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The old plantation life prevails as unchanged as his army southward, crossed the river 30 miles in any Southern State, with spacious mansion below Vicksburg, and (early in May, 1863) estabhouses and large estates, the homes of the old- lished a position on the Mississippi side. From time aristocracy of the age of the Southern cavalier. there he marched rapidly northeast and, in a series

Parchman, Mississippi's state penal farm, has of five pitched battles, defeated and separated the been called by the Library of Congress the best armies of Joseph E. Johnston and John C. Pember. source of Negro folk music in the nation. Mound ton. The latter was driven (May 18) within the Bayou is a half-century old, exclusively-Negro defenses of Vicksburg. to which Grant then laid community founded by Isaiah Montgomery, former siege. The siege was pushed for 47 days. Two Fedslave of Jefferson Davis.

eral assaults were repulsed by the defenders, whose There are 20 universities and colleges in the system of earth works encircling the

city proved imState, the most noted being the University of pregnable to direct attack. The Federal army then Mississippi, Oxford; Mississippi State College, resorted to regular siege operations, subjecting the Starkville; and Mississippi State College for Confederate forts to an almost continuous bomWomen, Columbus.

bardment. The city was also shelled by the fleet The battlefield in Vicksburg was established as in the river, the inhabitants taking refuge in caves a national military park (1899) to commemorate and cellars when the firing became intense. The the campaign, siege, and defense of Vicksburg, one expected relief from Johnston's army failed to of the turning points of the Civil War, and to pre- materialize and at length, weakened by sickness serve the ground where took place the battles and and lack of food, the Confederates were compelled operations connected with the siege. There the to surrender. Grant's army entered Vicksburg (July Confederates made their last stand for control of 4). the lower Mississippi River, the highway to the General Grant said later in his memoirs, when sea for the Union States 'of the Middle West. Vicksburg fell "the fate of the Confederacy was There, on the high bluffs commanding a bend in sealed." the stream, the Confederate batteries prevented the Vicksburg National Military Park is noted among passage of Federal vessels and made impossible the world's battlefields for its distinctive topography cooperation between Federal troops above and and for the extensive remains of trenches and below the city.

earthworks which render the military operations Federal naval and military expeditions against in the locality readily comprehensible. Today the Vicksburg failed (1862). An army under General visitor can traverse the remains of the Confederate Grant (early in 1863) descended the river to the works, and see,

marching up the steep slopes beLouisiana shore near Vicksburg, and assisted by a fore him, rows of markers indicating the positions strong fleet under Admiral Porter strove for three attained by the Federal forces in their assaults and months to cross the river and attack the city from

engineering operations. To an unusual degree the the rear.

battlefield preserves and illustrates the heroic Failing in these efforts, Grant finally marched I events which occurred there.

Missouri Capital, Jefferson City-Show Me State_State Flower, Hawthorn-Motto: Salus Populi Suprema Lex Esta (Welfare of People Is the Supreme Law)-Area, 69,674 sq. mi.; rank, 18th-Population, 3.784,664;

rank, 10th. Missouri, a mid-western State, is bounded on the ater (seating 9,267). Twenty-one main trunk lines north by Iowa, on the east by Illinois, Kentucky furnish railroad transportation. and Tennessee, on the south by Arkansas, and on

St. Louis is the gateway for north and south the west by Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska. travel as well as of freight traffic, and many tour

ists stop there en route. A feature is the Eads The Mississippi River, forms the entire eastern

bridge across the Mississippi, which is said to acboundary line for 500 miles, and the Missouri

commodate more freight cars than any other in the River the northern part of the western line, cutting world. River traffic is immense, to and from New then through the State to confluence with the Orleans and intermediate points. Mississippi above St. Louis. In all it has nearly In livestock the Missouri mule, which is face1,000 miles of navigable waterways.

tiously said to have won the first World War, has Its topography is varied-upland table in the always been bred much locally and exported to all north and west, the Ozark Mountains in the cen

States and foreign countries. ter and south, with low-lying river bottom areas in

The influx of Germans in the revolutionary times the extreme southeast. Its climate varies from the proportion of persons of that blood, especially in St.

of their native land in the last century left a large north temperate to the sub-tropical.

Louis to this day, those now being practically all Economically, it partakes of the characteristics of natives. both North and South, is strong agriculturally and The University of Missouri in Columbia, and industrially, and far advanced in education.

st. Louis University and Washington University in Corn is the chief crop, but large quantities of St. Louis, twelve colleges and seven normal schools winter wheat, oats, potatoes and tobacco are mar- are the higher institutions of education. keted. Cotton is grown in the southeast counties. The William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and

The state is rich in minerals with extensive de- Atkins Museum, erected at a cost of $15,000,000 posits of coal and lead. Other important minerals in Kansas City (1933) is one of the foremost art are zinc, Portland cement, grindstones, pig-iron, museums in the Middle-west. copper, barite, blue and white lead, limestone, La Salle's explorations (1682) located what is now sandstone, granite and silver.

Missouri as a part of the vast Louisiana claim, The stockyards and packing plants in Kansas which was relinquished to Spain (1762), returned City are famous. Flour and feed mills, butter and to France (1800), and purchased by the United cheese lactories, have large outputs; and so have States (1803). the printing establishments and machine shops. The State is rich in sites of historic and preMissouri is first in the world's output of corn cob historic interest. At many places, such as near pipes, and sells millions annually.

Hartsburg and Hannibal, travelers see where The Bagnell Dam across the Osage river in the ancient Indian Mound builders lived and conOzarks (completed in 1931) created the Lake of the structed their great "stone vault" and "garden" Ozarks, 129 miles long, with a shore line of ap- earthworks. The old U. S. Grant log cabin, built proximately 1.300 miles, flooding more than 60,000 by Grant himself outside St. Louis, draws many acres and impounding 97,000,000,000 cubic ft. of visitors. water. The dam is 2,543 it. long and 148 ft. high The early home of Mark Twain (Samuel L. from bed rock to the state highway on its top. It Clemens) stands in Hannibal, the region made is part of a $33,000,000 hydro-electrical develop- famous by his books. In the same city is the ment designed to generate 268,000 h. p.

statue of Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, two The metropolitan area of which St. Louis is the of his best-known characters. Many persons each business and banking center, has a population of year visit the farm home, about six miles from 1,246,000. St. Louis is noted for its botanical Excelsior Springs, of the most colorful bandit of gardens, zoo, parks and Municipal Open-Air The- the old days -Jesse James.

Montana Capital, Helena-Treasure State-State Flower, Bitter Root-Motto: Oro y Plata (Gold and Silver)

Area, 147,138 sq. mi.; rank, 3rd-Population, 559,456; rank, 40th. Montana, a Mountain State, is bounded on the western side, the country east of the Rockies slopnorth by Canada, on the east by North and South ing off into vast plains and smaller valleys between Dakota, on the south by Wyoming and Idaho, and smaller hill elevations. Its rivers of note are the on the west by Idaho.

Missouri, up which crude boat navigation has The Rocky Mountain range crosses the state in passed for generations, the Yellowstone, Madison the west, with the Bitter Root range at the extremel and Bitter Root. or the 50,000,000 acres, the forests of about 30,000,000 acres are, with other areas, mobile. Eighty-one percent of the entire park area ranges for livestock grazing.

(or 1,249 sq. m.) is accessible only by trail. SepaIrrigation by Federal Government and private rated only by the Going-to-the-Sun Highway initiative, and through the instrumentality of the through the central part of the State, running State Water Conservation Board, has been highly east to west, the area is a vast wild region of developed, resulting in the production of large peaks, glaciers and beautiful mountain lakes, about quantities of the standard fruits, orchard and 250 of which fill great glacial basins. small, of the temperate zone. The State, although

The Blackfeet Indian Reservation is east of the far north and high in elevation, is especially suited

Park, one of seven such reservations in the State. to that activity, with the largest development in That portion of the State east of Continental the Bitter Root, Missoula and Flathead regions.

Divide was once a part of Louisiana and later of Wheat, oats, flaxseed, barley. rye, corn, hay.

Dakota. The portion west of the Divide was in potatoes and sugar beets are produced. The annual turn a part of Oregon, Washington and Idaho. wool clip is large.

Probably the first white man to venture into Chief mineral products are gold, silver, copper,

Montana was Chevalier De La Verendrye, a Frenchlead, zinc, petroleum, high grade manganese ore,

man who came down from Canada. He picked up

stories from the Indians of a great river that ran coal, natural gas, asbestos.

westward to the sea, so he left Fort La Reine, now Montana has a stumpage of more than 58,000,

Portage la Prairie, Manitoba (1742), to find the 000,000 it. of timber, of which much is the increasingly valuable' white pine; other kinds are larch,

Columbia River. He probably entered the extreme spruce, cedar, Douglas ir, white fir, lodge-pole Year's Day (1743) sighted snow-capped mountains

southwestern corner of Montana and on New pine. valuable for telegraph poles, hemlock and

to the west. Verendrye called the region the yellow pine.

"Land of the Shining Mountains." No more white The potential horsepower available in the waters

men visited Montana until the Lewis and Clark is estimated at 3,700,000, of which 506,957 h. p. had

Expedition 62 years later. been developed by Jan. 1, 1940. Immense reservoirs The discovery of gold (1850-1860) attracted have been constructed on the Madison and Mis

swarms of miners and merchants. Bustling towns souri Rivers to give dependable water supplies.

sprouted overnight on land where previously Places of higher education are the State Uni- had roamed the Indians-Blackfeet, Flatheads, versity in Missoula, the State College in Bozeman; Crows, Sioux and Cheyennes. Strife developed School of Mines, Butte: three additional colleges, between white man and red man, causing much three normal schools (1 for teachers) and two bloodshed. It was at the junction of Little and junior colleges.

Big Horn Rivers (1876) that General Custer and Scenically. Montana is not surpassed. Its lofty 277 of his men were massacred by the Indians mountains are rugged and picturesque, and travel under Chief Sitting Bull. With mining prosperity by rail or automobile takes one through beautiful came banditry, and vigilante committees were orplaces. Glacier National Park, on the line between ganized to cope with the outlawry. Informal the United States and Canada, is one of the hangings became a daily occurrence. "Trees begreatest public preserves in the world. Beyond the gan bearing a strange fruit with a tough rind, roads in the park is a vast primeval wilderness one historian wrote. When order was restored, the (750,000 acres) which cannot be entered by auto- vigilante members disbanded.

Nebraska Capital, Lincoln-The Tree Planter's State-State Flower, Goldenrod—Motto: Equality Before the Law

-Area, 77,237 sq. mi.; rank, 15th-Population, 1,315,834; rank, 32nd. Nebraska, a West North Central State, is bound- and the soil. These indicate that this part of the ed on the north by South Dakota, on the east by planet has at times been the bottom of a sea and Iowa and Missouri, on the south by Kansas and

other times has been elevated above the water: that

at one time the region had a climate of tropical Colorado, and on the west by Colorado and Wy

warmth and at a later time was covered in part by oming The Missouri River forms the eastern a thick sheet of ice. The remains of former plants boundary.

and animals which testify to these conditions are The western portion lies in the foothills of the abundant within the State. Rocky Mountains, with high barren table lands Recent investigations indicate the presence of broken by low ridges reaching an altitude of about prehistoric men in Nebraska at a period several 5,000 ft. in the Bad Lands near Wyoming and hundred, perhaps thousands of years ago. South Dakota. Then come the sand hills section The Otoe, Omaha, Ponca, Pawnee, Sioux. Chey(about 15,000 sq. m.), now well grassed over and enne and Arapahoe tribes of Indians were found in stable. Thence the prairie slopes gently to the Mis- Nebraska by the first explorers. These numbered souri, where the altitude at Rulo in the southeast altogether about 40.000 persons who lived chiefly corner is 842 ft. The average altitude is about 2,000 by hunting. partly by primitive agriculture. War ft. Three river systems, the Platte, the Niobrara was the normal condition existing among these and the Big Blue, drain eastward into the Missouri. tribes. The traditions of these Indians indicate

The climate is exceptionally healthful, with con- that they had migrated to the Nebraska region stant winds, much sunshine and dry, pure air. within a few hundred years of the time they were The winters are of considerable severity and the found by the first explorers. summers hot. Rainfall is not heavy, though usu- Francesco Vasquez Coronado and his party of 30 ally sufficient in the growing season for the crops

Spanish cavalry were the first white men to visit in the prairie counties. Irrigation is resorted to in this region (1541) French fur traders and trappers ine west. The soil is very fertile.

began to venture up the Missouri River (about The chief crops are corn, oats, wheat, barley, rye,

1700). The Mallet brothers, with a party of eight alfalfa hay, potatoes, sugar beets. The State leads Frenchmen, named the Platte River and traveled in production of wild hay. Nebraska cattle exceed nearly the entire length of the State (1739) on a 3,000,000; there are more than 2,000,000 swine. journey from the Missouri River to Santa Fe. Higher institutions of education include the Uni

They were followed by many other French fur versity of Nebraska, Lincoln, Creighton (R. C.)

traders during the next 60 years. University, Omaha, Nebraska Wesleyan University

Spain, France and England all claimed the Ne(M. E.), Lincoln; Hastings College (Presby.), Hast

braska region at different times, basing their ings; and Municipal University, Omaha.

claims upon discoveries and explorations. At the Nebraska (1934) voted an amendment to its

close of the Seven Years' War (1769) France ceded constitution to substitute a single chamber for the

all her claims east of the Mississippi to England old bicameral legislature. The new chamber has

ard west of the Mississippi to Spain. Nebraska was 43 members elected without party designation.

thus a part of the Spanish province of Louisiana whereas the old legislature had 133 senators and

(from 1763 until 1801) when Napoleon bought it

back. representatives.

Lewis and Clark were the commanders of the The cost of the first uni-cameral session (1937)

first American expedition to visit Nebraska (1804was $110,000 as compared with $260.000 for the last bicameral meeting.

1806). The Hunt party of Astorians skirted the Legislative machinery and

Nebraska shores (1811) on their way to Oregon procedure have been simplified, reducing the num

and seven of the party crossed the mountains ber of committees from 61 to 6; and abolishing

(1812) and followed the North Platte down to executive sessions. Nevil papermen are permitted to attend all committee ineetings.

its junction with the Missouri. Major Long with

Before a bill becomes law it is submitted to a Committee of Re

2 party of 20 men traveled (1819) from the

Missouri River up the Platte to the head waters of view which, with the assistance of three prominent

its south fork near Denver. During the years 1807. lawyers, attests its constitutionality.

1820 Manuel Lisa, of Spanish descent, but a citizen Under the Constitution, the bonded debt of the of the United States, became the leading fur trader State is limited to $100,000.

and explorer of the Nebraska region. The earliest records of Nebraska are the rocks Sites marking the places where Indian fights

took place in the State are Fort McPherson Ceme- Canyon Monument, in Hitchcock county, comtery, Massacre Canyon Monument, and Pawnee memorates the last great battle between the Sioux Battlefield. Fort McPherson Cemetery, situated on and the Pawnees. The Pawnees were badly beaten the south side of the Platte River near Maxwell, is and suffered a loss of 156 men. The monument was a national military cemetery containing the graves erected by the United States Government. Pawnee of many early-day heroes. Here are graves of sol- Battlefield is the site where the Pawnees surrendiers of the Sioux and Cheyenne Indian wars, and dered to the Nebraska militia, under the command here lies Spotted Horse, a Pawnee scout. Massacre of General John M. Thayer (July 12, 1859).

Nevada Capital, Carson City-Snow Clad State or Battle Born State-State Flower, Sage Brush-Motto: All

for Our Country-Area, 110,540 sq. mi.; rank, 6th--Population, 110,247; rank, 49th. Nevada, least populous of all States, is of the floor sloped steeply downward so that in . disMountain group in Western United States, bounded tance of 52 ft. there was a drop of 34 ft. to the on the north by Oregon and Idaho, on the east by openings of the inner rooms. Utah and Arizona, on the south and west by

Gypsum Cave furnishes artifacts which prove

that at one time prehistoric men and animals California.

Sived there. Although quite evidently not occupied It is mountainous and much of the high table- conjointly by the two, nevertheless there is suilands is arid or semi-arid, Agriculture is not varied, cient proof to show that both types were conowing hitherto to lack of water, but as irrigation

temporary. advances diversification of products proceeds. Franciscan friars were the first white men to Wheat, barley, potatoes are the chief crops. Live set foot in what is now Nevada. They crossed stock interests are relatively large.

the territory on their way to California (1775). Boulder Dam, the highest dam in the world is on Peter Ogden of the Hudson Bay Company discovthe Colorado river about 25 miles southeast of Las ered the Humboldt or Ogden River (1825); Judedian Vegas.

Smith passed through the region (1826); and John The University of Nevada, established at Elko C. Fremont traversed the territory with an ex(1873) and moved to Reno (1886) is the chief ploring party (1834-44). A trading post was institution of learning The state has four lounded by the Mormons near the Carson River colleges

(1849). The mountains have produced more than a bil- Until the discovery of the famous Comstock Lode lion dollars of mineral wealth, chiefly in gold. (1859), the inhabitants of Nevada numbered only silver and copper. Other important minerals are about 1,000, chiefly Mormons and California gold lead, zinc, quicksilver, tungsten, sulphur, graphite, seekers who had tarried on the way. After the borax, gypsum and building stone.

discovery there was a stampede of fortune hunters There are a number of interesting caverns in from all over the country. The population of VirNevada, the most noted being Gypsum Cave, 20 ginia City spurted from a few hundred to 30,000. miles northeast of Las Vegas, in a limestone spur Bonanzas were struck and developed; men became of the Frenchman range of mountains, about wealthy beyond dreams over night. For several 2,000 ft. above sea level in a rocky desert country. years the Comstock Lode was the richest silver When completely excavated some years ago the mining center in the world and from it has come cave was known to have six rooms and measured approximately one billion dollars in gold and silver. about 300 ft. in length. The widest spot was By reason of the short period of residence reabout 120 ft

quired for divorce suits, Nevada has become a popuThe entrance measured 70 ft. across with a lar resort, and the city of Reno is the center of height of about 15 ft. On passing the portal the that activity. Games of chance have been legalized.

New Hampshire

Capital, Concord-Granite State--State Flower, Purple Lilae-Motto: None-Area, 9,304 sq. mi.; rank,

43rd-Population, 491,524; rank, 45th. New Hampshire is bounded on the north by Textiles, leather products, paper and pulp inCanada, on the east by Maine and the Atlantic dustries comprise, at present, about 60% of the Ocean, on the south by Massachusetts, and on the State's manufactures. Preeminent for many years, west by Vermont. It was one of the Thirteen the textile industry in the State has yielded to the Original States.

rapidly growing boot and shoe industry. Though Its northern parts are rugged, reaching in the experiencing a sharp decline in paper and pulp White Mountains the highest elevations of the production after 1929, New Hampshire still ranks Northeastern United States (Mount Washington, dustry in New Hampshire are wood and lumber.

high in that field. Other important classes of in6,293 ft.). There are 86 mountain peaks in an area of 1.270 square miles. Toward the sea, it is more

iron and steel products, stone and clay products

and electrical equipment. level and agricultural and industrial by utilization of river water power. There are more than 1.300

Among New Hampshire's famous scenic and lakes and ponds in the state. The Connecticut

recreational attractions are the Old Man of the River rises in New Hampshire and forms the

Mountains, Mt. Washington, the Flume, Glen Ellis greater part of the Vermont border.

Falls. Dixville Notch and Lake Winnipesaukee. Agriculture, despite an income below that of The Cannon Mountain Aerial Tramway, first of its manufacturing and the recreational business, re

kind in North America, carried 156,349 passengers mains an important use of land and a basic part of

during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1940. The the state's economic structure. As a land use it oc

College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, State cupies one-third of the state's area and as a source

tramway is operated by the State. of employment it is directly responsible for the

The White Mountain National Forest is the support of one-sixth of the state's population. largest single publicly-owned area in New England. Most of the State's soil cover consists of sandy or While not acquired and operated primarily as a stony loam, considered excellent for forest growth,

recreational area, recreational values are a direct but requiring continuous fertilization when used by-product of its existence. New Hampshire is for plowed crops. There are small patches of

ideally suited for both summer and winter sports excellent soll along the river valleys and in old and among the latter skiing has recently taken glacial lake bottoms, but the total is relatively precedence. small.

Dartmouth College, Hanover, is a leading educaThe leading lines of agricultural activity are tional institution, from which many eminent men dairy and poultry products, hay, potatoes, maple have come, among them Daniel Webster. There are products, corn, oats, and apples, the first men- other higher institutions, including the State Unitioned accounting for more than one-half the value versity in Durham, and St. Anselm's College, in of total agricultural production at present, The

Manchester. physical characteristics of the State are such that New Hanipshire was first settled at Dover and most of its area is better fitted for growing forest Portsmouth (1623). This was only three years than for any other purpose. At present, including after the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers and was farm woodland, over three-fourths of the State's seven years before Boston was founded. The first land is forested. These forest resources, used in- settlers were fishermen and farmers and traders. telligently, should continue to be an important Soon four towns, Dover, Exeter, Hampton and factor in the economic life of the State.

Portsmouth, were organized The principal commercial minerals of New New Hampshire is the only New England state Hampshire are, in order of their present im- to cling to the observance of Fast Day (last portance: granite, sand and gravel, clay products, Thursday in April) first proclaimed (1681) when feldspar, and mica; other

materials include garnet. the governor of the province lay dying and ordered quartz, beryl, fluorspar, molybdenum, lead, silver, a day of public fasting and

prayer in view of zinc, copper, gold, and others.

"sundry tokens of divine displeasure."

New Jersey Capital, Trenton-Garden State-State Flower, Violet--Motto: Liberty and Prosperity-Area, 7,836 sq.

mi.; rank, 45th--Population, 4,160,165; rank, 9th. New Jersey is bounded on the north by New York, N. Y., then called Esopus. The length of the on the east by the Atlantic Ocean and New York, road was 107 miles. on the south by the Atlantic and Delaware Bay,

The Delaware Water Gap, a famous landmark, and on the western side by Delaware Bay and is a break in the flat-crested Kittatinny Ridge Pennsylvania. It is mostly low and flat. having elevation of the ridge is 1,496 ft. and of the river

through which the Delaware River flows. The hilly development in the northern end.

287 ft. The mountain rises abruptly 1,200 ft. above New Jersey has extensive water navigation the river. The Palisades, a massive vertical wall facilities, with Delaware Bay and the Delaware

of rock, stands more than 500 ft. above the Hudson River along its western side, the Atlantic on the

River. Winding roads permit ascent from the east and the valuable facilities of New York harbor river's bank to the summit. A large area of the and branches on the northeast.

Palisades lies within Palisades Interstate Park, The State grades high in industrial strength,

maintained cooperatively by New York and New production being varied and well diffused in all Jersey, parts. As a consequence, railway facilities are The birthplaces of Capt. John Lawrence, who highly developed.

immortalized the words "Don't Give Up the Ship." New Jersey shares with New York in the Port of and of James Fenimore Cooper, novelist. stand New York Authority, a body which has wide powers side by side in Burlington. over bridge and tunnel traffic affecting both States: Morristown National Historical Park occupies the and with Pennsylvania in the Delaware River Joint area which was used by George Washington for Commission established to own and operate the camping and hospital purposes every winter (1775Camden-Philadelphia bridge.

1781) and which for two winters (1776-1777) and Petroleum refining and copper smelting are im- (1779-1780) was the main camp site for the conportant industries. The silk mills and textile tinental army. industries, the manufacture of electrical machinery High Point Park, 1,805 ft. above sea level in the and supplies, foundries, machine shops and rolling north west corner of the State, is noted for its views. mills, the paint and chemical plants and the pot- Within the limits of what is now the State of tery works are also of importance. So are the New Jersey. aside from any evidences of the canneries, meat-packing houses, soap and perfume presence of prehistoric man in the "Trenton factories, gold and silver refineries, and the jewelry Gravels," the original inhabitants of the comfactories.

monwealth were Lenni Lenape, or Delaware, InNew Jersey's agriculture is affected most vitally dians. This subdivision of the great Algonkin by the proximity of the immense markets of New family occupied the river valleys of the state. had York City and the fact that its own population made some progress in agriculture and in eleis largely urban. Market gardening has advanced mentary arts, were peaceable but small in numbers, to great magnitude. Chief crops are apples, and at last have become totally extinct in this peaches, tomatoes. asparagus. cranberries, pote- portion of the United States. toes, sweet potatoes, corn, hay.

In its settlement, New Jersey was not an English New Jersey produces minerals abundantly--iron colony. The claims of the Crown, based upon early ore, and about one-fourth of the Nation's supply discovery and various grants, were ignored by two of magnetite, zinc, and clay products,

great commercial nations of Europe -Holland and The educational institutions are important: Sweden. It was not until 1664, practically a hall Princeton University in Princeton is one of the century after the first occupancy of New Jersey by country's foremost. Rutgers College, New Bruns- & white man, that England had more than a slight wick, and Stevens Institute of Technology in influence upon the destinies of the State. Hoboken' are well known, and there are other In settlement, Holland was first to send out colleges of prominence, including the University of planters, under the auspices of the Dutch West Newark and New Jersey College for Women, New India Company. Claiming both the valleys of the Brunswick.

Hudson and the Delaware, by virtue of the exploraAtlantic City, Cape May, Asbury Park. Ocean tions of Hudson and Mey, land was taken up upon Grove, Wildwood, are among the larger sea coast

the banks of the Hudson, Passatc, Hackensack, resorts, attracting hundreds of thousands each

Raritan and smaller streams tributary to New York year.

harbor, as well as at Gloucester upon the Delaware, The State is becoming increasingly popular as

By 1630 these claims were well established by occu& winter resort, its numerous lakes and hills being pancy, and by the creation of a center of local Ideally suited to skiing, skating, ice boating,

Rovernment in what is now New York City. tobogganing and related sports.

Gustavus Adolphus, in his plan to make Sweden The voters of the State adopted (1939) an amend

a world-power, saw the Dutch to be dangerous ment to the constitution to permit horse racing Swedish expedition to settle the valley of the Dela

rivals in America. There was equipped (1638) a with the pari-mutuel system of betting.

ware. What is now the State of Delaware, the New Jersey abounds in points of historic and valley of the Schuylkill and isolated portions of the scenic interest. The Ringwood Iron Works. Ring- west bank of the Delaware River were occupied, wood, the earliest in the country (established 1740) civil and military government was established, and provided much of the Iron products for the Revo- the colony of farmers and traders entered upon a lutionary army and here was forged the great iron brief career of prosperity. The death of Gustavus chain which was stretched across the Hudson river Adolphus, internal dissensions in Sweden, the near West Point to prevent the ascent of British weakness of the Delaware settlements, and the war vessels. The oldest lighthouse in the United constantly increasing power of Holland brought States (erected in 1764) is at Sandy Hook; and the matters to a crisis. oldest highway in North America--the Old Mine New Sweden was conquered (1655) by New Road-still may be seen in Warren county. It was Netherlands, and for nine years the soil of New built (1650) and it originally linked Paquaharry, Jersey was under Dutch control. They were forced near the Delaware Water Gap, and Kingston, (1664) to give up the State to the English.

New Mexico Capital, Santa Fe-Sunshine State, "Land of Enchantment"-State Flower, Yucca-Motto: Crescit

Eundo (We Grow as We Go)--Area, 121,666 sq. mi.; rank, 4th-Population, 531,818; rank, 42nd. New Mexico, in the southwestern part of the and with 100 degrees of heat not infrequent in United States, is bounded on the north by summer, the mean for the year being about 50. Colorado, on the east by Oklahoma and Texas, on

Mineral production includes copper, petroleum the south by Texas and Mexico, and on the west

and coal; also gold, silver, lead, zinc. There is

much granite, sandstone, limestone and marble by Arizona. The Rocky Mountains run north and

quarried. Turquoise is found in four localities; and south through the center; the eastern part is of

traces of platinum are found in the sands. the flatter tableland of which Texas forms also a

The United States Geological Survey estimates part, and in the south are bare, sterile, desolate that the undeveloped coal lands contain 192.000peaks surrounded by arid and semi-arid plains and000,000 tons, and that there are also 33,000,000 tons deserts of which the mirage is an interesting of gypsum. phenomenon. The central western portion is

The State is largely agricultural and principal drained by the Rio Grande, and the eastern dis

crops are corn, wheat, potatoes, grain sorghums

and cotton, tricts by the Pecos River.

All the cereals and vegetables, sugar

beets and much fruit are raised. There are many The climate is dry, stimulating, with annual rain- cattle on the ranges and the annual wool clip is fall of from 12 to 16 inches in different localities, important.

The State University is in Albuquerque; other formations in a cave are due to the fact that they institutions of higher education are New Mexico are saturated with water. If, for any reason, the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, State seepage of water into the cave is stopped, its apCollege, and the New Mexico School of Mines. pearance gradually becomes dull and the surface Socorro. There are two teachers' colleges and slowly assumes a powdered appearance. Such a two junior colleges, one of which is the New Mexi- dry cave is spoken of, in cave parlance, as being co Military Institute in Roswell.

dead. Although it has been the subject of exSanta Fe, after St. Augustine, Fla., is the oldest tensive explorations, the size of the Carlsbad town in the United States and was settled by the Caverns is not yet known. Already many miles of Spanish (1605).

passages and chambers have been explored, and New Mexican pueblo villages are of interest to further mileage is continually being conquered. scientist and tourist alike. The golden age of How far the caverns extend under the Guadalupe pueblo construction began (900 A.D.) and Mountains no one knows. At the present time the flourished for 300 years. Ruins of these com- caverns have three main levels, and there may be munity dwellings, often containing as many as others not yet discovered. The first is at the 7501.200 rooms, may be seen today. šome examples foot level to which visitors are conducted by elevaof pueblo architecture are still standing and tors. (These are the second largest single-lift in daily use by the Indians at Taos and other elevators in the world, being surpassed only by pueblos. The Pueblo Indians evolved a drama, a those of the Empire State Building in New York religion and a system of government so advanced City). Below it is another vast subterranean apartthat they were called savages only because they ment at 900 ftand below that still another st had not developed a written language. They stiu 1.320 ft. At the present time seven miles of lighted hold strange dances and ceremonials, prayers for underground corridors are open to tourists who are rain and thanks for crops, weird rites which at- conducted over government-built trails by rangers. tract the curious from all over the world.

Carlsbad Caverns National Park is open The Aztec National Monument contains an in- | throughout the year. Temperature in the caverns teresting cluster of pre-historic ruins. The large remains stationary at 56 degrees Fahrenheit, beams which support the ceilings were cut and summer and winter. dressed with stone tools, and are interesting Each evening at dusk, except during the winter examples of Stone Age work.

period of hibernation, millions of bats come forth The Great White Sands near Alamogordo are from a cavern 180 ft. below the surface, flying in a almost 100% pure gypsum and even the field mice spiral through the great entrance arch, and streamwear coats as white as ermine on the White Sands, ing off over the rim in a southerly direction, later but rainfall produces strange lakes, sometimes to separate into flocks which disappear in the crimson red. Not far from Alamogordo is the distance for a night's foraging. Beginning about highest golf course in the world, where the sunset, the flight outward lasts about three hours. poorest drive is at least 9,000 ft. above sea level. The bats return before the following dawn. It has

Carlsbad Caverns are openings made by water been estimated that 3,000,000 bats during one in a massive rock known as the Carlsbad lime- night's foray consume a little more than 1112 tons stone. This limestone was formed originally in a of night-flying insects, such as various kinds of shallow inland extension of the ocean, some 200 moths, beetles, flies, and mosquitoes. During the million years ago.

day the bats hang in great clusters high on the The brilliance and translucent appearance of the walls and ceilings of parts of the caverns.

New York Capital, Albany--Empire State, also Excelsior State--State Flower, Rose-Motto: Excelsior (Higher,

More Elevated)-Area, 49,576 sq. mi.; rank, 29th-Population, 13,479,142; rank, ist. New York, the Empire State, since 1320 the most gave the Empire State a primacy in manufacturpopulous in the Union, is bounded on the west and ing and commerce. The state ranks high in the north by Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, and Canada; production of clothing, textiles, foods, sugar reon the east by Vermont, Massachusetts and Con- fining. meat packing. liquors and tobacco print

ing and metal and chemicals; ranks second only to necticut; and on the south by the Atlantic Ocean,

California in grape production and fruit orchards New Jersey and Pennsylvania.

cover many acres. The Dutch discovered the Hudson Valley (1609) New York has about 800 miles of navigable ocean, settled it (1624) and ruled New Netherlands (un- lake and river waterways, the State being penetil 1664). Meanwhile the French discovered Lake trated by the New York State Barge Canal (Erie). Champlain (1609) and laid claim to what is now

State owned and operated, through which there northern and western New York. The English is capacity for the passage annually of 20.000.000 (1664) seized New Netherlands, named it New tons of freight. The canal also connects with Lake York, and after a century of conflict drove out the

Champlain so that inland tonnage may move beFrench (1763). Severed from the British Empire tween New York City, Buffalo, about 500 miles in the War for Independence, New York adopted northwestward on Lake Erie, Oswego, on Lake a State constitution (April 20. 1777). joined the Ontario, the ports on Lake Champlain northward Confederation (1778) as one of the original Thir- So far as Rouses Point at the Canadian border. teen States, and, by ratifying the Constitution and on into the St. Lawrence River, besides to (July 26, 1788) became a member of the United

several interior New York State points on other States. George Washington was inaugurated as

minor canal routes. the first President in New York City (April 30.

New York ranks high in its transportation facil1789).

ities. The Barge Canal connects the Great Lakes After the Revolution the northern, central and

with the Atlantic Ocean at New York City: steam western portion of the State were quickly popu- railroads operate for 8,270 miles within the borlated The completion of the Erie Canal (1825)

ders of New York State; and there is also a netfollowed shortly by the railroad brought an era

work of modern, improved, hard-surfaced highof industrial prosperity, and New York became a

ways. leading center of lumbering (about 1850) and

In the State are Columbia University, New York Albany a thriving market. The industry gradually University, College of the City of New York, Cordeclined and now the State imports large quanti

nell University, Syracuse University, University of ties of lumber.

Rochester, Hamilton College, Union University, New York was originally covered with forests

Colgate University, Buffalo University, St. Lawgreat stands of white pine: red spruce, pine and

rence University, Hobart College, College of St. hemlock in the Adirondacks and Catskills, and

Francis, Fordham University, Rensselaer Polybeech, brick, maple, elm, hickory, chestnut and

technic Institute, and scores of special schools ash in the valleys and on the hills.

suited to every requirement in letters, science, en

gineering, finance, economics, sociology and art. Topographically New York is mountainous in the east and level or hilly in the central and

At West Point, on the Hudson above New York western parts. About half of the boundary is

City, is the United States Military Academy. water. Mount Marcy. 5,344 feet. is the highest

New York as a vacation land possesses various

regions of unsurpassed natural beauty. Recreaelevation. The waters of all the rivers finally drain into the Atlantic. Nearly all geological formations

tional attractions are to be found widely and are present. The chief minerals are salt, iron,

numerously in mountains, seashore, lakes, rivers,

waterfalls, farm lands, and in great cities like New sandstone, limestone, fire clay. marble, granite, York. In addition, the State maintains a splendid slate, gypsum, talc, gas, oil and cement. Industrial revolution and the rise of the fac. Falls, the Thousand Islands, forest preserves,

system of more than 70 State parks. Niagara tory system, augmented by water, steam and Ausable Chasm, the Palisades and Howe's Cav. electric power, and later influenced by the erns are only a few of the points of interest Barge Canal, automobile highways and air routes. that are visited yearly by thousands of natives the Port of Albany and the superior facilities of and guests from other States. the Port of New York, the greatest in the world, Lake George, stretching 32 miles between sky

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