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stamps may be used. All mail intended to be over $5 to $25, 18 cents; over $25 to $50, 20 cents: carried by airplane should be plainly marked over $50 to $75, 25 cents, over $75 to $100, 30 cents; in the space immediately below the stamps and over $100 to $200, 40 cents; over $200 to $300, above the address "Via air mail."

50 cents; over $300 to $400, 60 cents; over $400 to The postage on all air mail should be fully $500, 70 cents; over $500 to $600, 80 cents; over $600 prepaid in order to expedite its handling. to $700, 85 cents; over $700 to $800, 90 cents; over

Any mallable matter, except that liable to $800 to $900, 95 cents; over $900 to $1,000. $1.00. damage from freezing, may be sent by air mail Provided, That registered mail, having a declared at the above rate of postage, including sealed value in excess of the maximum indemnity covered parcels not exceeding 70 pounds in weight and by the registry fee paid, shall be subject to surnot exceeding 100 inches in length and girth charge, as follows: when the declared value exceeds combined. The limitation as to possible dam- the maximum indemnity covered by the registry fee age by freezing does not apply to cut flowers paid by not more than $50, 1 cent; and so on up to or queen bees.

7 cents for $800.01 to $999.99, and if the excess of Registry, Insurance, and C. O. D. services for air- the declared value over the maximum indemnity plane mallAny domestic matter acceptable covered by the registry fee paid

is $1,000 or more for transmission as registered, insured, or C. O. the additional fees for each $1,000 or part of $1,000. D. mail, may be sent by air mail service upon range from 8 to 13 cents, according to distance. payment of the prescribed registry, insurance, Mail matter without intrinsic value for which no or C. 0. D. fee in addition to the required air indemnity is provided may be registered at the mail postage.

minimum fee of 15 cents. Foreign-For Canada, 6 cents per ounce or frac- Any mailable articles, except unsealed fourth

tion; for other countries, inquire at post office. class matter (parcel post) for domestic destinaSpecial Delivery—The use of special delivery tions, may be registered, stamps in addition to the Air Mail postage Mailable second and third class matter, valued at will insure prompt delivery at office of address, over $100, upon which a registry fee in excess of and is recommended when arrival be due on 30 cents is paid, must be sealed and first-class week days after last carrier delivery or on postage paid thereon. Sundays and holidays. Any information con- Domestic parcels containing fourth-class matter cerning contract air mail routes may be ob- may also be registered if sealed and the required tained from the postmaster,

fee, and postage at the first class rate, are paid. Registered Mail-The registry fees on both A sender's return receipt may be obtained for a domestic and foreign mail must be prepaid by domestic registered article (except registered C. O. stamps affixed in addition to the regular postage. D. mail) upon payment at the time of mailing of a

The registry fees for domestic registered mail are fee of 3 cents; after mailing, 5 cents; and at time --for registry indemnity not exceeding $5, 15 cents; l of malling to show address of delivery. 23 cents.

INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED AND DOMESTIC AND INSURED AND C. 0. D. MAIL Letters, prints of all kinds, including raised print Island and Prince's Island), Sarawak, Straits Setfor the blind, single and reply-paid post cards, tlements, Surinam, Switzerland, Western Samoa, small packets, samples of merchandise and com: mercial papers may be registered to practically all British Guiana, Colombia, Iceland, Portuguese East

and the Windward Islands, Argentina, Barbados, foreign countries,

Africa (Mozambique). Parcel post mail may be registered to some, not Fees—The insurance fees range from 5 cents to all, foreign countries. In the case of a few foreign 55 cents, providing for indemnity, in the event of countries indemnity ranging from $9.65 to $100 is loss, rifling, or damage, in most cases, up to $100 paid for the loss, riding or damage of international However, the insurance fees on parcels exchanged parcel post articles. (Consult postmaster.)

between Continental United States (not including The registration fee for all articles of whatever Alaska) and Great Britain and Northern Ireland class addressed to foreign countries, is 15 cents, range from 20 cents to $1.50, providing for indemexcept registered parcel post packages for certain nity, in the event of loss, riding, or damage, up to countries, concerning which consult postmaster. $2,000. Also, the maximum indemnity payable for Limited indemnity is payable for the total loss the loss, rifling. or damage of insured parcels (cover and contents) of Postal Union registered addressed to Colombia is $165; Canada and Switzerarticles addressed to foreign countries, and for land is $200; to Portuguese West Africa, $9.65; to rifling or damage when responsibility rests with Ecuador, $50, and to Portugal (including Madeira this country, or, when exchanged with Great

and the Azores), $50, except that in the case of Britain, except that, in the latter event, the con

Portugal, the indemnity payable is restricted to tents must be so damaged while in the custody of cases of loss (wrapper and contents) only. the United States or British Postal Service as to

Canada and Newfoundland-Printed matter, and destroy their value entirely (unless the damage

8-ounce packages of merchandise addressed to arose from the fault of the sender or from causes Canada or Newfoundland may also be insured subbeyond control).

ject to the same fees and under the same condiA charge of 5 cents is collected from the sender tions, including payment of indemnity, insofar as in addition to the postage and registry fte, for a applicable, as apply to mailable merchandise and return receipt for a Postal Union registered article printed matter designated as third or fourth class requested at the time of mailing, and 10 cents if in the United States domestic mails, such matter, requested after mailing. Consult postmaster as to except parcel post, may also be registered. Packfees chargeable for return receipts for registered ages of merchandise weighing up to 60 pounds may international parcel post packages,

be registered when sealed and postage is paid at A charge of 10 cents shall be made for an inquiry the letter rate of 3 cents an ounce or fraction or complaint in connection with registered cr in- of an ounce, but may not be insured. Merchandise sured mail addressed to a foreign country unless transmitted to Newfoundland under the classithe sender has failed to receive a return receipt fication of small packets" may be registered but for which he paid the required fee, or is able to not insured. There is no provision for the transshow that a prima facie loss or other irregularity mission of merchandise under the classification of has occurred through fault of the Postal Service. "small packets" when addressed for delivery in (Consult postmaster for further details.)

Canada. The weight limit of parcel post packages International Registered c. 0. D. Mail-Parcel addressed to Canada and Newfoundland is 15 post packages, printed matter, eight-ounce pack- pounds. ages of merchandise, and small packets may be Senders' return receipts are not furnished for sent as registered c. 0. D. between any money insured parcels addressed to Canada. order post office_in the United States (including International Insured c. 0. D. Mail-Insured Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Tutuilla, and C. 0. D. parcel post service is in effect with Cothe Virgin Islands of the United States, but ex- lombia. The C. O. D. fees, which provide limited cluding the Canal Zone and Philippine Islands ) indemnity, range from 30 cents to 70 cents. (Conand any money order post office in Mexico, The sult postmaster for further particulars.) fees (including registeration) range from 30 cents Return receipts for insured c. O. D. parcels sent to 60 cents, providing for a maximum C. 0. D. to the country mentioned above will be furnished collection or indemnity of $100. (For Further upon request therefor by the sender and upon payparticulars, consult postmaster.)

ment of a fee of 5 cents for each receipt; 10 cents International Insured Mail-Insured parcel post for each receipt requested after mailing. service has been inaugurated between the United Limited indemnity may be paid in respect of the States and The Bahamas, Brunei, Canada, Ecua- loss, rifling, or damage of parcel post packages exdor, Federated Malay States, French Indo-China; changed with certain countries under the AgreeGreat Britain and Northern Ireland Ireland, ment of the Postal Union of the Americas and Japan, Leeward Islands, Macao, Netherlands Spain (Consult postmaster.) Indies, Newfoundland (including Labrador). New Domestic Insured Mail-Domestic third and Zealand, Non-Federated Malay States, North fourth-class matter, mailed at or addressed to any Borneo (State of), Portugal (including Ma- post office in the United States or its possessions deira and the Azores), Portuguese West Africa (except parcels mailed in the Philippine Islands). (Angola, Cape Verde Islands, Guinea, St. Thomas or on or to United States naval vessels, may (ex

1

cept when addressed to the Philippine Islands) be or C. O. D. mail is restricted in delivery to Insured against loss, rifling or damage in an addressee only, or to the addressee's order. amount equivalent to its value or the cost of Money Orders--The maximum is $100, but there repairs, but not to exceed $5, upon payment of a is no limit to the number that can be issued in fee of 5 cents, $25 for 10 cents, $50 for 15 cents, one day to the same remitter. Original domestic $100 for 25 cents, $150 for 30 cents, or $200 for money orders issued at and drawn on any post 35 cents, in addition to the postage, both fee and office in the continental United States, excepting postage to be prepaid. Fee for return receipt re- Alaska, may be paid at any post office in the conquested at time of mailing, 3 cents; after mailing, tinental United States, excepting Alaska, if pre5 cents; at time of mailing to show address of sented for payment before the expiration of the delivery, 23 cents.

thirtieth day following the date of issue but an There is no insurance service from the Philippine additional fee is charged unless paid at the office Islands to the United States and the limit for drawn on or repaid at the office of issue at either which domestic parcels addressed to the Philippine of which they may be cashed without such charge Islands may be insured is $100.

if presented within the period of validity which is Domestic Unregistered c. 0. D. Mail-Domestic one year from the last day of the month of issue. third and fourth-class matter, and sealed domestic The fees for domestic orders are: $0.01 to $2.50, mail matter of any class bearing postage at the 6 cents: $2.51 to $5, 8 cents; $5.01 to $10, 11 cents; first-class rate, may be sent c. 6. D. between $10.01 to $20, 13 cents; $20.01 to $40, 15 cents: money order offices of the United States and its $40.01 to $60. 18 cents; $60.01 to $80, 20 cents: possessions but not to or from the Philippines, the $80.01 to $100, 22 cents. International money Canal Zone, or United States naval vessels. The orders cost 10 cents for $10.00 or less, and 10 maximum amount collectible on a single c. O. D. cents extra on each additional $10 up to $1 for $100. article is $200. The fees for C. O. D. collections are Unmailable matter-Includes not only all legitAs follows: from $0.01 to $5, 12 cents; from $5.01 to imate matter not conforming to the rules as to $25, 17 cents: from $25.01 to $50, 22. cents; from legibility of address, size of package or certificates $50.01 to $100, 32 cents; from $100.01 to $150, 40 of inspection, but also pistols, revolvers, or other cents, and from $150.01 to $200, 45 cents. Such firearms that can be concealed on the person; and parcels are insured against loss, rifling or damage game, etc., killed out of season, poisons, explosive in an amount equivalent to the actual value or the or inflammable articles, or bad smelling: all spiritcost of repairs, but not to exceed $5, $25, $50, $100, uous and malt liquors; all liquor advertisements to $150 or $200, according to whether a 12, 17, 22, 32, or from Prohibition localities, indecent matter, 40 or 45-cent fee was paid.

writter or otherwise; dunning postals and lottery, Domestic Registered C. 0. D. Mail-Sealed do- endless chain and fraud matter. mestic C. O. D. mail of any class bearing postage at For information as to the articles prohibited to the first-class rate may be registered. The fees on foreign countries see Part II of the Official Postal domestic registered C. O. D mail range from 25 Guide. cents to $1.20 according to auount to be collected Postal Savings-One dollar will open an interestor amount of indemnity desired. Surcharges are bearing account. Any person ten years old or over collectible on registered collect-on-delivery mail may start an account. A married woman may deas on regular registered mail. (Consult postmaster.)posit in her own name. Any number of dollars may

Restricted Delivery-An additional charge of be deposited, and at any time, until the balance 10 cents is made when domestic registered, insured, to the credit of a depositor amounts to $2.500.

FOREIGN POSTAGE RATES Letterg-3 cents per ounce or fraction thereof to by publishers or registered news agents is subject to any of the following countries-Argentina, Bolivia, the postage rate of 1 cent for each 4 ounces or Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, fraction thereof. Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, There is no limit of weight for second-class matHonduras (Repub. of), Mexico, Newfoundland (in- ter sent to Canada, Cuba, Mexico, Newfoundland cluding Labrador), Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, (including Labrador), and Panama by publishers Peru, El Salvador, Spain, and Possessions, Uru- or registered news agents. guay, Venezuela.

Reduced Postage Rates on Books to Certain For all other foreign destinations, 5 cents, first Countries-- The postage rate applicable to books ounce; and 3 cents, each additional ounce or frac- which do not contain any publicity or advertising tion. Maximum dimensions: Length, breadth, and other than that appearing on the covers of flythickness combined, 36 inches: greatest length, 24 leaves, is 5 cents per pound or fraction thereof, up inches. When sent in the form of a roll the length to a weight limit of 22 pounds, when addressed to (the maximum of which is 32 inches) plus twice the following countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, the diameter is limited to 40 inches. Minimum Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Redimensions: It is recommended that articles meas- public, Ecuador El Salvador, Gautemala, Haiti, ure not less than 4 inches in length and 24 inches Honduras Republic of, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, in width.

Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela, Letter Packages-Merchandise may be sent at Printed matter for the blind-For all foreign the letter rate to certain foreign destinations (see destinations, 1 cent each 2 pounds 3 ounces or frac. Part II of the Official Postal Guide), when an in- tion. Limit of weight-15 pounds, 6 ounces. Divoice or customs declaration is inclosed and a mensions-same as for letters. green label (which may be obtained from the post Sample of merchandise-For all foreign desothce) must be a fixed to the outside of the en- tinations 192 cents each 2 ounces or fraction, with velope or wrapper.

a minimum charge of 3 cents. Limit of weightPost Cards-2 cents to the countries named

18 ounces. Dimensions-same as for letters. above; 3 cents to any country not in the list. Cards Commercial papers-To all foreign destinations, must not

6 x 4% in., or be less than 4 x 234 192 cents for each 2 ounces or traction, with a in.

minimum charge of 5 cents. Limit of weightPrinted matter (including second-class matter, 4 pounds, 6 ounces. Dimensions-same as for letexcept when mailed by publishers or registered news ters. agents to certain countries, as explained in Note). Small packets-Three cents for each 2 ounces, -For all foreign destinations, 112 cents each 2 with a minimum charge of 15 cents per packet. ounces or fraction. Limit of weight--4 pounds 6

Limit of weight-2 pounds 3 ounces. Dimensions ounces in general and 6 pounds 9 ounces for single ---Same as for letters. (See Part II of the Official volumes of printed books, except to the countries Postal Guide, for list of countries which accept (other than Canada and Newfoundland) under small packets. ) Small packets must bear the green the item "Letters" above, where the limit of label (Form ci), Form 2976. They must also be weight for printed matter in general in some cases accompanied by the paper form of customs declarais 11 pounds-in others, 22 pounds, and for single tion (Form 2976-A), properly completed by the volumes, 22 pounds. However, there is no limit sender and enclosed in the small packet. It is likeof weight for single volumes to Cuba, Mexico, wise permissible to enclose in small packet an open Panama, and El Salvador. To Canada and New- invoice reduced to its essential terms. Every small foundland the weight limit for prints in general packet must be clearly marked on the wrapper by is 4 pounds, 6 ounces; single volumes, 11 pounds; the sender with the words "small packet." dimensions--Same as for letters.

8-ounce merchandise packages --Packages of Note -Daily newspapers issued and malled as merchandise weighing 8 ounces or less for the frequently as 6 times a week to bona fide sub- countries mentioned under "Letters''. 2 cents scribers in Canada and Newfoundland by publishers for each 2 ounces or fraction thereof, except that or registered news agents and all second-class mat. when the contents consist of seeds, scions, plants, ter mailed by publishers or registered news agents cuttings, bulbs, or roots, the rate is 192 cents for to the other countries mentioned under subhead- each 2 ounces or fraction. (This is not parcel post, ing "Letters'' are subject to the postage rates pre- must not have customs declarations attached and scribed in paragraphs 1, 2, 4 and 6, of section 538, must not be sealed except when addressed for Postal Laws and Regulations, 1940. Other second- delivery in Canada, in which case such package class matter mailed to Canada and Newfoundland should be marked "This may be opened for postal

Inspection if necessary." There is also an excep- the regular postage, by United States specialtion with respect to sealing in the case of C. O. D. delivery or other stamps affixed to the cover. There 8-ounce merchandise packages for Mexico, which should also be affixed one of the "exprès" labels may be sealed.)

(Form 2977) or the cover must be marked boldly in Special-Delivery (Exprès) Service-Is in force red ink "Exprès", directly below but never on the with the following foreign countries:

stamps. In some countries the service is limited Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Belgium, Brazil, to certain cities, lists of which appear under the British Guina, British Honduras (Belize only), country items in Part II of the Official Postal Chile, China, Cuba, Cyprus, , Canada, Dan- Guide. In Canada and Newfouudland the specialzig, Denmark, Dominican Rep., Ecuador Egypt, delivery service applies only to letters (or articles Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Gold Coast prepaid at the letter rate). In the other countries Colony, Gibraltar, Great Britain and Northern of the above list, the "exprès" feature is applicable Ireland, Guatemala, Hungary, Ireland, Italy and to ordinary and registered Postal Union articles Italian colonies, Japan, Kenya and Uganda, Latvia, (letters, post cards, commercial papers, printed Lithuania, Luxemburg, Mexico, Morocco (Spanish matter, samples and small packets), but not to Zone). Netherlands, Newfoundland (including Lab- parcel-post packages. rador), Norway, Nyasaland Protectorate, Pales- Parcel post packages, which are acceptable for tine, Panama, Poland, Portugal, St. Pierre and practically all foreign countries, are subject to the Miquelon, Sweden, Switzerland, Trans-Jordan, and postage rate of 14 cents a pound or fraction of a Union of South Africa.

pound plus transit charges or surcharges, in many An article intended for special ("'exprès'') de- cases. (Consult postmaster relative to limits of livery in any of the countries mentioned above weight, maximum dimensions and other conditions (except Canada where the U S. domestic fees applicable to parcel

post packages for foreign counapply) must be prepaid 20 cents, in addition to tries.)

Postal Revenues and Expenditures

Source: Office of the Postmaster General
Cost of

Extent Paid as Com. Gross Gross Ex- Ordinary Post-
Year

City

Post of Post peasation of Revenue of penditure of age Stamps (Fiscal). Delivery Offices Routes Postmasters Department Department Issued Dollars Number Miles Dollars

Dollars Dollars

Number 1850 18,417 178,672 1,549,376 5,499,985 5,212,953

1,540,545 1860

28,498 240,594 2,552.868 8,518,067 19,170.610 216,370,660 1870.

1,230,079 28,492 231.232 4,673,466 19,772,221 23,998,837 468,118,445 1880

2,363,693 42,989 343,888 7,708,407 33,315,479 36,542,804 875,681,970 1890

7,976,202 62,401 427,990 13,753,096 60,882,098 66,259,548 2,219,737,060 1900

14,512,190 76,688 500,989 19,112,097 102,354,579 107,740,267 3,998,544.564 1910.

31,683,591. 59,580 447.998 27,521,040 224,128,658 229,977,224 9,067,164,886 1920

74,932,540 52,638 433,668 40,108,080 437,150,212 454,322.609 13,212,790,033 1925

110,356,970 50,957 464,269 47,359,658 599,591,477 639,281,648 17.386,555,506 1930

146,531,671 49,063 503,410 52,850,087 705,484,098 803,667.219 16,268,856,071 1931

146,081,411 48.733 528,571 52,108,129 656,463,383 802,484,840 15,559,164,487 1932

144,598,458 48,159 537,544 50,629,340 588,171,923 793,684.323 14,650.790.133 1933.

122,373,367 47,642 536.679 44.052,494 587,631,365 700,006,257 11,917,442,423 1934

111.366,632 46,507 536,775 39.621.017 586,733,166 630,732,934 12,525,716,839 1935

126,662,913 45,687 514,128 44,587,700 630,795,302 696,503,235 13,610,497,410 1936

142,047,943 45,233 517,864 47,404,447 665,343,356 753,616,212 13,835,399,920 1937

149,973,450 44,877 519.844 48,517,995 726,201,110 772,743,145 15,108,639,409 1938

153,526,214 44,667 526,254 48,659,807 728,634,051 772,445,609 14.912,092,916 1939

156,575,067 44,400 553,981 49,403, 417 745,955,075 784,549,842 15,073,745,772 1940 161,184,553 44,095 541,514 49,238,362 766,948,627 807,629,180 16,381,427,297

POSTAL RECEIPTS AT BIG CITIES Year

Phila

19 Kansas (Fiscal) New York Chicago delphia Boston St. Louis

City Detroit Brooklyn Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars 1920 49,563,485 41.241,378 14,692,104 11,171,916 8,234,742 6,032,429 5,561,099 6,461,553 1925 65,478,107 56,078,907) 17.757,085 14,739,734 12,099,496 9,426,034 8.457.228 7,414,013 1926. 71.984,458 60,655,018 20.144,561 16.139,232 12,725,965 10,921,774 10,039,635 8,282,873 1927 74,448,651 61,895,230 20,432,011 17.164,354 13,659,064 11,066,859 10,782,077 8.967.189 1928

77.159.777 61,855,162 20.102,552 17,268,742 12,961,654 10,904,542 11,085,663 9,278,038 1929 78.708,423 61,673,993 19,175,546 18,001,792 12,624,381 10,471,654 11,801,137 9,023,123 1930

79, 825,449 61 223,378 19.598,562 18,029,127 12,622,482 10,184,905 11,639, 326 8,961,790 1931

71.957.85753,721,759 18,094,970 16,653,102 11,843,062 8,934,312 10,058,902 8.638,261 1932

64,000,958) 44,958, 470 16.033,992 15,154,883 10,210,977 7,322,550 8,631,466 8,237,957 1933 63,228, 452 42,399,349 15,992,443 15,785,235 10.215,072 7.346.777 8,147,781 8,126,625 1934 60,165,546 43,009,090 15,319,495 14,577.151 9,299,373 7,297.7931 8,263,621 7,415,203 1935

62,370,201 46,856,218 15,913,716 14,885,295 9,663,320 7,464,316 8,754,412 7,832,653 1936 67,458,823 50,254,596 16,692,066 15,780,667 10,052,028 7,852,958 9,871,8398,040,500 1937 76,201,229 56,256,225 18,098,676 16.726,448 10,648,174 8,361,771 11 227,672 8,545,796 1938. 71,011.837 56,075,799 17,932,969 16,378,960 10,653,874 7,137,153 10,941,858 8,350,610 1939. 71,619, 150 57,127,244 18,054,344 16,907,813 10.834,762 8.115,360 11,005,809 8.520,722 1940. 73,517,691 59.188,343 18,530,993 16,802,955) 11,048,466 8,091,976 12,107,650 8,573,296

Los Angeles Postal Receipts: 1934, $8,898,482; 1935, $9.798,824; 1936, $10,641,757; 1937, $12,239,800; 1938, $12,579,857; 1939, $13,313,738; 1940, $13,771,456; 1941, $14,538,612.

TOTAL POSTAL SAVINGS ON DEPOSIT AT THE CLOSE OF EACH FISCAL YEAR 1917. $131,954,69611922 $137.736,439|1927 $147,359,2541932. . $ 784,820,623||1937. $1.267.673,740 1918. 148,471,499 1923. 131,671,300|1928. 152,143,349|1933. 1,187,186,200|1938 1,251,799,180 1919. 167,323,260 1924. 132.655,147|1929. 153,644,529||1934 1.197.920.185||1939, 1,262,291.829 1920. 157.276,322 1925.. 132,173,211||1930. 175,271.686|1935. 1.204,862,940 1940. 1,293,408,735 1921

152.389,903||1926. 134.178.5581931 347,416.870||1936 1.231,673,156 Postmaster General Frank C. Walker reported a which cost $59,393,275. This included the frankdeficit of $40,784,238 for the Postoffice Department ing privilege for members of Congress, service for for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1940. He said government departments and blind persons, service the Department would have made a profit of to subsidize the air mall and to perform "non$18,609,036 had it not been for the free service | postal" functions.

The black penny stamp of Great Britain in 1840 "The modern stamps bear a variety of devices, makes May 6 memorable as the birthday of the from kangaroos to rainbows. Some are postal first "adhesive postal paper."

The subsequent peepholes into their country's resources. Colomcentury has been a success story of advance from bia, for example, has stamped the nation's letters Tag-paper to riches for the modest little gummed with pictures of oil wells, gold mines, emerald

mines, and coffee plantations. rectangles.

Others are one-glimpse sight-seeing tours "The first adhesive was a penny portrait, in through the land of their origin, such as the 1934 sustere black and white, of young Queen Victoria's National Parks issue of the United States or Japrofile," says the National Geographic Society. I pan's 1935 series of Mount Fuji views."

[graphic]

d

Highest and Lowest Altitudes in the U. S., by States

[blocks in formation]

2.800 } Ouachita R. Ashley-Un.

250

Alabama
Cheaha Mountain .. Clay-Talladega 2,407 Gull of Mexico

Sea lev. 500
Alaska
Mount McKinley

20.300 Pacific Ocean

Sea lev.
Arizona.
Humphreys Peak Coconino
12,611 Colorado R... Yuma.

100 4,100 Blue Mountain.. Polk-Scott. Arkansas.

55 650 Magazine Mountain Logan California. Mount Whitney... Inyo-Tulare. 14,495 Death Valley.. Inyo..

- 280 2.900 Canal Zone. Cerro Galera.. 8. W. part Zone 1,207

Carib. Sea. Sea ley, 100 Colorado Mount Elbert Lake. 14,431 Arkansas R.. Prowers

3,350 6,800 Connecticut Bear Mountain Litchfield

2,355 L. I. Sound.

Sea lev. 500 Delaware Centreville, . New Castle. 440 Atlantic Ocean

Sea lev. 60 Dist. of Col. Tenleytown.. N. W. part

420 Potomac R....

Sea lev. 150 Florida. Iron Mountain Polk..

325 Atlantic Ocean

Sea lev. 100 Georgia. Brasstown Bald. Towns-Union. 4,768 Atlantic Ocean

Sea lev. 600 Guam Mount Lumlum.

1,334 Pacific Ocean

Sea lev.
Hawall.
Mauna Kes..

Hawali
13,784 Pacific Ocean.

Sea lev.
Idaho..
Borah Peak..

Custer..

12.655 Snake R... Nez Perce. 720 5,000 Illinois. Charles Mound, Jo Daviess. 1,241 Mississippi R : Alexander. 279

600 Indlana Greenstork Top.. Randolph.

1,240 Ohio R. Vanderbig

316 700 Iowa. North boundary Osceola.

1,675 Mississippi R. Lee.

477 1.100 Kansas. On W. boundary Wallace

4.135 Verdigris R. Montg'm'y 700 2.000 Kentucky Big Black Mountain Harian 4,150 Mississippi R.. Fulton

257 750 Louisiana Athens (old). Claiborne 469 New Orleans Orleans

-0.5 100 Maine Mount Katahdin, Piscataquls 5,268 Atlantic Ocean

Sea lev.

600 Maryland Backbone Mountain Garrett

3,340 Atlantic Ocean

Sea lev. 350 Massachusetts Mount Greylock Berkshire

3,505 Atlantic Ocean

Sea lev. 500 Michigan.. Porcupine Mount'ns Ontonagon. 2,023 Lake Erie.

572 900 Minnesota Misquah Hills. Cook. 2,230|Lake Superior

602 1,200 Mississippi Near luka Tishomingo. 806 Gulf of Mexico

Sea lev. 300 Missouri. Taum Sauk M't'n.. Iron 1.772 St. Francis R. Dunklin,

230 800 Montana. Granite Peak

Carbon

12,850 Kootenai R... Flathead. 1,800 3.400 Nebraska. S.W.part of county Banner

5,300 S.E. cor. State Richardson 825 2.600 Nevada. East Peak... Esineralda 13,145 Colorado R.... Clark.

470

5,500 New Hampshire. Mt. Washington.. Coos

6,288 Atlantic Ocean

Sea lev.

1,000 New Jersey High Point.

Sussex
1,801 Atlantic Ocean

Sea lev.
New Mexico. North Truchas Peak Rio Arriba 13,306 Red Bluft. Eddy

2,876 5.700 New York. Mount Marcy

Essex
5,344 Atlantic Ocean

Sea lev.

1,000 North Carolina. Mount Mitchell Yancey

6.684 Atlantic Ocean

Sea lev. 700 North Dakota. Black Butte

Slope.
3,468 Pembina. Pembina.

790 1,900 Ohio.. Campbell HD. Logan.

1,550 Ohio R... Hamilton

425 850 Oklahoma Black Mesa

Cimarron.
4,978 Red R..

Mc Curtain 300 1.300
Oregon
Mount Hood. Clackamas H.R. 11.245 Pacific Ocean.

Sea lev. 3,300 Pennsylvania Negro Mountain. Somerset.

3,213 Delaware R...

Sea lev. 1,100 Philippine Islande Mount Apo. Mindanao Is. 9,610 Pacific Ocean.

Sea lev. Puerto Rico.. Cerro de Punta. Ponce (Peak 5) 4,399 Atlantic Ocean

Sea lev. Rhode Island. Durlee Hill.. Providence. 805 Atlantic Ocean

Sea lev. * 200 Samos. Lata Peak..

Tau Island. 3.056 South Carolina.. Sassafras Mountain. Pickens.

3.548 Atlantic Ocean

Sea lev. 350 South Dakota. Harney Peak. Pennington. 7,242 Big Stone Lake Roberts.

962 2,200 Tennessee. Clingman's Dome... Sevier.. 6,642 Mississippi R. Shelby

182 900 Texas.. Guadalupe Peak Culberson

8.751 Gull of Mexico

Sea ley. 1,700 Utah. Kings Peaks.

Duchesne.. 13,498 Bea verd'm Ck. Washingt'u 2,000 6,100 Vermont. Mount Mansfield...Lamoille.

4,393 LakeChampi'n Franklin ... 95 1,000 Virginia Mount Rogers. Grayson-Smyth 5.719 Atlantic Ocean

Sen lev. 950 Virgin Islands, Crown HII. Is. St. Thomas. 1,550 Atlantic (cean

Sea lev. Washington Mount Rainier. Pierce.

14,408 Pacific Ocean.

Sea lev. 1.700 West Virginia. Spruce Knob. Pendleton

4,860 Potomac R....Jefferson.

240 1,500 Wisconsin, Rib HI.. Marathon, 1,940 Lake Michigan

581 1.050 Wyoming Gannett Peak Fremont. 13,785 B. Fourche R. Crook

3,100 6,700 U.S. (ex. Alaska)./ Mount Whitney. Jinyo-T'l're.Cal. I 14,495 Death Valley.. Inyo, Cal. -280 2,500

The original Indian name for Mount McKinley The highest peaks in Canada are Logan (19.850 was Denali ("Home of the Sun"). It is crowned It.), and St. Elias (18,008 ft.), both in the Yukon by two peaks, the south pinnacle soaring to 20,300

and both on or near the Alaska border. Fairfeet; the north to approximately 20,000 feet.

weather (15,287 ft.) is on the British Columbia

Alaska boundary. For a list of the principal Adirondack and Cat

The highest point in the West Indies is in the skill peaks, see article on New York State.

Dominican Republic, Mount Tina (10,300 ft.). The chief peaks in the Great Smoky range in

In Mexico, among the highest known and named North Carolina-Tennessee, and

the

White peaks are Citaltepetl, also known as Orizaba Mountains of New Hampshire, are listed in the (18,077 ft.); Popocatepetl (17,880 ft.):

and 1938 Almanac.

Iztaccihuatl (17,670 It.).

The Continental Divide

Source: United States Geographic Board Continental Divide: watershed, created by moun- Thence by a very irregular route northerly across tain ranges or table-lands of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado along the western summits of the Rio from which the drainage is easterly or westerly: the Grande and of the Arkansas, the South Platte, and easterly flowing waters reaching the Atlantic Ocean the North Platte River basins, and across Rocky chiefly through the Gulf of Mexico, and the west- Mountain National Park, entering Wyoming near erly flowing waters reaching the Pacific Ocean long, 106° 10' W. through the Columbia River, or through the Colo- Thence northwesterly across Wyoming along the rado River, which flows into the Gulf of California.

western rims of the North Platte, Big Horn, and The location and route of the Continental Divide Yellowstone River basins, crossing the southwest across the United States may briefly be described as

corner of Yellowstone National Park follows:

Beginning at the point of its crossing the United Thence in a northwsterly direction, forming the States Mexican boundary, near long. 108° 45' W., common boundary of Idaho and Montana, to a the Divide, in a northerly direction. crosses New point on said boundary near long. 114° 00' W. Mexico along the western edge of the Rio Grande Thence northeasterly and northwesterly through drainage basin, entering Colorado near long. 106* Montana and the Glacier National Park, entering 35' W.

Canada near long. 114 04' W.

Highest and Lowest Continental Altitudes
Source: United States Geological Survey
Ele-

Below
Continents
Highest Point

vation
Lowest Point

Sea Level
(Feet)

(Feet) North America. Mount McKinley. Alaska..

20,300 Death Valley, Callfornia.

280 South America. Mount Aconcagua, Argentina.

22,834 Sea level. Europe. Mount Elbruz, Caucasus 18,468 Caspian Sea, Russia.

*s6 Asia .. Mount Everest, India-China. 29,141 Dead Sea, Palestine.

1,290 Africa. Kibo (Kilimanjaro), Tanganyika Terr.. 19,710 Libyan Desert

440 Australla. Mount Kosciusko, New South Wales.. 7,328 Lake Eyre, South Australla.

38 Antarctics Mt. Thorvald Nilson ..

15,400 Greatest ocean depth, near the Island of Mindanao, 35,400 feet.

Approximate mean elevation (feet)--North America, 2,000; South America, 1,800; Europe, 980; Asia 3,000; Africa, 1,900; Australia, 1,000; Antarctic, 6,000

The Globe's surface at the North Pole, according to the late Robert E. Peary, and as found by the
Russian expedition of 1937, is at sea level-just water, ice-covered much of the time.

The elevation at the South Pole, as noted by Scott, was 9,070 feet.

Peak Country
Aconcagua, Arg
Sa jama, Bolivia
Mercedario, Chile.
Huascan, Peru
Llullacillaco, Chile
Incaguassi, Ch.- Arg
Sorata, Bolivia
Chachani, Peru
Illimani, Bolivia
Veladeres, Ch.-Arg.
Chuquibamba, Peru.

HIGH SOUTH AMERICAN PEAKS
Feet Peak Country

Feet1

Peak Country 21,395 Parinacota, Chile,

20,950 Cotopaxi, Ecuador 22,349 Antofalla, Chile

20,900 Cayambe. Ecuador. 22,302 Chimborazo, Ecuador

20,702 Licancaur, Bolivia 22,050 Famantina, Arg.

20,700 Antisana, Ecuador 22,146 Pomarape, Chile

20,500 Chachcani, Peru. 20,686 Tupungato, Chile

20,269 Herveo, Colombia. 21,286 Huaina Potosi, Bolivia 20,260 Tolima, Colombia, 21,220 Juncal, C.-A.

20,175 Huila, Colombia 21,181 Arequipa (Misti), Peru 20,300 Aconquija, Arg.. 21,000 San Jose, Chile

20,000 Altar, Ecuador .21,000 Copiapo, Chile

19,947)Maipo. Arg..

Feet 19,347 19,534 19,456 19,335 18,898 18,350 .18,438 18.000 17,740 .17,710 .17,421

Volcanoes Active Within the Last Century

Source: American Museum of Natural History

Peak and Country Altitude Ft. Peak and Country Altitude Ft. Peak and Country Altitude Ft.
Cotopaxi, Ecuador
19,488 Llaima, Chile.
10,037 El Salvador, Salvador

6,759 San Pedro y Pablo, Bolivia. .19,423 Pico de Cano, Cape Verde, 9.744 Isarog, Philippines.

6,634 Sangay, Ecuador.. 17,464 Gede, Java. 9,720 Oraela-jokull, Iceland.

6,424 Carahuairazo, Ecuador. 16,515 Merapi, Sumatra.

9,488 Izalco, Salvador

6.200 Pichincha, Ecuador 15,918 Lonquimai, Chile. 9,480 Bandai, Japan

6,037 Kartseimbl, Africa.. 14,683 Merapi, Java.. 9,432 Pogromnol, Alaska.

5,523 Clarence Peak, Fernando Po. 14,683 Ruapehu, New Zealand. 9,175 Makushin, Alaska..

5.474 Cameroon, Africa. 13,370 Shishaldin, Alaska. 8,952 Cristobal, Nicaragua

5,300 Erebus, Antarctic. 13,300 Papandayang, Java. 8,611 Hekla, Iceland..

5,110 Colima, Mexico. 13,092 Pacaya, Guatemala 8,390 Manga Loa, Savail.

5.000 Mauna Loa, Hawaii 12,675 Beerenberg, Jan Mayen Isl 8,350 Ometepe, Nicaragua.

5.000 Descabezado Grande, (hile. . 12,562 Santa Ana, Salvador.

8,300 Grande Soufriere, Guadel'pe. 4,900 Fuji, Japan 12.395 Hualalal, Hawaii.. 8,275 Onsen, Japan,

4,865 Semeru, Java, 12,044 Asama, Japan. 8,260 Korovin, Alaska,

4,852 Luse, Sumatra. 12,000 Calaon, Philippines. 8,192 Pelee, Martinique.

4,430 Santa Maria, Guatemala. 11.480 Mayon, Philippines.

7,916 Vesuvius, Italy.

4,300 Slamar, Java 11,250 Kugak, Alaska 7,630 Jorullo, Mexico.

4,262 Irazu, Costa Rica. 11,200 Ngauruhoe, New Zealand. 7,515 Kllauea, Hawaii

4,100 Abong-Abong, Sumatra. 11,000 Katmal, Alaska..

7,560 Soufriere, St. Lucia, w. I. 4.000 Raun, Java.. 10,820 Shirane, Japan, 7,422 Sakurajima, Japan.

3,742 Etna, Sicily 10.740 Banajao, Philippines.

7,382 Soufriere, St. Vincent, w. 1.: 3,500 Marababu, Java 10,670 Osorno, Chile. 7,200 Stromboll, Lipari Isl..

3,022 Lassen, U. S 10,570 San Miguel, Salvador. 7,120 Sosiguina, Nicaragua,

2,831 Dempo, Sumatra, 10,562 Ceboruco, Mexico..

7,100 Krakatoa, Malay E. Indies. 2,817 Cerro Quernado, Guatemala. 10,436 Calbuco, Chile,

7.000 Tfirma), Java 10.075 Skeidar-lokull. Iceland

6,952

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Duration of Sunshine on United States Territory

Source: United States Naval Observatory The acquisition of Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and the

If we now depress the North Pole 2311° below Philippine Islands, and a portion of the Navigator the horizon we shall have the relative position of or Samoan Group has very considerably affected things at the Winter solstice, December 21, and we the duration of continuous supshine on territory of shall

find the opposite condition to prevail; that is the United States. Anyone who desires to inform

to say, the sun will not now shine continuously on himself on this matter can do so by using a ter

our territory, but some portion of it will always be restrial globe having an artificial horizon attached involved in darkness or below the horizon. to it, and complying with the following instruc

Again, if we place the poles of the globe in the tions: Place the globe so that the North Pole shall be

horizon, which is the relative position at the equi

noxes, March 21 and September 21, and turn the directed toward the north, and elevate it 2312

globe through a complete revolution, we shall find above the horizon as indicated by the brass meridian. Assuming that the sun is in the zenith,

that for a very short time during the 24 hours the

whole of our territory will be below the horizon or this will be the position of the earth in reference to the sun at the Summer solstice, June 21. As

in darkness. we turn the globe on its axis from west to east,

As of June 17, 1938, the Naval Observatory says:

"It may be worth while, to note that the United the sun will be rising at all places on the western and setting at all places on the eastern horizon,

States has reserved rights to certain territory in and we shall find on turning the globe through an

the Antarctic regions, but the matter has never entire revolution that some portion or other of our

been made the subject of an international claim. territory--including the islands named above- If that territory should be taken into account, it will always be above the horizon or will have con- could then be said that the sun never sets on tinuous sunshine during the 24 hours.

American territory."

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