorized forces occupied Barca and Tokra. April 7-In Greece, Axis forces occupied Western
Thrace, to the sea, near the Turkish border. German planes again bombed Belgrade; British planes attacked Sofia, and, in Albania, with Yugoslav aid, they raided Scutari. Italian aircraft shelled Cattara, and the air base at Mostar, Greek resistance was concentrated in the narrow Struma Valley and in the steep gorges in Mace
donia. -Britain severed diplomatic relations with Hun
garý, and her planes, with those of Yugoslavia,
dropped some bombs on Hungarian border towns. --German planes ranged over the Clydeside. Eng
land, and bombed London for the first time in 18 days. Bristol, Liverpool, Ipswich and Har
wich suffered. -In East Africa, British forces took Debna Markos. -President Roosevelt signed the $4.389,284,174
Arth supplemental defense appropriations bill carrying funds for 4,750 new warplanes and
"critical" equipment for an army of 4,000,000 men. The Army gets $4,089,767,354 in cash and contract authorizations. The balance goes to the Navy, chiefly for ordnance, auxiliary ships and anti-aircraft defenses for merchant ships. He also signed the $1.414,626,838 appropriation
bill for the government's independent agencies. April 8-In Greece, the Germans drove down the Vardar Valley, through Guyvgueli Pass, to within 23 miles of Salonika, cutting off the Greek troops in Western Thrace. A German mechanized division, about 11,000 troops, 350 tanks and 3,000 other vehicles, reached the Greek frontier through ugoslavia late on April 7 and occupied Doiran. A Yugoslav troop withdrawal in South Serbia exposed the Greek left flank. German
forces took the city of Skoplje. -President Roosevelt in a message to the Yugoslav
King promised material supplies. He called the
German attack a "criminal assault." -In North Africa (Libya) Axis forces captured the
port of Derna. In East Africa the British cap tured the Red Sea port of Massaua. German planes raided Coventry, England; the
British bombed Kiel, German naval base. April 9-German tank and armored car units advancing southward from Yugoslavia captured Salonika, which had been set afire. Other German forces broke through the Metaxas (Greek) line, took Xanthe and reached the Aegean Sea and still others, advancing across Southern Serbia from Bulgaria had taken Veles and Tetovo and cut the Yugoslavs off from land communication with Greece and their allies there. German motorized and tank units in the group under Col. Gen. Paul von Kleist took Nish. German forces advancing from the Austrian border occupied Maribor and established a bridgehead on
the south bank of the Drava River, -A Berlin communique said 2,000 British troops
and six generals had been captured at Mekili, south of Derna, in Libya, and Italian quarters said Axis forces had reached Tobruk but did not
take it. -Ten U.S. Coast Guard cutters of approximately
the same displacement as destroyers have been
released to Britain to aid in combating U-boats. -The 35.000-ton U. S. battleship, North Carolina,
704 feet long, was launched in the New York
Navy Yard in Brooklyn. -British planes set fire to the State Opera House
in Berlin, the Prussian State Library, the University, and the Belevue Palace. Emden and
Potsdam also were bombed. April 10-The Danish Minister at Washington signed an agreement with the U. S. Government granting the latter the right to construct, maintain and operate in Greenland any "landing fields, seaplane facilities and radio and meteorological installations'' it deems necessary.
The United States also obtains the right to "improve and deepen harbors and anchorages and the approaches thereto," to install aids to navigation by air and sea and to "construct roads, communication services, fortifications housing for personnel." The United States agrees so to do. The pact was repudiated by King Christian, and the Danish Minister, Henrik de Kauffman, was recalled from the United States, and on April 16 was ousted from his post by royal resolution. The German Government
declared the U. S. move unlawful. -German forces occupied Zagreb, where a separate
State of Croatia was set up under Dr. Ante Pavelich and an extremist named Kvaternik, both once sentenced to death by a French court for complicity in the assassination of King Alexander in 1934 at Marseilles, Kvaternik is known
also as Egon Kramer. Ljubljana also was taken. April 11-President Roosevelt issued an Executive
Order removing the area at the entrance to the Red Sea from the combat zone which United States ships are prohibited from entering. He created the Office of Price Administration and Civilian Supply with price fixing powers, and put
Leon Henderson at its head. ---In Cyrenaica, the Germans captured Mekill, 50
miles southwest of Derna. --German mechanized units broke through Bitolj
Pass, on the Greek-Jugoslav frontier, and ad vanced into the Allied left flank in the Florina region. On the right flank, German forces driving down the Aegean coast were striking Allied lines near Yanitza, 30 miles west of Salonika, Reported contact between Italian units and German forces near Lake Ochrida was co
firmed by the German High Command. -Brest. Merignac, Dusseldorf, Bristol, Southamp
ton, Coventry, Birmingham, Nottingham were objects of reprisal air raids. The Coventry raid was severe.
--The Irag Parliament has elected Sherif Sharaf in a German communique. Among those killed
as Regent in place of the Emir Abdul Illah, who were Lord Josiah Stamp, banker, his wifo and fed when Rashid Ali Beg Gailani staged a coup oldest son, and three of the servants. Lord Auckd'etat last week.
land also was killed. St. Paul's Cathedral was -The strike which began on April 1 at the Ford damaged. Parliament buildings were hit.
auto plant in River Rouge, Mich., was settled by April 17-In Yugoslavia, surrender of the army,
an agreement for an election among the workers. Berlin said, was being negotiated by Germany April 12-German forces in Northern Yugoslavia with Serb military authorities in the absence of took Varazdin, north of Zagreb, and Karlovac, a recognized Yugoslav government, fighting have to the southeast. Italian forces operating in ing stopped on all Yugoslav fronts. Northwest Yugoslavia occupied Ljubljana, previ- -In Greece, where the German forces still are ously taken by the Germans, and were proceeding advancing, and the Greeks are trying to withsouth along the Sava Valley. Susak, Yugoslav draw from Albania, German pressure is reported twin city of Italian Fiume, was taken by Fascist strong in the regions of Grevena and of Servia troops after Yugoslav forces had withdrawn. in Greece and south of Koritza in Albania. In Italian forces have also taken Dibra, on the the last of these sectors, it is stated, Greek inYugoslav-Albanian frontier.
fantrymen with bayonets have been inficting April 13--Japan and Soviet Russia signed, in Mos- losses on the attackers, principally Italians.
cow, a five-year neutrality pact, which said: --The Italian forces in Northern Albania, having "Both contracting parties undertake to main- overcome resistance of the Serbs, are now worktain peaceful and friendly relations between ing up the Dalmatian coast toward Ragusa, Rome them and mutually respect the territorial integ- reported. At the same time, the Second Army, rity and inviolability of the other contracting which took Spalato, was moving down toward party. Should one of the contracting parties Ragusa. become the object of hostilities on the part of -A German warship in the South Atlantic shelled one or several third Powers, the other contract- and sank the Egyptian steamer, Zamzam, on ing party will observe neutrality throughout the which were several Americans. duration of the conflict."
-Alexander Korizis, 56, Premier of Greece, com--Pope Pius, in an Easter broadcast from the mitted suicide, in Athens.
Vatican, appealed to the belligerents to refrain April 18-Chancellor Hitler flew to Greece to see from the use of still more deadly weapons''; how things were going on. The German comalso translated "still more homicidal instru- munique said: "By the evening of April 17 the ments."
entire Serb Army, as far as it had not yet been -Belgrade, capital of Yugoslavia, was formally disarmed, capitulated. Fighting in Yugoslavia
occupied by German troops after a four-day thus was concluded at noon, April 18. The numsiege, in which several thousand perished. The ber of prisoners and the amount of booty cannot capture of 12,000 Yugoslav stroops, including yet be estimated. The occupation of the remaingenerals and 200 officers, in the Zagreb area was ing parts (of Yugoslavia) is almost completed. also reported.
On the Dalmatian coast Italian troops occupied -Axis forces occupied Bardia on the Mediterranean Ragusa and Mostar, and in an advance southCoast of Libya. British forces along the Allied ward occupied Cetinje." The retreat of the Allies line in Greece began to "withdraw to new posi- left them with a shortened defense line extending tions" after defeating with heavy enemy casual- from the Mount Olympus area on the Aegean ties a crack division of German Schutzstaffel coast to the region southwest of Konitza near troops, the War Office said.
the Albanian border. April 14-The armies on the northern Greek front April 19– In Greece, King George II took personal battled in extreme cold and deep snow in several command of the State and installed Kostas sectors.
Kotzias as Premier in a "temporary' military -Work was resumed in the Ford plant, Dearborn, government. The German communique said: Mich.; 25,000 employees returned.
Troops fighting in Greece, in a further advance, -In North Africa, Italian-German troops have pushed through the mountains northeast of
crossed into Egypt and taken Solum. They had Pindus. In thrusts past both sides of Olympus seized Fort Capuzzo. The siege of Tobruk con- the rear guards of the British main forces were tinued.
repulsed and the southern exits of the mountains -A steel strike in United States defense work was taken in fighting and sharp pursuit. On the averted by an agreement by the big producers to Thessaly plains the important road junction of raise their workers' pay 10 cents an hour, from Larissa was taken. Mountaineers hoisted the April 1.
Reich's war flag on Olympus'' (on April 16). April 15--The Germans said one of their forces -Chancellor Hitler celebrated his 52nd birthday in had moved southward in Greece and captured the his railway car, at midnight, "somewhere in towns of Ptolemais and Koziani and had then the Balkans after getting word from his comcrossed the Vistritza River, north of Servia, while manders that his troops had broken through the another force had pushed southwest from Salo- mountain passes and were on the Plains of nika and crossed the lower Vistritza. The Brit- Thessaly, pursuing enemy forces southward. ish covered their retreat with rear-guard action, -London was again raided by German planes. according to Berlin.
Berlin also suffered. -Germany and Italy, in personal telegrams to April 20--In Greece, & German column occupied
Ante Pavelich by Hitler and Mussolini, recog- Trikkala, a railway town. A London communi
nized the new "independent State of Croatia.' que said: "Greek and Imperial troops are con--The British Mediterranean fleet destroyed, Lon- tinuing their withdrawal covered by rear guards.
don stated, an Italian convoy of three destroyers By able handling and determined ighting these and five transports between Sicily and Tripoli. rear guards have succeeded in delaying the GerThe British lost one destroyer. Rome said only man advance and have inflicted heavy casualties one Italian destroyer was sunk.
on the enemy." -The British cruiserBonaventure, two years old, -The London Board of Trade declared Yugoslavia
with a crew of 400 men, has been sunk while "enemy occupied territory." protecting a British convoy.
-The advance of Italian forces to the Albanian-- Five hundred persons were killed in Belfast, Ire- Greek frontier, whence they had been driven by land, in a night raid by German planes.
the Greeks last Autumn, was announced by April 16-A Berlin communique said: "German Rome. motorized troops advanced to Sarajevo and occu- April 21-A British army of 50,000 to 80,000, made pied the city. Thousands of Serbs downed arms. up largely of Australians and New Zealanders, in Greece speedy troops, in sharp pursuit of and covered in its rear by Greek troops, is fightretreating British and Greek units, forced the ing a slow retreat to the southernmost embarkaenemy to fight near Mt. Olympus and the tion point of Greece. A Berlin High Command mountains west of there."
communique said: "German troops in pursuit of -In North Africa a thrust on Solum by British the defeated enemy in Greece pushed southward
armored units supported by warships was re- far beyond Larissa. Other forces advancing pulsed.
across the Pindus Mountains to the west took a -The 1,100-year-old Orthodox Autonomous Monas- mile-high pass near Metsovo. In Albania Italian
tic Republic on Mount Athos, Greece, is now troops in a further advance reached the Greek under German military rule.
border at many points." The official German -The Italian Second Army occupied the Yugoslav news agency reported that the air force had port of Spalato (Split) and Rome appointed Civil sunk five transports totaling 23,000 tons and commissioners for Slovenia and Dalmatia.
damaged our others, all loaded with troops, in --More than 300 German planes flew over London attacks between Crete and the island of Euboea.
for eight hours, dropping fire bombs and high Nazi bombers were said to be raiding Greek harexplosives. It was the longest and most wide- bors. spread since the war began, and was particularly --Dispatches from Beirut, Lebanon, said that a & revenge attack-a reprisal for the raid by plane carrying King Peter II of Yugoslavia had British aircraft on Berlin's "residential sections reached Jerusalem by & flight over the Mediteron the night of April 9-so it was officially stated ranean, during which an unidentified member of the Yugoslav Cabinet was killed. The plane Machek, the Croat leader, he went by plane to was attacked in the air, it was said.
Egypt. - The Duke of Aosta, Italian Viceroy of Ethiopia, April 26_German parachute troops descended on has refused a demand for unconditional sur- Lue isthmus of Corinth, captured it and then render from Gen. Cunningham, leader of the the city of Corinth, preventing the British from British forces in East Africa, who said that he destroying the canal. The Adolf Hitler Division would not be responsible for the safety of the of the Elite Guards, after advancing southward. white population of Ethiopia in territory not west of the Pindus Mountains, had crossed the occupied by British troops.
Gulf of Corinth, entering the Peloponnesus -British battleships bombed the Mediterranean from the north, and took the port of Patras. The
port of Tripoll, in Italian Libya, pred ten tons German war flag was raised over Olympia, in of heavy shells for 42 minutes and then with- the Western Peloponnesus, eight miles east of the drew leaving seven vessels crippled and the port Ionian port of Pyrgos and 40 miles southwest of in flames, they said.
Patra. April 22-German troops via Larissa, over destroyed -German and Italian light mobile forces crossed roads, took Lamia (at the gate to the mountain the Egyptian-Libyan frontier. pass of Thermopylae) and Volos an evacuation" April 27-The Germans took Athens without report on the Aegean Sea.) German trops landed sistance. The swastika flag was raised over the from speedboats on the island of Samothrace Acropolis. Italians had been trying to get to near the entrance to the Dardanelles and also Athens since Oct. 28, but were stopped in Alattacked the British-held island of Lemnos some bania by Greek invading forces. miles to the south, according to Istanbul reports. -Prime Minister Winston Churchill told the BritMeanwhile the Italians are advancing in Greece ish Parliament and the United States and the from the west.
rest of the world by radio that President Roose-Turkey is evacuating the civil population from velt had pledged all possible aid-ships, planes, Istanbul.
munitions, food and a wide sea patrol. It enough -Southern Greece and ships leaving Greek ports of such aid is forthcoming, he added, the British
are being pounded by swarms of Nazi planes are sure to win. attacking ahead of Germany's Panzer divisions, April 28-Col. Charles A. Lindbergh, 39, resigned the Greek Government said. Vessels in the Gulf his commission as a colonel in the U. S. Army of Athens were bombed and machine-gunned Air Corps Reserve. In a letter to the President without regard for their size.
he said he could see "no honorable alternative." April 23-The Greek army in Epirus and Macedonia The Chief Executive, in a press conference April surrendered unconditionally to the Italian High 25, had classed Lindbergh as a defeatist and an Command of forces in Albania and to the High
appeaser, and had likened such people to the Command of German forces in Greece. The
copperheads of the American Civil War. These formal terms were signed in Salonika by Gen.
allusions, the Colonel's letter stated, were “imTsola Koglou for Greece, by Gen. Jodi for
plications" attacking "my loyalty to my country, Germany, and by Gen. Ferrero for Italy. The
my character, and my motives." The Secretary pact said: "Cessation of hostilities for German
of War accepted the resignation. troops and Greek troops of Epirus and Macedonia
-Italian aeronautical units (parachutists), Blackstands as agreed upon in surrender terms of April
shirts and infantry troops, took the Greek island 21. Cessation of hostilities between Italian
of Corfu, also Preveza on the Gulf of Arta, thus troops and the Greek Army of Epirus and Mace
occupying a triangle extending from Perat, on donia will go into effect today, April 23, at 6 p.m.,
the southern frontier of Albania, through Yanina except for Greek detachments on the Italian
and Arta to Preveza. Germany, later, occupied front who already have laid down their arms.
the isles of Lesbos and Chios, and Italy took With the conclusion of the present convention of
Amorgos and five other of the Cyclades Group. surrender, the convention concluded April 21
-In Ethiopia, British forces took Dessie, 140 miles between the German High Command in Greece
northeast of Addis Ababa, and the Commander of the Greek Army in Epirus
April 29—Capt. James Roosevelt arrived at Chungand Macedonia ceases to be effective."
king, China, in time to experience his first air -Meantime, King George and his Ministers had
raid alarm. "He took tea with Gen. Chiang Kaified by planes to the Greek Island of Crete, 60
shek and wife, and delivered a message of greetmiles to the south. The King there proclaimed
ing from President Roosevelt, his father, who, it the surrender as void and made without his
is stated, has assigned him as a military observer knowledge or consent.
in Africa and the Near East. -German land forces continued their advance
- President Roosevelt announced that U. S. naval down toward Athens through the Thermopylae
vessels were not barred from entering combat Pass. Waves of German bombing planes smashed
zones when needed in the interests of hemisphere at Greek ports and waiting ships in the harbors
defense. London has stated that the area in the of Piraeus, Salamis and Megara and "caused
North Atlantic where there is the highest morconsiderable damage to ships and harbor instal
tality among merchant ships from submarines lations," it was stated authoritatively. The Gulf
and raiders begins just outside the line about of Corinth also was bombed.
400 miles west of the Irish Coast and touches --In New York City, more than 30.000 persons
the usual sea lanes. heard Col. Charles A. Lindbergh address the
-German long-range cannon fixed on the Channel first mass meeting of the American First Com
shores between Calals and Bologne, shelled the mittee. * The British Government," he said,
British coast once an hour, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. has one last desperate plan remaining; they
-Plymouth, England, was declared an evacuation hope that they may be able to persuade us to
zone. send another American Expeditionary Force to
April 30-British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden Europe and to share with England militarily, as
read a letter in Commons from Alexander Korizis,
We well as financially, the fiasco of this war.
Greek Premier, in which the latter agreed to the in this country have a right to think of the
withdrawal of the British force from Greece. welfare of America first, just as the people in
German war cruisers are roaming the Indian England thought first of their own country
Ocean and have recently sunk more than 57,000 when they encouraged the smaller nations of
tons of ships carrying food to England. Some of Europe to fight against hopeless odds.'
the sinkings are attributed to the pocket battle-Britain's second new 35,000-ton battleship, the
ship, Admiral Scheer,
1941-MAY April 24German planes raided Greek ports Piraeus, Aegina, Elusis, Megara-to destroy, or May 1-Italian forces have occupied the Greek
Islands of Cephalonia, Levkas and Zanto, hinder, English, Australian, New Zealand troops seeking to escape by ships. Berlin said five Cephalonia a full company of parachutists, armed transports were destroyed and ten other large with rifles and machine guns, dropped near the vessels were damaged, also a destroyer. In the the port of Argostoli, while other Italian troops Thermopylae Pass Greek soldiers hindered the landed from seaplanes. advance of the Germans toward Athens.
May 2-Iraq artillery opened fire on British forces April 25-German forces captured Thermopylae at Habbaniyah, an airport 60 miles west of BagPass; German planes attacked, at Piraeus, Volos dad. The Premier said England had violated a and other ports where the English and Anzacs secret treaty, which gave British troops the right were escaping on their troop ships. The trans- to pass across Iraq but not to accumulate there, ports were under a rain of bombs dropped from -Italy is setting up in Yugoslavia, the Province of the air while British planes attacked the German Ljubljana, including that Slovene city. planes. Itallan planes also took part in raids on - Civilian evacuation of Istanbul is proceeding. the transports and continued their daily bombing -President Roosevelt called for industrial producof the fortified Greek Island of Crete. Mean- tion on a 24-hour day, seven-day week basis. time Prince Paul of Yugoslavia had fled to May 3-German and Italian troops marched in a Athens where he was a guest of King George. two-hour victory parade in Athens, with a large Thence, after wiring in his mother's name to showing of infantry, tanks and heavy artillery
The Greek army has been officially disbanded. --Iraq asked Russia for mutual diplomatic recogni
tion, which was granted. -In Italy, the meat ration to civilians was cut
down from three days to two- Saturdays and Sundays; rice is to substitute for corn in May and June. Veal now averages nearly 73 cents a pound; fresh chickens $1 à pound; cheese and
fruit also are expensive. --The British Admiralty announced that it had
lost only four transports and two destroyers in the withdrawal from Greece,
which began April 24, May 4-In Berlin, Chancellor Hitler, in a speech in
the Reichstag, summarizing his Balkan victories, their causes and results, declared as an "absurd lie'' the statements of "democratic agitators" that Germany intended to do any harm to the United States. He called Churchill a "world incendiary" and the most bloodthirsty amateur strategist the world has ever known." Yugoslavia, he said, had fallen a victim to British intrigue. In that campaign, he stated, the German forces captured 320,062 Serb soldiers, 218,000 Greek soldiers, and more than 9.000 English, New Zealand and Australian soldiers-also 500,000 rifles, over 1,000 guns, "many thousand" ma. chine guns, anti-aircraft guns, also vehicles and ammunition. The German losses (killed) in Yugoslavia and Greece, the Chancellor said, were 1,151 officers and men, of whom 52 were in the air force; 3,752 were wounded; five detachments constituted the force used in Greece. London later said seven divisions actually were used by
Hitler. --Cologne and Liverpool were objects of reprisal
raids by British and German planes. ---The Greek Navy announced the Germans had destroyed three destroyers, five hospital ships, 11 torpedo boats and other auxiliaries, more than 30 in all -The American Red Cross has lost 11 ships out of 369 carrying relief consignments across the Atlantic. No vessel carrying only Red Cross
supplies was sunk. May 5-An offcial Italian war bulletin at Rome
said: "In the Alagi sector in East Africa our valorous troops repelled an enemy attack, inflicting heavy losses. Among the dead were many Jews from Palestine." In that same area, according to the Associated Press correspondent, the British are using Garwahli soldiers drawn from Indian hill tribes. Among the Australian troops in Greece were Maoris. -During an air raid by German planes on Belfast and elsewhere in Northern Ireland, in which a number of persons were killed, Eire fire brigades from Dublin and Dandalk came across the border
and helped put out the fires. -An Italian force of 400,000 is being evacuated in
Albania. Only sufficient forces to police the
country are being left. -Haile Selassie sat again on his throne at Addis
Ababa as Emperor of Ethiopia. --Britain declined an offer by Turkey to mediate with Iraq. It was declared that withdrawal of Iraq troops from Habbania was an essential prerequisite to any negotiations. The Premier, Rashid All Beg Gailani is said by Britain to be pro-German. The Iraq forces have occupied
Rutha. --London stated R.A.F. planes in an attack at Brest
had made direct hits on the German battleships
Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. Ottawa announced the loss the first loss-of a Canadian Military unit, in the Atlantic, on the
way to England: 75 men were lost. -President Roosevelt called for creation of the
world's most powerful fleet of long-range bomb
ing planes. May 6-U. S. Secretary of War Stimson told the
people of the Americas, that it was of the greatest importance for this country to use its navy to assure the delivery of its munitions to Britain and to secure the seas. It was later officially stated at the White House that Mr. Stimson had, prior to its delivery, "talked to the President about the speech. -Kermit Roosevelt, son of the late President Theodore Roosevelt, resigned his commission as a Major in the British Army because of ill health. - Joseph Stalin, 62, became Premier of Soviet Russia, succeeding V. M. Molotov, 51, who had served also at one and the same time as Foreign Commissar. He continues in the latter post, to which he was appointed on May 4, 1939. Stalin retains his place as Secretary of the Communist party. The Supreme Soviet has also kept Molotov as Vice Premier, All these changes are embodied in three decrees of the Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet. --Japan and France signed two agreements for
economic collaboration between Japan and
French Indo-China. -The Canadian Ministry of National Defense
stated that 11 Americans, described as "ferry pilots" (aviators) on their way to England, are "missing, believed lost." All were from the United States and were torpedoed in the Atlantic along with 75 members of Canadian military
units. May 7-Commons, 447 to 3, voted confidence in
Churchill's conduct of the war; the House of Lords, the day before had sustained the Prime
Minister unanimously. --The U. S. Navy is taking over the seagoing vessels
of the Coas Guard, by direction of the President, who has approved the $3,415,521,750 appropriation for a two-ocean Navy. May 8-Axis planes bombed the Suez Canal area
for two hours, and, according to the Egyptian Ministry of the Interior, damaged the State Railroad, which carries shipments of the United States and British supplies that arrive over the
Red Sea route. - In Libya, where Australian and British troops
are besieged at Tobruk, German infantrymen varied their daily attack by using flame throwers towed by tanks, on which the soldiers wore hoods. The Germans shot a 50-foot flame down a hole in a concrete outpost in which the defense
troops were believed concealed. -Among the recent Atlantic British losses are two
ships (16,000 tons) "ferrying American supplies to England. The convoy was attacked by German submarines 750 miles east of the southern tip of Greenland. Another British liner, the 10,305ton Calchas, was torpedoed, about 500 miles off the cast coast of Africa. May 9--Russia withdrew recognition of the fugitive
governments of Norway, Yugoslavia and Belgium. --London announced April losses of ships due to
German attacks as-British (60) 293.089 tons; Allied (43) 189,473 tons; neutral (3) 5.562 tons; total (106) 488,124 tons. These figures, not final, include the evacuation of Greece and Albania, and are exceeded only by those for June, 1940528.844 tons, which include the evacuation of Dunkerque. The total of the war, to May 1, 1941, is 5,832,027 tons. In April, 1917, the tonnage was 852,000. British troop convoys, on the way from Gibraltar to Alexandria, Egypt, were attacked by Italian and German planes in the Mediterranean between Sardinia and Tunisia. The battleship Renown was said to have been hit, also other war craft, and the German planes sank 2 merchant ships, it was stated. London denied that war
ships or merchant craft had been damaged. ---In Egypt the heat has immobilized the troops on
both sides, in the Western Desert. May 10--Rudolf Hess, 47, deputy leader of the
National Socialist party in Germany and Chancellor Hitler's personal representative, landed by parachute in a field near Glasgow, Scotland. after a flight by plane from Augsburg, in Bavaria, His fuel had become exhausted. so he jumped, and broke his ankle. The identity of the unexpected aviator was established by photographs, etc., which he carried. He also freely announced. in English, who he was.
He was taken to a Glasgow hospital, and shortly after was shifted as a “prisoner of war." It was stated in Parliament on May 22 that his bailing out followed pursuit of his plane by a British aircraft. Hess asked to see the Duke of Hamilton. An interview came later. The Duke said he had no recollection of having ever before met Hess. The latter was officially labeled by his Nazı "party associates in Berlin as a "deluded seeker of peace." They put him down as a sick. deranged and muddled idealist, ridden with hallucinations traceable to World War injuries and the party declared in a formal statement: "This will not interfere with the continuation of the war against England forced upon the German people." -In å two-day (May 10-12) attack on the Thames area in London, German planes numbering several hundred, moving in squadrons, damaged Westminster Abbey (roof torn open); Houses of Parliament (Commons Chamber smashed to pieces): Westminster Hall (roof burned): British Museum (Egyptian Section and the Library damaged-most of the contents had been moved); Big Ben, but it still chimes (later stopped and repaired) five hospitals, several churches, and "mile after mile of houses and shops of poor and rich alike" were blasted, burned or damaged. There were also British two-day reprisal terror raids on Berlin and other German cities and places in which, as in London, civilians were major sufferers. The raids covered every important port in British or German control in the