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U. $. Foreign Trade, by Economic Classes

Source: United States Department of Commerce.
Value of Domestic Exports

Value of General Imports Year (Cal.) Crude Crude Manu'd Semi-Finish. Crude Crude Manu'd Semi-Finish.

Mater'is Foods'fs Foodst's Manuf's Manuf's Mater'ls Foods'fs Foodst's Manuf's/Manuf's

1.000 1.000 1.000 1,000 1 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1,000 1,000

Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars | Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars 1925.. 1,422,058 317,894 573,753 661,683 1.843,334 1.748,065 494,800 432,906 755,085 795,733 1926.. 11.261.3231 335,062 503,005 655,547 1.956,784 1.792,292 539,8181 417,817 804,333 876.628 1927.. 11.192.7671 421.107 463,299 699,7271.981.955 1.600.809 504,686 450,849) 749,801 878,597 1928.1.293,257 294,6781 465,810 716.352 2,260.002 1,466,733 549,891 405.815 762.832 906,173 1929.. 1,142,352) 269,590 484,304 729,013 2,531,823 1,558,620 538,560 423,622 885,051 993,508 1930..

829,098 178,533 362,650 512,802 1,898.089 1.002.161 400.125 293.448) 608.153 757.022 1931, 566,791) 127,0721 246,814 317.647 1,119,657 642,173 304,8281 222,316 372.043) 549,275 1932.. 513,6591 89.419 152,118 196,727 624,228 358,325 232,964 173,927 216,967 340,591 1933.. 590,566 48,366 154,609 237,041 616.639 418,151 211,813 205.370 292,005 322, 220 1934.. 652,752 59,0321 167,677 341,837 878.838 460,617 254,314 263,547 307,302) 350.223 1935..

682,953 58.751 157.211 349,858 994,308 582,443 322,327 318,828 409,690 405,617 1936.. 668,1681 58,144 143,798 394,760 1.154,099 732.965 348,682 386,240 490,2381 465,853 1937.. 721.863 104.506/ 177.744 678.2681.616,548 971.071 413.312 440.056 634.174) 551.250 1938.. 594,298 248,986 184,124 506,758 1.523,003 576,449 260,117 310,5391 384.964 417.555 1939.. 527,686 110,757 202,453 615,465 1.666.982 744,860) 290.839) 313.3361 486.7661 440,297 1940..1 456,078 74,019 166,8811 908,06012,329,6271,010,394) 285,1121 277,444 558,632 408.707 of the domestic exports, agricultural were (1939) $655,086,000, or 21.0%; (1940) $516,856,000, or 13.0%.

VALUE OF U. S. IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. BY CUSTOMS DISTRICTS
Figures show millions and tenths of millions of dollars; thus. 1.918.2 = 1,918,200,000
Imports of Merchandise

Exports of Merchandise

So.

1. ICC

A

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Year

| Mex.
No. 1 In-

| Mer. i North Par(Cal.) North So. Gulf Bor-Pac. Bor teri- North

Gulf Bor- Pa. Bor- cel Atl. 'st der Co'st der or Ati. I

Coast der Co'st

st der Post. 1926.

2.773.11 180.11325.61 26.31546.1 543.51 36.2] 1.812.3496.31,120.90 72.8518.9| 759.51 28.0 1927....2,580.0 194.4285.4 27.61510.6 555.00 31.7 1.868.4428.711,100.9 77.1 506.il 856.3 1928.... 2.482.6 194.5 284.6 30.4 504.7 564.1 30.5l 1,912.0 378.3 1.227.7 95.5 561.01 924.71 1929.... 2.733.6 197.8 283.9 39.65235 585.4 35.4 2,077.4 346.9 1,140.3 115.7595.0 939.1 1930.... 1.854.5

26.1 343.4 427.2 25.2 1.529.4 271.3 822.4101.9449.3 648.2 20.5 1931. 1.312.6) 148.8 139.1] 13.9 194.9 264.8/ 16.61974.8 193.0 502.1 48.0 303.0 389.4 14.0 1932... 826.8 88.3 93.61 7.8 130.0 168.2 9.0 534.6130.6 467.1 32.8 203.0 233.71 1933... • 950.2 87.4 100.7 4.0 121.1 176.7 9.4 576.5 147.31 502.01 41.8/197.71 209.6 1934.... 1,049.9 108.5 113.4 6.3 122.8 217.0 18.0 810.7 207.4 510.0 47.8 259.4 297.5 10.6 1935.... 1.286.2 121.9 153.0 11.2 170.2 273.51 22.9 884, 1 220,4 533.6 57.0 280.1 307.6 1936..

1,535.6 144.8162.7 8.1 191.8 349.9 30.9 965.6 236.2 546.2 55.6 275.4 360.4 1937...

1.924.4 191.6 214,2 10.8232.3 404.11 32.61,369, 7310.2 661.7101.7 403.9 482.81 19.0 1938.. 1.222.7147.9/159.81 10.4/150.71236.91 21.01.246.91284.71 627.5 79.6 387.11 453.1 15.4 1939.... 1,453.4147.6156.5 12.9 179.2 301.01 25.61.421.6.219.0 575,8 86.0 389.4 469.6 15.9 1940... J1,567.6 170.41163.11 12.91252.0.345.81 28.4'2,106.11267,71 521.9/ 51.2262.81

U. S. MERCHANDISE IMPORTS AND EXPORTS, BY GRAND DIVISIONS
Value of Imports from

Value of Exports to
Year
(Cal.)
No. 1 So. Asia &

No. | So. Asia &
Europe Amer. Amer. Oceania Africa Europe Amer. Amer. Oceania Africa

1,000 1.000 1.000 1,000 1.000 1.000 1,000 1.000 1.000 1.000

Dollars Dollars Dollars | Dollars | Dolls, Dollars Dollars | Dollars | Dollars | Dolls. 1915 546.362 509,458 322,282 365.865| 34.638 2,573,4081 558,8031 144.129 241,186) 37.145 1920 1,227,843 1,662,663 760.999 1,476,691 150,285 4,466.091/ 1,929,163 623,917 1,043,184 165,662 1922

991,203 822,454 358,763 875.403) 64,924 2,083,357 915,654 226,075 550.916 55,776 1923 1,157,056 1,001,518 467,421 1,079,010 87,061 2,093,415 1,086,168 269,318

60,671 1924 1,096,087 995, 156 466,074 979.65372,992 2,445,300 1,090,041 314,252 671.097 70,294 1925

1.238,881 980,534 518,797 1,396.934 92,144 2,603,750 1,138,354 402,606 676.081 89,057 1926

1,285,863 1,011,5701 567.979 1,469,0561 96,420 2.310,144 1,176,481 443,507 777.248 101.279 1927 1.264,072 985.458518.275) 1.323.6821 93 2551 2,310,403) 1.253 027 438 159| 756,698 107,088 1928 1,248,749 960,702 569,409 1,222,379 90.206 2,374,915 1,327,364 480,814 834.549 116,714 1929 1.332,627 981,532 639,757 1,336,837 108,607 2.340,845 1.395,063 539,309 835,240 130.538 1930 909.846 761.711 433,5161 889 286 67,548 1.838.377 1,019,2291 337.508 555,707 92,362 1931 640,0961 517,043) 307,191 593,421 32.884 1.186,884 590.826 158.691

59,959 1932 388.963 338,522 200,9021 370.145 24,241 784.299 364.852 596.589 329202 35,974 1933 462,189 317,767 202.2801 439,058 28,265) 849,778 340.859 114,048 327.393142,916 1934

489,633 399.220 228,958 503,918 33.326 949.929 486,064 161,701 458,292 76,814 1935 598.716 494,557 281,472 631.018 41.722 1,029,241 531,331 174,341 451,741 96,219 1936

717,544 618.559 291.505 743.593 51.389 1,042 804 616.711 204.222 478.039) 114,202 1937 843,329 690.475) 422,0261 1,035,689 92,148 1,359.610 840,126 318.354 678,919) 152,158 1938 567.226 490,226 262,612 585,693 54,671) 1,325,943 1739,994 299,713 610, 439 118,350 1939

617.165 580.629 317.267 726,286 76.732 1.289,752 802,196 329,127 641.377 115,023 1940 1 390.1701 693,393 395,1861 1,015,239 131.155 1,644,636 1,067,119 435,588! 713,613) 160.607

TOTAL U. S. WATER-BORNE CARGO COMMERCE, BY REGIONS Source: U. S. Maritime Commission; figures show thousands of tons of 2,240 lbs. Year

Atlantic Gulf Pacific Gr. Lakes Total U.S. Non- Grand Adjusted (Cal.) Ports

Ports Ports Ports Sea Ports Contig. Total Total 1926.

160.748 54.154 77,216 219.964 512,082 7.562 519,644 317,152 1927...

165,385 55,639 79.643 217,994 518,660 7.566 526, 227 314,722 1928.... 157,631 58,289 83.093 232,594 531,608 9.692 541.300 324,333 1929...

170.688 60,992 84,345 258,790 574.815 8.060 582,875 345,779 1930...

158,547 57.286 76,386 212,058 504,278 8,156 512,434 305,182 1931.,.

145,551 54.771 67,714 139,203 407,239 7,363 414,602 244,928 1932...

116,313 53,029 51.427 79.887 300,656 6,941 307.597 184,617 1933.

128.764 64,511 53,823 132,645 247,098 7,267 387,010 222,494 1934.

140.608 66,538 50,894 136,139 258,041 8,053 402,233 236,813 1935..

139.069 72.063 54.846 161.351 265,979 7.550 434,880 255,053 1936..,

155,094 86,294 60,352 219,045 301,740 8,497 529.282 303.018 1937.,

170,835 106.922 73,025 256.682 350.783 9.308 616.774 360.410 1938.

149.811 102.161 69,021 144,035 465,028 5.077 470.105 284,927 1939... 167.799 105,152 73,912 217, 143 564,006 15.451 1

569, 457

337.931

Wholesale and Retail Trade in 1939

Source: United States Bureau of The Census
WHOLESALE TRADE BY STATES, 1939

Em- Pay Roll
Sales I ployees in Yr. States

Sales

States

Em | Pay Roll ployees in Yr.

[blocks in formation]

$1,000

$1,000

No.

$1.000 18.910 Nevada.....

23,249)

7331

1,296 5,623 New Hampshire .. 64,263 2,534 3,735

9,643 New Jersey ... 1.075,302 36,609 64,412 226,304 New Mexico...

66,387 2,463 3,197 20,433 New York ..... 14,508,479 292,807 632,525 26,378 North Carolina 831,251 30.347 33.838 6.018 North Dahota.

170,252 5,901 7.195 18.388 Ohio.........

2,630,784 75.975 132,423 34,405 Oklahoma....

461,519 15.5591 21.561 34,899 Oregon......,

441,310 15,443) 24,630 5,282 Pennsylvania...... 3,347,4881 98,972 169, 140 228,407 Rhode Island, 239.0131 7,4301 12,435 42,844 South Carolina....1 297,2111 8,241 9,994 32,088 South Dakota

133,3961 4,6971 5,631 18,163 Tennessee.

839,529 25,171 31.353 23.671 Texas.......

2,040,548 64,479 86.760 32.822 Utah......

194,172 6,7051 10.358 10.135 Vermont.....

57,112 2,354 3,434 33,416 Virginia ......

627,632 28.236 33,971 112.302 Washington...

767.731 27,425 44.619 88,969 West Virginia

284,196 11,525 17.153 60,716 Wisconsin ...

824,956 26,728 42.663 8.182Wyoming ....

37,031 1,2101 1.671 106,362

6,130 Total U. S...... 55,265,640 1,562,121) 2,625, 203 20,723

RETAIL TRADE BY STATES, 1939

Em- Payroll
ployees in 1939 State | Stores

Stores

State

Sales in 1939

Stores

Sales Em- | Payroll in 1939 I ployees in 1939

Mo..

No. $1.000

No.
$1.000

No. $1.000 No. $1.000 Ala... 23,916 435.975 51,830 37,826 Nev.

2,045 61,8281

7,204 Ariz 6,242 162.003 16,577 17,119 N. H..

7,435 183.100 18,149 17.322 Ark... 20.328 298,301 32.581 23.775 N. J.

68,851 1,580,401 153,673 171.619 Calif.. 112,428 3,187,809 327,627 383,155 N. M

6,617 125,765

11.596 Colo. 16.785 409,103 45,085 43,503 N. Y

209,425 5.578,159 567,150 660,093 Conn... 25,873 717.262 70.248 79.905 N. C

33,826 633,240 79,404 60,052 Del 4,544 110.052 10,972 11.168 N D

8.549 156.137 15.227 12,960 D. of C. 6,893 402,768 48,072 56.007 Ohio..

93.041 2,441,293 270,425 271,073 Fla.....

28,614 614,464 73,190 64,244 Okla.... 28,722 513,091 59,998 48,953 Ga. 32, 870 624,765 78,947 58.874 Ore...

16,458 442,160 41,720) 44,154 Idaho 6,804 175,873 16,549 16,189 Pa...

134,543 3.133.377 348,390 313.791 III..... 109.132

339,072 R. I..
10,485 275,447

30,978 Ind.... 47.3171 1,066,383 123.192 110,895 S. C..

18,520 332,224

29,093 Iowa.. 39,024 822,905 87,684 72,514 S. D.

9,817 169,396 17.3071 13,592 Kan.... 27,545) 473,551 56,490 42,510 Tenn.

28,198 606,4891 71.869 55,924 Ky... 30,919 520,135 55,062 46,090 Texas

85, 2491.803,716 209.841 171.690 25,469 486,250) 63,638 49.000 Utah.

6,372 170.728

19,562 18,743 Maine. 13,455 281.356 28,113 26,079 Vt......

5,423 123,369 12,010 10.707 Maryland 25,566) 619,273 70.750 66,079 Va.

29,610 628,172 74,864 63,867 Mass 59,217 1,735,028 203,312 212,966 Wash..

26.6821 668.790 66.852 75,405 Mich.

67,414 1,820.798 198,018 204,026 W. V&.. 18.928 403,989 42,318 38,263 Minn..

40,448 1.017.195 106,282 104,204 Wisc.... 47,604 1,064,994 107,409 103,249 Miss... 18,032 282,440 32,514 22.735 Wyo.

4,113 100,233 8.938 9.346 53,196 1,102,503 132,583 119.237 Mont. ... 9,481 222,005 19,9631 21,505 Tot. U.S. 1,770,355 42,039,138 4,600,817 4,529,499 Nebraska..! 19.330397.196 44,353! 36,22111

Stores (1935) 1.653,961; (1933) 1,526, 119; (1929) 1,543,158. Sales in a year. (1935) $33,161,276.000: (1933) $25,037,225,000; (1929) $49,114,653.000, Wages in a year-(1935) $3,623,289,000; (1933) $2,910,445,000; (1929) $5,189,670,000.

Active Proprietors

Employees
Major Retail Groups

1939 1935 1929 i 1939 1935 1929 Total, all stores....

1,613,673 1,440,108 1,434,704 4,609,817 3,898,258 4,286,516 Food group.....

516,976 489,966 468.301 798,402 745,103 706,304 General stores (with food)..

39.646 66.7831 121,366

60.701

82.4411 132,0 General merchandise ...,

36,362 32,160 47,821 867,007 729, 1951 814,937 Apparel group .........

82,329 73,414 99,613 388,7371 327,629 394,911 Furniture-household-radio...

42,491 35.864 61.962 214,235 173,931 267, 250 Automotive......

51.238 41,594

389,2981 .

66,151 ..

314.7801 411.359 .. Filling stations....

231,475 179.870 100.746 235,527 203,753 144,532 Lumber-buildinx-hardware...

65.755 60,157 85.579 252, 296 193,672 320.257 Eating and drinking places ...,

306,219 257.566 148,948 806,883 646.935 466,437 Drug stores ........

49.673 48.363) 57,4151 189,4031 159,1301 175,795 Retailers in the automotive group employed 389,- 1 The 241,858 filling stations had 231.475 active 298 persons on a salary or wage basis whose com- proprietors and employed an additional 235.527

1 persons, of whom 196,412 were full-time and 39,115 pensation was $507,947,000, in addition to the

were part-time. 51,238 active proprietors.

Payroll for these employees totaled $198,934,000.

SERVICE ESTABLISHMENTS-1939 The Bureau of the Census reports that there laundries got $1,394,921,000 of the total service were in the United States in 1939 645.966 service receipts.. establishments (not included in retail census);

Funeral directors received $261,333,000; beauty

parlors, $231,670,000; barber shops, $230,983.000; receipts in the year, $3,410, 202; employees, 1.098,

shoe repair shops, $114,947,000; advertising agen. 582; payroll total in year, $1,064,187,000. Power | cies, $97,372,000.

American Railway Statistics

Source: United States Interstate Commerce Commission
Mile-

| Loco- Fre'ht | Pass.
age 1 Miles moles Cars Carsin Passengers Freight
Owned Built in Ser. in Ser. Sery. Carried Carried

Year

Railway!

Em- Employees ployees Wages

33)

25

Miles Miles No. No. No.

NO.
Tons

No. Dollars 1920.. 252,845 314) 68,942 2,388,424 56.10211,269,912,8812,427,622,2672.075.88613,754,280.920 1925.. 249,3981 530 68,098 2,414,083 56,814)901,963,145 2,463,725,307 1,786,411 2,916,192,750 1926.. 249,138) 873 66.847 2,403,967 56,855 874,588,7862,627,491,771|1,821,804 3 001.803, 606 1927...

249,131 819 65,348 2,378,800 55,729 840,029,680 2,510,054, 1131,775,549/2,963,033,615 1928

249,309 935| 63,3112,346.751 54,800 798,476, 114/2,504.195,746 1,691950 2.874,428,921 1929...

249,433 615 61.257 2.323,683 53,838 786,432,468 2,584,333.226 1.694,042 2.940,206,163 1930... 249,052

413

60.1892.322.267 53,584 707,986,505 2,179.014.8631,517.043/2.588.597.979 1931... 248.829) 492 58,652 2,245,904 52,096 599,226,754 1,694,074,7861,282,825 2.124.783.993 1932.

247,595 314 56,732 2.184.690 50,598 480.717.777 1.229078,365 1.052,285 1,535,066, 189 1933... 245,703) 122 54.228 2,072.632 47,677 434,847,907 1,322,462,572 990,839 1.424,391.647 1934. 243,857

51.423 1.973,247 44,8841 452,175,6191,440,433,567 1.027,426 1,541,312,929 1935.. 241,822

49,541|1,867.381 42,426 448,059,317|1,502,590,185 1,013,654 1,666.228,739 1936 240,1041 38 48.009/1,790,043

492,493,214 1,805,766,847 1,086,405 1,873,819 393 1937. 238.539

47,555 1,776,428 40.9491 499,687,875/1.928,444.492|1,136,912 2,013,676,694 1938

236,842 351 46,544 1,731,096 39,931 454,507,540 1.482.504.121958,280/1.771,082.762 1939.. 235,064

1) 45,1721,680,5.19 38,977 454,031,928 1.729,537.305 1.006,711 1.889.129.564 1940..

233.6701 191 44,33311.706,3871 38,308 456,088,496 1.947.478.587 1.045.738/1.990.630.844 Figures for miles owned cover all classes of steam 48.3; (1936) 48.8; (1937) 49.2; (1938) 49.4; (1939) railways. Figures for freight carried (1913) cover 49.7; (1940) 50.0. classes I and II roads, and this is true for that year

Average annual compensation per employee for

class I roads-(1920) $1,820.12; (1925) $1,639.96: as to number of employees and employees' wages.

(1930) $1,714.43; (1935) $1,653.18; (1936) $1,734.79; Average capacity of freight cars, in tons-(1910) (1937) $1.781.21: (1938) $1.859.24: (1939) $1.886.59: 35.9; (1920) 42.4; (1925) 44.8; (1930) 46.6; (1935) I (1940) $1,912.77.

RAILWAY PASSENGER AND FREIGHT DATA

Miles (Rev. Ave. Frt. Miles Miles | Casualties
Passenger Freight Traveled per Jo'r.Rey.l Traveled | Traveled
Year Revenue Revenue

Pas. per Ja ton by Pass. by Freight
Passeng's Mile Pas.Mile Trains Trains Kill'a lad.

by

1 Dollars Dollars Thousands Cts. Miles) Cts. Miles Miles No. No. 1920....

11.304,814.986 4,420,832,703 47.369,906 2.75 37.301 1.07 574,826,099 619.507,289 6.958 168,309 1925.... 11.064,806,152 4,648,364,1871 36,166,973

1.11 581.791,719 602,872,559 6,617 137,425 1926.. 1.049,210,125 4,905,981,443 35,672,729 2.94 40.79 1.10) 584,972,232 622.294.985) 6,947 130.222 1927.

080,528,000 4,728,884,868 33.797.754 2.90 40.23 1.10 578,355,321 598,434,584 6,821 104,799 1928..... 905,270.818 4,771,562,245 31.717,566 2.85 39.72 1.09 570.037.816 589,615 853 6,511 86,196 1929.

875,929,297 4,899,167,876 31.164,739 2.81 39.63 1.09 568,094,709 598.343,477 6,496 76.995 1930...

730.765,867 4,145,015.013 26,875,642 2.72 37.96 1.07 545,090,881523,254887 1931

551,726.005 3,302,323,718 21,933.345 2.52 36.60 1.06 485,537,618 446,261,006 5,099 35,656 1932..

377.511,204 2,485,475,107 16,997,426 2.22 35.36 1.06 419,087,987 368,658.048 4.747 29,219 1933.

329.816,306 2,528,968.226 16.368,043 2.02 37.64 1.01 380,434,894 368.665,908 5,0191 27.494 1934.

346,870,291 2.671,900,556 18,068,635 1.92 39.96 0.99 381,610,861 397,149,702 4,879 28.631 1935. 358,423,361 2.831,139.271) 18.509.4971 1.94 41.31 1.00 385,874,136 403,851,169 5,107| 28,080 1936. 413.189,1863,356,631,227 22 459,781 1.84 45.60 0.98 409.071.812 496,267.819)

34.706 1937.. 443,532,407 3,428, 420,638 24,695,214 1.8049.42 0.94 420,818.671512,200,236 5.350 36.692 1938..

406,406,349 2.900,676,475 21,656,918 1.88 47.65 0.99 398,145,009 431.389.7791 4,499 27.253 1939....

417716,42913,297,059,339| 22,712,941 1.84 50.02 0.98 395,127.242 461.026.269) 4.362 28.119 1940... 417.955,185 3,584,201,061 23.815,5981 1.75 52.22 0.95 395,410,1871491,126.9071 4.612) 29.590

Casualties classified as due to suicide, mental numbered 580, passengers on trains. 75: all other derangement, and attempting to escape custody. non-trespassers, 1,930; trespassers, 2,027. Those are omitted from the above table.

| injured included 18,350 rail employees and 2,530 of the persons killed in 1940, railway employees passengers.

GRADE CROSSING ACCIDENTS ON RAILWAYS 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938) 1939 1940

Kuled 12.149/2.2062.491/2,371 2,568 2,485 2,028 1,011|1.5251.511 1.554(1.68011.78611.875 1.5171 1.39811.808
Injured 5.52516.555 6,991 6,513 6.666 6,80415,517/4,6573,989 3.6974,300 4,6584.93015. 136/4.01813 99914.632
Total 18,6748,76119,48218,984/9,234|9,28917,53716,468|5,51415,2085,854 6.3386.716/7,011 5,535 5,39716,440
Grade crossing accidents in which automobiles and trains collided killed 1,576 persons in 1940.

RAILWAY REVENUES, EXPENSES AND DIVIDENDS
Total
Net Railway

Ratio Year Operating Operating Tax Operating Net Dividends Op. Exp. to

Revenues 1 Expenses | Accruals Income Income | Declared Oper. Rev.
Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars.

Dollars Dollars Pct. 1915

2,956,193,202 2,088,682,956 137,775,259 694.276.111/354.786.729|328,477.938| 70.65 1920.

16.310,150,780 5,954,393,793 289,272,083 12,100,759 481.950.969 331,102.938| 94.36 1925

6.246,883,699 4,633,497,390 365,790,063 1,136,728,016 771,053,077 409.645,051 74.17 1926

16.508.678.781 4,766,235,118 396,538,002 1.229,020,188 883,421,795 473,682.8301 73.23 1927

6,245,715,593 4,662,520,530 383,111,605 1,077.841,658 741.923,916 567,280.717 1928

16.212 463.9544.508,605,980 395,630,626 1,182,467,353 855,017,540 510,017.9871 72.57 1929

6,373.003,832 4,579,161,848 402,698,333 1,262,636,132 977,229.694 560.901.941 71.85 1930.

15.356.483.92713,993,621.0521353,881,4761874.154.2481577.922.6981603.150.3901 1981.

4,246,385,1473,273,906,037 308,491,869 528,204,145 169,286,689401,462,731 1932...

3,168,537,310 2,441,814,224 279,263,082 325,331,654 121,629,641 150,774,322 77.06 1933.

3,138,185,942 2,285,217.647 253,522,014 477,326,360 26,542.939 158.790.118 72.82 1934,

3,316,860,991/2,479,997,003243,646,495 465.896,456 23,282,241 211,766,557| 74.77 1935...

3,499.125,784 2,630,177,160 240,759,909 505.414,828 52,177,010 202,568,162 75.17 1936

4,108,658.070 2.973,366,047 324,858,054 675,599,950 221.590,885 231.732,609 72.37 1937...

4.226,325,382 3,165,154,017331,013,074 597.840.678 146,351.023 227,569,358 74.89 1938

3,616,071,888/2,762,680.732 346,235,674 376,864,908 87,468,415 136,269,736 76.40 1939..

14.050.047,246 2.959,437,971/361.616,822 595.96:1,535 141.134.243 179,412,196 73.07 1940... ...14.354,712,09313,131,597,6471402,953,404! 690,553,986 243,147,559 216,521,597) 71.91

Full-face net income figures, 1932 and 1938. indicate deficits.

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74.65

14.56

77.10

36.920 12.134:285.646 23.844.224 074 18:23

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Operating revenues in 1940 for Class I roads, structures, $497,031,272; maintenance of equipamounting to $4,296,600,653 were derived from the ment, $818,975, 489; traffic, $107,586,358: transportafollowing chief sources: freight. $3,528,782,173: !tion, $1,500.958.732. passenger. $416,696,703; mail, $101,086,898; express, Average dividend rate on dividend paying stock$55,642,993.

(1920) 6.52; (1925) 6.52: (1930) 7.83; (1935) 5.94; Operating expenses in 1940 for Class I roads (1936) 6.45; (1937 5.85;' (1938) 4.34; (1939) 5.62: were divided as follows: maintenance of way and I (1940) 5.79. The peak, 9.02, was in 1921.

RAILWAY VALUES, STOCKS, BONDS, AND CAPITAL

(Investment figures, first column, represent book values) Investment Common Preferred Funded Tot. Railway Net

Amount of Yr. r. In Road and Stock

Stock
Debt

Capital Capitaliza Stock Pay.
Equipment Outstand. Outstand. Outstand. Outstand. tion Dividends

Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars 1915 17,441,420.382 7,599.937.801 1.394.956.920 12.133,064.357 21.127.959,078 16,307,502.580 5,219.846,566 1920 19.849,319.946 7,215,861.540 1,897.823.599 12,777,765.646 21.891,450,785 16.993,930,263 5,075,039.645 1925 23,217,208.9187,602,250,600 1,937.282.909 14,104,690,563 23,644.224,072 18.190,513,329 6.278.531,565 1926 23,880,740, 1467,560,310,349 1.924,492,389 14,192,194,219 23,676,996,957 18,234,311,637 6.473,279,918 1927 24,453,870,938 7.682,788,226 1,979,987,460 13,951,550,172 23,614,325,858 18,136,691,445,6,701,427.317 192824.875.983,930 7.808,672,479 2,034.636,886 13,903,962,70123.747,272,066 18,510,582,609 7.159.988.646 1929 25,465,036,427 7.852, 768,522 2,064,976,159 14,064,919,410 23,982,664.091 18,679,706,928 7,506.264,973 1930 26.051.000.223 8.008,945,756 2.073,785,915 14,248.760.729 24,331,492,400 19,065,626,085 7.702,020,533 193126,094,898,545 8,030,476,804 2,049,011,972 14,264, 295,92124,343,784,697 18,941.460,134 7,325,664,365 1932 26,086.990,995 8,066,630,991 2,047,545,714 14,722,717,556 24,836,894,261 18,893,459,447 3,298,821,669 1933/25.901.961.7738.056,676,584 2.041,942,386 14,623,942,641 24.722.561.611118,830,912,3243.119.282.144 1934 25.681,607,533 7,994,085,098 2,043,916,410 14,531,691,768 24,569,693,276 18.652,491.262 3,411,519,569 1935 25,500, 465,262 7,986,785,640 2,036,510,297 14, 223,572, 728 24,246,868,665 18,342, 297,429 3,412,967,544 1936 25,432,388,302 7,992,835,168 2,035,453,938 13,974,262,761 24.002,551,867 18.335.886.587 3,594,789,000 1937/25,636,081,713 8,063,946,728/2,050,126,368 14,008,763,824/24,122,836,92018,319,002,5573,890, 177,357 1938 25,595.739,4788,040,337,169 2,049,498,093 13,765,622,110 23,855,457,372 17,987,982,640 3,139,486.000 1939 25,538,157,310 8,025,355,714 2.049,675,267 13,534,292,402 23,609,323,383 17,698,158.4363,190,115,000 1940125,646,013,606 8,004,987,57312,064,336,097/13,302,080,418 23,371,404,088 17,629,613,122 3,741.132,000

"Net Capitalization is total capital outstanding securities in the hands of the public, stocks totaled minus capital securities owned by railways. Thus, I $7,020,558, 754; bonds, $10,609,054,368. in 1940 of the $17,629,613,122 of American rail |

WIDTH OF STANDARD GAUGE RAILWAYS The standard gauge of railways is 4 feet 822 | Latin American countries: 3 ft. gauge frequently inches in the United States, Great Britain, Can employed in construction tracks; or 3-1t. 6-in gauge ada, France, Germany, Austria, Holland, Belgium,

standard on the British South African Railways, Denmark, Hungary, Italy, Switzerland, Sweden,

etc. A gauge of 24 in. or less is commonly employed

for industrial railways. and European Turkey. That is to say it is 5612

There are more than 600,000 miles of railways inches from the inside of one rail to the inside of

0 One

One Side 01 in the world. the opposite rail, about five-eighths of an inch

Railway mileage in '1940 in chief states--Texas, below the top of the rail head. This measurement 16.356: Illinois, 11,949; Pennsylvania, 10,328; Iowa, holds good on rail heads with slanted sides as well

8.950; Kansas, 8,564; Ohio, 8,501; Minnesota, 8.421; as on rail heads with straight sides.

California, 7,947. Broad-gauge is 6 feet and was used in the South. New York: 7,739; Michigan. 7.303: Missouri. Narrow gauge:-A guage narrower than the stand- 7.042: Indiana, 6.889; Wisconsin, 6.639; Georgia. ard gauge, such as the meter gauge used largely in 6.334: Oklahoma, 6,302: Nebraska, 6.044.

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Country

Year

Average
miles
operated

Country

Passengers
carried

Freight
carload
(sh't tons)

Passengers
carried
(000)

Average
miles
operated

(000)

Year

Freight carried (sh't tons)

(000)

(000)

Argentina....

1937
25,204
153,698 53,083 India

1938 41,076 521,285 97,764 Australia 1938 27,179 1384.942 40,016|Irish Free State...

19371 2,880 21,168 3,957 Belgium.. 1938 3,007 194.800 | 69,446 Italy *

1938 10,173 103,046 55,430 Bulgaria .. 1936 2.031 8,723 5,093 Japan.

1938 10.784 1.058,631 98,483 Canada...... 1937 42,702 22.039 82.220 Lithuania.

1937) 1,486 3,356 2,389 Chile...... 1936 5,434 19.509 10,208 New Zealand

1939 3,319 23.266 8,444 Czechoslovak 1937 8,262 268.738 79,919 Norway

1938 2,334 21,606 13,799 Denmark... 1939 1.486 52.014 4.642 Poland......

1937 13,440 266,300 85,837 Finland* 1936 3,424 20,857 15.070 Rumania.

193717.00443.367 29.324 France...... 1937 26,528 627,473 272,090 Russia

1937 53.163 1,142,000 570,225 Germanyt. 1938 38.107 2,041,700 545,306 Sweden .....

19381 10,373 81.729 45070 Great Britain 1937 20.080 1.295,404 355,832 | Switzerland

1938 1.853 113,2691 14.787 Greece.....

1937 1.799 29.502 2,311 U. of South Afri 1938 13263 105,476 30.356 Holland .....

1936 2.232 44,540 15,310 United States... 1938 236,842 454,508 819,733 Hungary ...... ....1936 5,727 92,846 | 24,710|| Yugoslavia .........1936 5,825 44,412 18,572

Includes Austria and Sudetenland. State operated railways only.
Note: Mileage figure for the United States represents total miles owned,

Express Service by Rail and Air

Source: Railway Express Agency Today Railway Express service is operated on ways. In 1929, the first full year of operation, approximately 213,000 miles of railway, 45,000 miles 17.000 shipments were carried. In 1940, regularly of airlines. 15,000 miles of motor carrier lines and scheduled airplanes of major airlines, flying an on 20,000 miles of steamship routes. It employs average of 248.000 miles daily over 45,000 miles of over 57.000 men and women at its 23.000 offices and airways in the United States, carried more than utilizes some 15,000 trucks. In serving business 1.000.000 shipments, and industry in commercial and financial districts By contract with Pan American Airways, the air and the public in their homes, the Railway service of Railway Express Agency extends to the Express Agency, in 1940, handled 160,777,326 ship West Indies, Central and South America, the ments.

Pacific Islands and the Orient. Alr express was inaugurated as a division of The Railway Express Agency has extended the air Railway Express Agency on September 1, 1927, over express service beyond the 250 airport cities in the four airlines with approximately 4,450 miles of air-IU. S. to cover 20,000 off-airline points.

1915.

1923.

Automobile Production in the United States
Source: Automobile Manufacturers Association, Detroit, Mich.-Values, Wholesale
Passenger Cars
Motor Trucks

Total
Year
Number
Value Numbert 1 Valuet Number

Value 1900.

4,192
4,899,443

4,192

4,899, 443 1901.

7,000
8,183,000

7.000

8.183.000 1902...

9.000
10,395,000

9.000

10,395,000 1903...

11,235
13,000,000

11,235

13,000,000 1904,

22,130
23,357,692

700
1.272.747

22,830

24,630,439 1905.

24,250
38,670,000

750
1,330,000

25,000

40,000,000 1906.

33,200
61,460.000

800
1,440,000

34,000

62,900.000 1907.

43,000
91,620.000

1.000
1.780,000

44,000

93,400.000 1908.

63,500
135.250,000

1,500
2,550,000

65,000 137.800.000 1909. 123,990 159,765,721

3.297

5,333,683 127,287 165,099,404 1910.

181.000
215,340,000

6,000
9,660,000

187.000 225,000,000 1911. 199,319 225,000,000 10,681 21,000,000

210,000 246,000,000 1912... 356,000 335.000.000 22.000 43,000,000

378,000 378,000,000 1913...

461.500 399,902.000 23,500 44,000,000 485,000 443,902.000 1914. 548,139 420.838,378 24,900 44,219.096

573,039 465,057,474 895,930 575,978,000 74.000 125,800,000

969,930 701,778,000 1916..

1,525,578 921.378,000 92,130 161,000,000 1,617,708 1,082,378,000 1917.

1,745,792 1,053,505,781 128,157 220,982,668 1,873,949 1,274,488,449 1918,

943,436

801,937,925 227,250 434,168,992 1,170,686 1,236,106,917 1919.

1,651.625 1,365,395.415 224,731 371,422,820 1,876.356 1.736,818,235 1920..

1,905,560 1.809, 170,963 321,789 423,249,410 2,227,349 2,232,420,373 1921.

1,468,067 1,038,191,037 148,052 166,070,810 1,616,119 1,204.261,847 1922

2,274,185 1,494,513.991 269.991 226,049,658 2,544,176 1.720,563,649

3,624.717 2.196,272,116 409,295 308,537,929 4,034,012 2,504,810.045 1924...

3,185,881 1.970,096,559 416.659 318,580,580 3,602,540 2,288,677,139 1925..

3,735,171 2,458,370,026 530.659 458,400.277 4.265.830 2,916.770,303 1926.

3,783,987 2,640.064,519 516,947 452,123,435 4,300,934 3,092,187,954 1927..

2,936,533 2,164.670,891 464.793 420.130,624 3,401,326 2,584,801,515 1928..

3,815,417 2,576.489,623 543,342 437.132.258 4,358,759 3,013,621,881 1929.

4,587,400 2,847.118,562 771,020 566,029,634 5,358,420 3,413,148,206 1930.

2,784,745 1,645,398,523 571.241 389.436.690 3,355,986 2,034,835,213 1931.

1,973,090 1.111.273,774 416,648 262,417,542 2,389,738 1,373,691,316 1932.

1,135,491 618,291,168 235,187 136.193,336 1,370,678 754.484,504 1933.

1,573,512 762,736,512 346.545 186,069,314 1.920,057 948,805,826 1934.

2,177.919 1,147.116.195 575,192 320,143,667 2,753,111 1,467,259.862 1935.

3,252,244 1.709,425,904 694.690 379,407,751 3,946,934 2,088,833,655 1936..

3,669,528 2,015,646,217 784.587 462.820,474 4,454.115 2,478,486,691 1937*

3,915.889 2,304,349,252 893,085 542.921,096 4,808,974 2,847,270,348 1938*

2.000,985 1,269,765,050 488,100 339,226,639 2,489,085 1.608,991,689 1939*

2,866,796 1,816,434,914 710,496 502,421.776 3,577,292 2.318,856,690 1940*..

3,692,328 2,422,491,461 777,026 593,731,603 4,469,354 3,016.225,064 Includes federal excise taxes, also standard equipment in 1937, 1938 and 1939. TA substantial part of the trucks reported comprises chassis only, without body; hence the value of bodies for these chassis is not included.

ANNUAL PERCENTAGE CHANGE IN FACTORY SALES
Passenger Motor

Passenger Motor
Year
Cars | Trucks Total Year

Cars Trucks Total 1935 49.3% 20.8% 43.4% | 1938......

- 48.9% - 45.3% 1 -58.2% 12.8% 12.9% 12.8% | 1939.....

43.3% 45.6% 43.7% 1937.... 6.7% 13.8% 8.0% | 1940....

28.8%

9.4% 24.9% (-) means decrease; no sign in front of figures means increase.

U. S. AND WORLD MOTOR VEHICLE REGISTRATIONS BY YEARS
World
World

World Jan. 1 | U.S. total Jan. 1 U.S. total Jan. 1 U.S. total 1931.

26,697,398 35,805,6321935........ 25,163,789 35,355,3101938. 30,041,292 43,078,630 1932... 25,986,353 35,263,3971 1936... 26,382,321 37,454,8091939. ... 31.009.870 43,819.929 1933.

24,317,02033,567,295|1937... 28,520,559 40,560,167||1940... . 32,452,861 45,422,411 1934.... 24.057,02733,562,059

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94

World Production and Exports of Motor Vehicles

Source: The United States Department of Commerce
Production
Exports

Production

Exports Country

Country 1939 1940 1939 1940

1939 1940 1939 1940 United States 3,577,292 4,469,354 252,531 1192,519 Netherlands..

300

210 Canada...... 155, 126 222,984 58,503 184,072 Sweden...... 7,821 6,046 3,958 1,299

Switzerland.. 530

500

1001 Total...... 3,732,718 4,692,338 311,034 276,591| U. Kingdom.] 402,459 (2) 81,000 1050,000 Belgium..... 1,267

157 2 ) U. S. S.R. 11195.000 180,000 (2) Denmark...

295 3158). France......

:: 4173,880 $121.709 123,150 (2) Total,..... 1,044,652 404,148 190.919 56,033 Germany... 0180,200 72.000 758,7491 Italy .......

61,1001

(2)
716,554)

Grand tot...14,777,370 5,096,486 501,953 332,624 Japan..... 1 18,800 23,525) 7,064 $4,618 Proj. tot.... 5,044,5105,554,312) ....

i Not including foreign assemblies declared as parts for assembly. 2 Not available. 3 In addition, 200 Diesel engines. First 8 months.5 Sept. 1, 1939, to Dec. 31, 1940. O First 6 months for Greater Reich. 7 First 7 months. First 9 months. 9 First 3 months

10 Exports of vehicles, including locomotives, ships, and aircraft, were valued at £29, 490,023 in the first 11 months of 1940 and £39,086,192 in the year 1939.

NoteTable incomplete, as publication of import and export figures has been discontinued by most European countries, and it is impossible to obtain estimates.

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