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1.700

STATE INDIVIDUAL INCOME TAXES: RATES, EXEMPTIONS (Continued)

Personal Exemp.

| Married

or head Single lof family

Credit Per

and

for de Applicable Percentage Applicable centage Special rates or pendState

rates

to
rates
features

ents North Dakota .... First 2,000

6.001- 8,000 7.5

500 1.500 200 2.001- 4,000

8,001-10.000 4,001- 5,000

10,001-15,000 12.5 5,001- 6,000

Over 15,000 Oklahoma ..... First 1,000

5,001- 6.000 1,001- 2.000

6,001- 7,000 2.001- 3,000

7.001- 8.000 3,001- 4,000

Over 8,000 4,001- 5.000 Oregors ..... First 500

2,001- 3,000

800 1.500 1300 501- 1.000

3,001- 4,000

2 pct. surtax on in-.. 1,001- 2,000

Over 4,000

come from intangi-. bles, total tax not to exceed 8 pct. of normal tax net income

less surtax exemption South Carolina... First 2,000

1.000 1,800

200 2,001- 4.000 4.001- 6,000

Over 6.000 South Dakota .... First 3.000

40,001-140.000

*20. 3,001 - 7.000

(ver 140,000 7.001-15,000

15,001-40.000 Tennessee....... Interest & divi

Dividends from corporations at least 75 pct dends

the property of which is assessable for ad

valorem taxation in Tennessee, 4 pet. Utah .......... First 1,000

3,001- 4,000

600 1,200 300 1.001- 2,000

Over 4,000 2.001- 3.000 Vermont?........ Int. and divd'ds

All other Inc. Virginia..... First 3,000

Over 5,000:1

13" 3,001- 5.000 West Virginia.... First 1,000

2,001- 3,000 1.001- 2,000

Over 3,000 Wisconsin ..... First 1.000

7.001- 8,000

*8 17.50 1,001- 2.000 1.25

8.001- 9,000 4.5 Surtax: Normal tax. 2.001- 3,000 1.5

9,001-10,000

5

less $37.50 divided. 3,001- 4,000

10,001-11.000 5.5 by 6. Temporary sur4,001- 5,000

11,001-12,000

tax equal to 60 pct. 5,001- 6,000

Over 12,000

of normal tax rates 6,001- 7,000 3.5 Dist. of Col...... First 5,000

15,001-20,000 2.5 1,000 2,500 400 5.001-10.000

Over 20,000 10,001-15,000

- 1,000* * | 2,000 | 250 | 1,000 2,000 - 200 11,000 2,000 300**

2:5

3

*Tax credit deductible from amount of tax rather than from net income.
1 Personal exemption and credit for dependents deductible from lowest income bracket.

3 The exemptions shown consist of a specific exemption of $2,000 in addition to a personal exemption of $500 for husband or wife and a credit for each dependent of $250.

& Tax applies only to interest and dividends. No personal exemptions are allowed.
1 An additional exemption of $1.000 is provided for a married woman with separate income.

5 For purposes of the surtax (applicable to income from intangibles) exemptions of $500 for a single person and $800 for a married person are allowed.

6 Tax applies only to interest and dividends. No personal exemptions are allowed. T Applicable to income from salaries, wages and business or professions.

For purposes of the remular surtax, a tax credit of $37.50 is allowed. 9 In the case of a dependent father, mother or grandparent the taxpayer may take a deduction of $300 in lieu of the $5 tax credit allowed for other dependents.

lowed mother Tedit or less of

Masonic Membership by States, 1940

Source: An Official of the Organization
Mem-
Mem-

MemGrand Lodges Lodges ber Grand Lodges Lodges ber Grand Lodges Lodges bership ship

ship

[graphic]

Expenditures

- Public Libraries in Large U. S. Cities, 1940

Source: The American Library Association
Circu- Expen-

Circu.
Books lation ditures

Books lation
Akron, Ohio... 208,586 1,172,748 168,205|| Brooklyn..... 1,170,280 6,772,789
Atlanta, Ga.... 225,198 1,187,382 128,444 Il Queens......

719,048 4,356,968 Baltimore, Md.. 740.752 3,136,087 565,969 Newark, N. J.. 621,966 2,314,977 Birmingham, Ala.. 232.749 1.298,714 111,483 Oakland, Calil.. 275.001 2,460,924 Boston, Mass., Cir. 542,932 3,563,017 709,083 Oklahoma City.. 124,250 968,404 Buffalo, N. Y... 625,610 3,275,185 428,266 Omaha, Neb.... 212,852 676,101 Chicago, Ill....... 1,892,016 13,555,454 2,134,163|Philadelphia, Pa 737.711 3,170,227 Cincinnati, Ohio 1,292,472 4,479,740 614,022 Pittsburgh, Pa.. 1,319,610 4,507,440 Cleveland, Ohio. 2,112,129 8,330,441 1,982,380|| Old City...... 1,063,519 4,081,187 Dallas, Texas... 153,434 861,433 78,185| Allegheny ..... 256,091 426.253 Dayton, Ohio... 408,2081 1,743,663 270,131 Portland, Ore.. 672,846 2.894,026 Denver, Colo..... 396,411 1,828,000 238,617 ||Providence, R. ) 527,907 1,802,212 Detroit, Mich..... 1.012.328 5,290,465 1,279,229 Providence P.

474,136 1,535,986 Houston, Texas... 225,502 812.882 89.131 Elmwood P. L. 53,771 266,226 Indianapolis, Ind.. 631,483 3,033,610) 364,914 Rochester, N. Y 440.270 2,249,914 Jersey City, N. J.. 408,678 1,633,506 293,258 St. Louis, Mo.. 917,639 3.167.069 Kansas City, Mo.. 571,364 2,251,026 248,447 St. Paul, Minn. 390.771 1,318,190 Los Angeles (City) 1,641.1951 9,498,993 1,067,156 San Antonio... 138,203 493,487 Louisville, Ky.... 329,965 1,264,825 192,169 San Diego, Cali 183,6201 1,581,491 Memphis, Tenn... 259,708 1,801,604 109,605 San Francisco... 525,215 3,700.289 Milwaukee, Wis... 969,278) 3,950,166 434,938 Seattle, Wash.. 540,3301 2.996.743 Min'eapolis, Minn, 765,834 3,677,526 .

Syracuse, N. Y

185,1901 1.231.834 New Orleans, La.. 267,656 724,488 91,928 || Toledo, Ohio... 365,410 1,663,213 New York City... 3,336,17022,396,900 3,597,760 Washington, D. C. 613,756 3,383,927 N.Y.P.L. Circ. D. 1,446,842 11,267,143 1,824,964 ||

1,005.073 767,723 553,755 297,444 61,586 82,998 731,160 629.254 562,095

67.159 344,587 281,716 255,047

26,679 394,705 475,368 253,313

78,788 153,977 403,243 351.386 142,061 316,005 551,566

State

11

N.

VOLUMES IN PUBLIC LIBRARIES, BY STATES, 1938
Volumes State Volumes

Volumes State 1
542,833 Iowa.
2,579,904 Nev....

345,209||S. D...
229,965 Kan...
1,365,859 N. H.

1,689,095 |Tenn.
234,669 Ky.....
723,771 N.

4,496,231 ||Texas ..
10.956,069|La....

484,908

162,314||Utah..
944,620||Maine.
1.967,425 N.

13,613,733||Vt.....
2,990.005|Ma...
1,084,777 N.

876,272 ||Va...
265,902||Mass..
10,559,537 N.

261.301 I Wash..
586,619||Mich..
4,086,756 Ohio

8,016,738 ||W. Va.
511,356||Minn...
2,353,966|Okla..

740,602||Wis....
700.030||Miss..

291,337 || Ore....

1.236,189 ||Wyo....
370.257|Mo....
2,279,200 Penn..

4,736,249
5,640,872||Mont..

505,671 |R. I..

1,567,978|| Total....
4,214,213||Neb....
1,312,686 s. C...

570,748 |

[graphic]

Ala....
Ariz....
Ark....
Calil...
Colo...
Conn..
Del....
D. of Co
Fl&.....
Ga.....
Idaho.
Ill....
Ind....

27

436,542 795,009 1,700,206

545,989 1,052,548 1,008,903 1,498,261

269,269 3,033,500 336,684

06,772,777

PUBLIC LIBRARY INCOME OR EXPENDITURE, BY STATES
| 1937-38

1937-38
1937-38
1937-38

1937-38 State Total State Total State Total State Total State Total Ala.

$186,160 N ...... 4,020,062 Minn... 1 1,432,966 N. C.... 325,148 | Texas.. 733,525 · Ariz...

66,594 | Ind..... 1,656,400 Miss. ... 68,273||N. D.. 96.947 | Utah.... 217,313 Ark.

90,058 Iowa.. 779,539 Mo..... 1,216,235 Ohio.... 5,952,751 | Vt...... 153,322 Calll.... 5,076,003 Kans.

412.863 Mont.. 169,003|Okla.... 251,484 Va.... 324.084 Colo.... 364.015 Ky.....

293.775 Nebr... 406,434 Oreg. 581,117 Wash. 693,571 Conn.... 1,317,531 La.

146,860 Nev.

50.000 Penn.. 2,656,325|W. Va.. 96,702 Del..... 114,713||Me..... 390,894 N. H... 303,780||R. I.. 488,418| Wisc.... 1,162,561 D. of c. 635,054 Md..... 469,878 N. J. 2,474,836 S.C.. 195, 262

Wyo....

119,156 Fls.... 198,563 Mass.... 3,431,638 IN. M.

35,144 S. D. 132,406 Ga.....

259,201 | Mich.... 2,458,975 N. Y.. 8,427,193 Tenn.... 337,205 Total. . 51,594,137 Idaho. 124.2001

No.

Newspaper Circulations in U. S., 1920 to 1940

Source: The Editor and Publisher
Daily
Sunday

Daily

Sunday
Year
Circu No. Circu-

Year No. Circu No. Circupapers lation papers lation

papers lation papers lation 1940... 1,878 41,131,611 525 32,371,092 1929.. 1.944 39,425,615 528 26,879,536 1939,

1,888 39,670, 682 524 31,519,009 1928. 1,939 37,972,592 522 25,771,583 1938..... 1,936 39,571,839 523 30.480,922 1927.

1,949 37.966,766 526 25,469,037 1937... 1,993 41,418,730 539 30.956,916 || 1926.... 2,001 36,001.803 545 24,435,192 1936.

1,989 40,292, 266 520 29,962,120 | 1925. 2,008 33,739,369 548 23,354,622 1935. 1,950 38,155,540 518 28,147,343 1924.

2,014 32,999,437 539 22,219,646 1934..... 1,929 36,709,010

505

26,544,516 | 1923..... 2,036 31,453,683 547 21,463,289 1933..... 1,911 35,175,238

506

24,040,630 | 1922. 2,033 29,680,328 546 19,712,874 1932..... 1,913 136,407,679 518 24,859,888|1921..... 2,028 28,423,740

545

19,041,413 1931..... 1.923 38,761,1871

513
125,701,798 | 1920..... 2,042

27,790,656

522 17,083,604 1930.....1 1,942 39,589,172) 521 26,413,047 ||

There were 1.998 daily newspapers (circulation 40,772,937) in the United States at the close of 1940, according to N. W. Ayer & Son's Directory of Newspapers and Periodicals

The combined total of dailies, weeklies, semi-weeklies and tri-weeklies in publication at the end of 1940 was 13, 206, as compared with 13,281 at the end of 1939.

Paper was invented about 100 A. D. and soon came into common use as a cheap substitute for silk in the scrolls of the time.

Many of these ancient scrolls are yellow in color because they were impregnated with a preservative substance taken from the amoor cork tree, several specimens of which are growing outside the rear doors of the Library of Congress in Washington,

Newspaper and Periodical Industries in the U. S.

Source: Department of Commerce NEWSPAPERS PUBLISHED BY CLASS, 1929 TO 1939 1939

1937

ī 1935T1933ī 1931ī 1929 All classes, no...

9,173
8,826
8,267
6,884
9,299

10,176 Aggregate circ... 97,476,469 95,296,150 87,202,149 76,298,620 86,457,458 9 778,033

All classes, no.

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,8,267

14.781,633

1. 15.741,469

25,813,687

26,033,858

94.886,550

15,480, 253 25,813,372 27,453,465 · 184,380

26,273;632 29.011.675

528

32,713,298

231,365

Daily (exc. Sunday):
Morning:
Number..

473
505

464
Circulation.... 17,152,298 17.311.078 5.983,996
Evening:
Number .....,

1.471 Circulation....

22,848.688
Sunday:
Number ..
542

523
489

555
Circulation
33.006,875
29,196.006 25, 453,894

3,465
Tri-weekly:
Number......

36
38

48
Circulation
219,121

127.601 140,497 Semi-weekly; Number...... 348

339

381 Circulation.....

1,989,744 1,719,820 1.723,630 1,025,567 1,352,720 1.580.221 Weekly: Number...

6.212
5.839
5,337
4,218
6,313

7,075 Circulation, 19,294,604 |

15,284,366 / 12.048,317 16,173.234 | 18,883.551 PERIODICALS PUBLISHED BY CLASS, 1929 TO 1939 1939 1937 1935 1933 1931

1929 All classes, no.

4,985
4,202
4.018
3,459
4.887

5,157 Aggregate cire... 239,692,508 | 224,274,792 8,613,672 ,759,493 83,527,411202,021,595

34

287,152

343

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Dally
Number ......
Circulation...
Tri-weekly
Number .....
Circulation..
Semi-weekly
Number....
Circulation....
Weekly
Number...
Circulation..
Semi-monthly:
Number ......

Circulation.....
Monthly:
Nurnber....
Circulation .....
Quarterly:
Number .....

Circulation.......
Other classes:
Number .....
Circulation..

2.994,810

1,109 55,825, 296

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193

34,494:25 9,168,23

179

8,135,260

15,327 25.206 31,314

24.628 27 30 38

27 2.129.010

1,810,522 1,284,406 1.401.963 966

878

1.066
42,648,210 39.365, 192 30.781,548
171
145

205
5,507.919 4,592.507

6,375,456
2.009
1,664

2,552
102, 193,740

103, 192,794 22,670,528
510
402
629

562 23,277.089 23,237,557 19,575,617

20,605,002 133

97
184

172 2,160,680 | 1,741,7% | 1,977,550 / 2,345,893

741.779 1,977,550 2,345,897

7,547,674

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133.043,789

698 26,238,181

380 9,725.925

243 6,903,152

No

1922...

New Books and New Editions by American Publishers

Source: Publishers' Weekly, New York
New 1 New
New New
New New

New New
Books | Edit.
Books Edit.
Books | Edit.

Books Edit.
No. No.

No.
No.

No.
NO.

No. 1902 5,485 2,348 1912... 10,135 768

5,998 865 1932. 7,556 1,479 1903... 5,793 2,072 1913. 9,687 1,623 1923... 6,257 921 1933... 6,813 1.279 1904... 6,456 1,878 1914... 9,513 1,835 1924. .. 6.380 1,158 1934... 6,788 1.410 1905... 6,817 1,435 1915. .. 6.817 1,385 1925. .. 6.680 1,493

1935...

6,914 1,852 1906... 6,985 1,618 1916... 7.219 1,285 1926... 6,832 1,527 1936... 8,584 1,852 1907... 7.701 2,213 | 1917... 6,596 1,211 1927...1 7,450 1,449 1937.. 9,273 11.639 1908... 8.745 509 1918... 5,709 1,152 1928... 7.614 1.562 1938... 9,464 1.603 1909... 10,193 708 1919... 4.772 969 1929... 8,342 1,845 1939... 9,015 1.625 1910...1 11,671 1,799 1920... 5,101 1,086 1930.. 8.134 1,893 1940... 9,515 11.813 1911... 10,440 783 || 1921... 5.438 | 1,008 | 1931... 8,506 1,801 11

AMERICAN BOOK PRODUCTION
For 1939 For 1940

For 1939 For 1940

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Philosophy......
Religion....
Sociology, Economics.
Law......
Education (books on):
Philology.........
Science...........
Technical Books......
Medicine, Hygiene....
Agriculture, Gardening
Domestic Economy ...
Business........ ...
Fine Arts............

91 669 773 138 293 256 422 336 307 100

88 298 262

515 132

99 781 796 141 317 274 398 470 326 108

70 344 213

Games, Sports ...
General Literature. ...
Poetry, Drama...
Fiction...
Juvenile..........
History ..,..
| Geography. Tra
Biography.......
Miscellaneous....

115 156 466 671 221 852 783 262

414
119
96
61

30 101 116 124 29

580 1.133 830 708 296 557 70

95

70

141 146 31

46 78

71

569

83

16 59

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26

9

Beginnings of Famous Foreign Universities

Source: Records of the Institutions The Moslem University of Al-Azhar, in Cairo, King Louis the Great at Pecs in 1367. It was in Egypt, was founded in 970.

its prosperity attended by 2,000 students, but Louvain University in Belgium was founded in passed out of existence in 1543 at the time of the 1426 by Duke John IV of Brabant in the town that occupation of Pecs by the Turks. In 1635 the had been the capital before the rise of Brussels. University of Nagyzombat, now the University of

At the end of the 12th Century there were three Budapest, was founded by Peter Pazmany, Archprominent universities in Europe-Bologna for law, bishop of Estergom, Salerno for medicine, Paris for theology. There The oldest Spanish university is that of Salawere, at Bologna. practically four universities in manca, founded in 1239. It was preceded in 1209 the Studium Generale-Lombards, Ultramontanes, by the University of Palenza. There was a school Tuscans, Romans.

at Cordova in 968. At Bologna the university consisted of a body of The University of Lima, Peru, was founded in students who hired professors to teach them. At 1551 by Charles V. Paris the students were younger and were con The University of Copenhagen, Denmark, was sidered as apprentices.

founded in 1478 and opened in 1479 by virtue o! a The University of Pavia, Italy. was founded by bull issued by Pope Sixtus IV in 1475. The TechLothaire, grandson of Charlemagne, in 825. nical College of Denmark was founded in 1829.

Other' old Italian universities are Bologna, The Royal Frederick University at Oslo was founded 1200; Padua, 1228; Naples, 1224; Genoa, founded in 1811 and opened in 1813 1243; Perugla, 1276; Macerata, 1290. There were The University of Leyden, in the Netherlands. nine more founded between 1300 and 1550. Italy was founded by Prince William (the Silent) of was the greatest resort of students for the higher Orange in 1575. education in the middle ages.

The Municipal University of Amsterdam was The University of Paris was founded by King founded in 1632. Philip II. 1140-1170, exact date unknown. It was Trinity College, Dublin, was incorporated by an outgrowth of the Cathedral School of Notre royal charter in 1591. Dame.

St. Andrews University, in Scotland, was founded The University of Poitiers, western France, was by Bishop Wardlaw in 1411. founded in 1431.

The University of Glasgow was founded by In England, Walter of Merton, began to round Bishop Turnbull in 1451. his Oxford College in 1266. .

The University of Edinburgh was founded in Winchester School, in Hampshire, England, was 1582 by & charter granted by King James VI, of founded by Bishop William of Wykeham, 1382-1387. | Scotland.

The first college of the University of Cambridge Dulwich College, near London, was founded in was founded by Hugo, Bishop of Ely, in 1257. But 1619, by Edward Alleyn, & noted actor of that time. there was a school there as early as 635. In 1109 The Royal College of Physicians, London, dates education was revived there.

from letters patent granted under Henry VIII in Eton College, in Buckinghamshire, England, was 1518 to his physician, Dr. Linacre, who became the founded by Henry VI in 1440 and was intended as a first president. The College of Physicians at Dublin preparatory school for King's College, Cambridge. I was created in 1667; that at Edinburgh in 1681; the Henry took many ideas for Eton from the Casa College of Surgeons, London, in 1745; and that at Glacosa, the great school near Mantua, Italy, Dublin in 1786. founded by its Marquis about 1429.

The University of Cracow, Poland, where CoperThe University of Prague, Bohemia. was founded! nicus received his education, was founded in 1364 in 1348. The University of Heidelberg was founded by King Casimir III (the Great). in 1380.

The University of Havana, Cuba, was opened on Uppsala University, in the ancient capital of Feb. 15, 1730. Sweden, was founded in 1477.

The College of San Nicolas de Hidalgo was The University of Moscow was founded in 1755 founded in Patzcuaro in the State of Michoacan, by the Empress Elizabeth, and the University of Mexico. in 1540, by Vasco de Quiroga. St. Petersburg in 1819 by Czar Alexander I. There The University of Mexico was founded in 1553 was a school there in 1747.

by the Roman Catholic Church, The first Hungarian University was founded by The University of Finland was founded in 1640.

The Simpler Spelling Movement

Source: William Russell, M.S. The following is a list of representative reform words in common use thruout America today, along with general rules for further simplifications: altho 'controler inclose nite

technic
ameba
donut
indorse
Porto Rico

theater
draft
kwiz
plow

tho
eatalog
gipsy
mold
sirup

thoro(ly) (fare) cigaret hiccup nabor(hood) sulfur

thru (out) (1) Substitute e for ae or oe. Examples: cyclo (7) When final ed is pronounst d drop e unless pedia, ameba, esthetic, maneuver.

necessary to show preceding vowel is long. If pro(2) Avoid the use of gh. Examples: nite, altho, nounst t spell as such enur, furlo, thru.

(8) Avoid use of old English spellings ending in (3) Drop 'ue from words ending in gue. Examples:

our or re. catalog, dialog, pedagog, prolog.

(9) Form plurals in s or es according to general (4) Change final ise to ize when so pronounst. Examples: surprize, advize.

rule. avoiding Latin endings. Example: formulas, (5) Change ph to when so pronounst. Ex

not formulee. amples: fantasy, fantom, fonetic, sulfur, telefone,

(10) In all cases where two or more forms are (6) Omit silent letters.

I acceptable choose the simpler and more fonetic.

15

· Frequency of Letters in English

Source: The late Frank H. Vizetelly In the work of computing the frequency of letters in use in English words done for the Funk & Wagnalls New Standard Dictionary, the following results were obtained. Capital initial letters were found to have been used in the following ratio:

V 144 H 258 T 478 Some years ago, Dr. William S. Walsh gave the
0 173 E 285

481
316
191

673

following computation of the relative proportions 39 223 325

785

in which the various letters of the alphabet are 228 368 S 1000

used: 57 R 244

388 128 L 250 D 423

A 85 H 64 O 80 V 12 of the lower case letters, the figures are:

B 16 I 80

W 20 22 168 296

680

C 30
26
168
360

704
184
392

728
55
190
528

120
236
540

1000
272
670

25
280
672

G 17 N 80

49

<FOMNO ZA

50

44

770

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88 120

152

The Principal Languages of the World,

Source: Dr. Charles Earle Funk, Editor of the New Standard Dictionary The actual number of languages computed by French from Low German, 54; French from officers of French Academy is put at 2,796.

Dutch or Middle Dutch, 45, French from ScandiThe English language is spoken by more than navian, 63; French from (1) German, 85, French 270.000,000 of people of which more than hall are from (2) Middle High German, 27; French from Americans. Of these 150.500,000 are citizens of the (3) Old High German, 154: French from (4) TeuUnited States of America, 1,000,000 are Liberians, | tonic. 225; French (Romance languages). 297: and 70,900,000 are English-speaking people of Eng French from Latin, 4,842; French from Late Latin, land, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales, and | 828; French from Italian, 162. the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man, and Ireland, Celtic, 170; Latin (direct), 2.880; Provencal, from Gibraltar and Malta and the Dominions of Canada, Latin, 26; Italian, 99, Spanish, 108; Portuguese, 21. Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. The Greek direct or through Latin Late Latin. population of the various other sell-governing French or other sources, 2,493; Slavonic, 31; Lithunits or dependent colonies of Great Britain, uanian, 1. which combined form the British Empire, has been Asiatic: Aryan languages, including Persian and computed at 381,084,000 persons. Assuming that Sanskrit. 163: European non-Aryan languages, 20. one-eighth of this number understands and uses Semitic: Hebrew, 99; Arabic, 272. English speech in barter, trade exchange, or other Asiatic: Non-Aryan, not Semitic, including manner of communication, a total of 47,633,000 Malay, Chinese, Japanese, Tartar, Australian, 135 more persons is to be added to the number who African languages, 32; American, 102; hybrid, 675; understand and speak English.

unknown, 12. Total, 19, 160 The principal other languages of the world are The select vocabulary of the New Standard listed below, followed by the number of persons Dictionary of the English Language totals approxspeaking them according to official reports avail imately 455,000 words. If the dead words of our able in 1941.

speech be added, the total, as shown by the New The reputable English language contains approx English Dictionary on Historical Principles, would imately 700,000 words. Possibly 300,000 more terms reach 700,000 words for the English tongue, living may be stigmatized as nonce, obsolete, vulgar, low, and dead. etc., and therefore seldom or never sought in dic The latter work admits to & vocabulary of 418.825 tionaries designed for the home.

terms in use in the literary language. It has not of the bulk-700,000 terms-nearly one-half con-| specialized in scientific terminology. sists of scientific terminology seldom met outside "The vocabulary of the New International Dicof text books and of archaic, obsolescent or obsolete tionary, Second Edition, as reported by its Editorterms.

in-Chief, Dr. W. A. Neilson, (July 2, 1934) was Various estimates of the sources of English words placed at 550,000 entries, which total was increased have been made at different times. W. W. Skeat to 600,000 by adding 36,000 names in the Gazetteer. in the fourth edition of his "Etymological Dic 13,000 in the Biographical Section, and 5,000 Abtionary” which contains approximately 20,000 breviations. words, shows the following sources:

The German word-book (Kurschner's UniversalAnglo-Saxon and English, 3,681; Low German. Konversations-Lexikon) contains not more than 126: Dutch, 207; Scandinavian, 693; German, 333. 300,000 words, including personal names.

W.Editionne Nemology

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TABULATION OF THOSE WHO SPEAK THE CHIEF LANGUAGES

Abyssinian,

| Chinese, inc. embracing

dial. ... .488,573,000 Ethiopic,

Danish ..... 3.707.000 Ga 11a,

Dutch ....... 16,548,500 Geez, Amr

Estonian ..... 1,127,000 haric and

Finnish ..... 3,022,000 Tigre ...... 7,600,000 Flemish

3,500.000 Afghan ...... 12,000,000

68,895,000 African dia 93,923,000 German ..... 78,947,000 Albanian

1,004,000 Greek ....... 6,936,000 Arabic

29,000,000 Gujarati .... 10,682,000
Bengali, 51,000,000 Hindi and
Bohemian ... 10,612,000 Other lan-
Bulgarian ... 6,078,000 guages (See

Note below) 216,000,000 Roumanian .. 19,400,000
Hungarian ... 8,001,112 | Russian and
Italian ...... 43,700,000 dialects ...166,000,000
Japanese.... 97, 700,000 | Serbian ..... 11.000.000
Javanese 42,000,000

Siamese .....

14,500,000 1.905.000 Slovenia

5,185,000
Lithuanian 2.393.000 Spanish 102,700,000
Marathi ..... 20,000,000 Swedish .. 6,266,000
Nepali .......

6,000,000 Tamil .... 19,000,000
Norwegian .. 2,814,200 | Telegu ...... 25,000,000
Persian ..... 15,000,000 Tibeto-
Polish ....... 32,000,000 Burmese ... 17,000,000
Portuguese .. 48.800,000 Turkish ... 16,160,000
Punjabi ..... 24,000,000 | Urdu (See Note below)

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Dutch figures in the above table include one- guages of Baluchistan), and Sinhalese (the speech eighth of the total population of the Dutch colonial | of the southern half of the island of Ceylon) possessions (60.731,025), 7,591,378.

The Dravidian group includes twelve distinct French figures include one-eighth of the total languages Tamii

languages --Tamil, Telegu, Kanarese, Malayalam, population of the French colonial possessions (68, Tulu, Kodagu, Tuda, Kota, Gond, Khond, Oraon, 480,000) 8,560,000.

and Rajmahal. These languages are spoken in the German figures include German-speaking citi

following regions or districts of India: Southzens of Switzerland, Yugoslavia and elsewhere.

eastern, northeastern, northwestern, and southThe effect of the recent mass migrations in Po western, the Malabar coast, Coorg (adjoining the land and other European States upon the languages Malabar coast), Nilgiri hills, Central India, Northof those peoples cannot be reliably computed.

west Orissa, the Rajmahal hills of Bengal. Tamil is The population of India including Feudatory spoken also in the northern part of Ceylon. States is reported as consisting of 370,500,000 per The Mohammedan people of India numbering sons. The languages spoken have been classifled as nearly 70,000,000 generally speak one language belonging to Aryan, Dravidian, Kolarian, and Hindustani or Urdu. The Mohammedans of EastTibeto-Burman stocks. No computation of reliable ern Bengal speak Bengali. In general, Arabic and character that shows the number of persons speak-Persian are known as classic languages to the Moing these languages is available for none has been hammedans of India, but are not spoken by them. or could be made.

Urdu or Hindustani, or Hindi with the addition of the stocks the Indo-Aryan group embraces the of Persian and Arabic words, written in the Persian Vedic, the earliest accessible form of Aryan speech character, originated after the Mohammedan conin India. From this, through the development of

quest through official intercourse of Persian-speakgrammatical and phonetic studies, came a literary ing rulers with their Hindu subjects. A southern language-the Sanskrit, a word that signifies cor variant of it is Dakhani. rectly or completely formed;" hence, cultivated or The Kolarian (so-called from the Kols of Bengal) polished. Thereafter followed Pall and Maharashtri, or Munda group consists of ten languages of which of Behar and Mahratta-dialects that were called the best known are the Santali (spoken by a tribe Prakrits, i.e., common, vulgar or derived (from the which inhabits the western frontier of Lower BenSanskrit). The chief Neo-Aryan languages of India gal) and the Mundari (spoken by the Mundas, are Bengali (Bengal), Uriya (Orissa), Hindi (Up Bhumij. and Larka Kols). More than 2,000,000 per Provinces) with Punjabi and Nepali, the closely | persons have been said to speak these languages. allied language of the Gurkhas, the ruling class of The Tibeto-Burman group has not yet been comNepal, Sindhi (Lower Indus), Kashmiri, Marathi. pletely surveyed. It has been divided by Cust to five Gujarati (the last of which is sometimes classed as geographical groups--the Nepal, Sikkim, Assam, a dialect of Hindi). Assamese (once considered a Manipur-Chittagong and Trans-Himalayan dialect of Bengali), Brahui (one of the two lan- I groups.

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