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of major importance. Trieste, Venice, Ancona, Bari apparatus; seeds and fruits; copper: skins and and Brindisi. Trento and Trieste, which formed furs; paper and cardboard. the "Italia Irredenta," were annexed to Italy as Air travel is greatly de$eloped in Italy with the & result of the World War. Fiume, after a bitter aviation companies subsidized by the State. quarrel, was annexed (1924) through the inspira- Divided, dismembered even for centuries, Italy tion and efforts of Gabriel D'Annunzio, Italy's began to take shape as a unity when, following famed poet and soldier. Its annexation was the war of 1859, Lombardy, by the peace of Zurich, acknowledged by Yugo-Slavia (April 5, 1925) in a came under the crown of King Victor Emmanuel treaty which also granted Hungary free port rights II, of Sardinia of the house of Savoy. By plebiscite in Fiume.
(1860) Parma, Modena, the Romagna and Tuscany The climate of Italy is sunny, although northern joined, to be followed at once by Sicily and Naples, Italy has a cold winter; snow is rarely seen in and by The Marches and Umbria. The Italian Naples, and olives, oranges, lemons, figs, cotton Parliament assembled (February, 1861) and and pomegranates flourish in Calabria. The soil (March 17, 1861) declared Victor Emmanuel King is fertile. Italy, though drained before the war of Italy. Mantua and Venetia were added (1866), by emigration, is one of the most densely popu- an outcome of the Austro-Prussian war. The papal lated states in Europe, having a population of 371-2 States were taken possession of by Italian troops (1939to the square mile.
(Sept. 20, 1870) after the withdrawal of the French It is a country of immense interest to the garrison in the Franco-Prussian war (see Index, tourist, with its lively lapdscape and picturesque VATICAN CITY), and by plebiscite (Oct. 2) were anpeople, its masterpieces of ancient, medieval and nexed to the kingdom, thereby rounding out modern art. Here are awe-inspiring works of United Italy. The Papal States were Marches, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael, in Romaqua and Umbria, which were annexed prechurches and galleries that look back through viously. What was occupied in 1870 was the city the centuries. The glory that was ancient Rome of Rome and environments, long known as the may still be seen in the Catacombs and Coliseum. / “Patrimony of St. Peter. St. Peter's Church- a masterpiece of architecture Since the advent of Fascism, the government of and the mecca of Christian pilgrimages for hun- Italy has consisted of a Sovereign, a Senate and a dreds of years—is the largest church in the world; Chamber of Deputies, whose activities have all been and the Vatican, the home of Roman Catholicism, subordinate to the Grand Council of Fascism. (A the largest residence extant.
decree signed by the Grand Council (Oct. 8. 1938) The population is unusually homogeneous. In effective (March, 1939), abolishes the Chamber of pre-war Italy there were about 85,000 of French
Deputies and substitutes a Chamber of Fasces and origin, in the Val d'Aosta, 10,000 Teutonic. There
Corporations composed exclusively of government were about 250,000 German (Austrians) in the
and Fascist party appointees, without benefit of South Tyrol (ceded to Italy in 1919). They are
election Laws passed by the new Chamber are being transferred to Germany according to a
transmitted to Premier Mussolini in his capacity plan by which the evacuation will be completed the Duce of Fascism and head of the State, and by 1941. 81,000 Albanian in Calabria and Sicily,
he submits them to the King for his signature). 29,000 Greek, 43,000 Slav, mostly in Cividale, and
The Senate-whose members are appointed for 12,000 Spanish (Catalans) in Sardinia. In the
life by the King-is composed of princes of the "redeemed" provinces, formerly Austrian, annexed
royal house and persons of fame in science, literaafter the war, there were 215,345 Germans, 326,715
ture or in a pursuit particularly beneficial to the Slovenes, and 141,663 Croats. Rome (1940) had &
nation. The number (1939) was 543. population of 1,338,074.
The Chamber of Deputies--the most democratic The Governments of Italy and of Germany 400 members, elected for five years.
of the Fascist governmental agencies-contained
Candidates reached an accord (Dec. 31, 1939) whereby the German population of
for the Chamber were proposed by the National
former Austrian provinces got the option of remaining in Italy,
Syndicate Confederation" (representing labor and
industry jointly), and by several other associations after accepting Italian citizenship, or of emigrating to the Reich. Or the 229,500 who were present in
of a national character, including the representa. the area, 166,488 decided in favor of emigration;
tives of the judiciary. Candidates were presented
to the electorate for acceptance or rejection only 27.712 preferred to remain in Italy as Italian
after the Grand Council had first approved of them, citizens; and 35,300 did not turn in a ballot and therefore, according to the terms of the agreement,
The Grand Council of Fascism is composed of acquired Italian nationality. The exodus, which is
the original leaders of the Black Shirt party,
ministers and other high dignitaries of the governstill under way. is taking place at the rate of
ment, and of an undetermined number of members 200/300 individuals per day and, according to the prearranged schedule, should be completed by years. The Council co-ordinates the work of the
appointed by the Premier for a term of three December, 1942.
Sovereign, the Senate and the Chamber, and has The religion of the great majority is Roman
absolute power in questions of a constitutional Catholic, the census of 1936 returning 41,017,369 Catholics (99.6%), 83,618 Protestant, 47,825 Jews.
The King of Italy is Victor Emmanuel III (born Italy has 26 universities, with ten of them dating
Nov. 11, 1869), who succeeded his father. King from the 13th century or the first years of the 14th.
Humbert I (July 29, 1900). He married Helena, Famous among these are Bologna (founded 1200); daughter of Nicholas, King of Montenegro (Oct. Genoa (1243); Naples (1224); Padua (1222); Pisa
24. 1896). The Crown Prince, Humbert. Prince of (1338); Rome (1303), and Turin (1404). Primary
Piedmont (born Sept. 15. 1904), and was married education is compulsory between the ages of six and
(Jan. 8. 1930) to Princess Maria Jose of Belgium 14. Much progress has been made in combating
(born Aug. 4, 1906). They have a daughter, PrinIlliteracy, especially in Calabria and other southern cess Maria Pia, (born Sept. 24, 1934), and a son, provinces.
Victor-Emmanuel, Prince of Naples (born Feb. 13, Agriculture is the chief industry, with an area 1937), a daughter, Maria Gabriella (born Feb. 24, (1939) comprising 70,548,131 acres with 8,756,848 1940). engaged in it (1936). The principal crops are The daughters of the King and Queen of Italy wheat, barley, oats, rye, corn, rice, beans, potatoes, are-Princess Yolanda (born June 1, 1901), married sugar beets, grapes and olives... Dairy farming and (April 9, 1923) Capt. Count Carlo Calvi di Bergolo; cheese making are important in Northern Italy.
Princess Maialda (born Nov. 19, 1902), married Italy is not rich in mineral deposits. and is Prince Philip of Hesse (Sept. 23. 1925): Princess especially lacking in coal, although she is a large Giovanna (born Nov. 13. 1907), married (Oct. 25, producer of sulphur, chiefly in the volcanic regions 1930) King Boris III of Bulgaria; and Princess of Sicily. Other minerals are iron, manganese, Marie (born Dec, 26, 1914), married (Jan. 23, 1939) mercury, lead, zino, antimony and bauxite.
Prince Louis of Bourbon-Parma, The largest and most important industry, aside The Italian Cabinet follows: from agriculture, is the manufacture of textiles. Prime Minister, Chief of the Government and Silk culture is carried on extensively in Lombardy. Piedmont and Venetia. Other principal manufac
Minister of the Interior, of War, of the Navy, of
the Air and Justice--Benito Mussolini. tures are chemicals (sulphuric acid, superphos- Minister of State Alfred Baelolio. phate and copper phosphate); sugar; cheese, and Minister of Italian Africa, Attilio Teruzzi. macaroni.
Foreign Affairs, Count Galeazzo Ciano di CorIt is estimated that Italy has water power sites tellazzo. that would yield 9,000,000 horsepower, but only Corporations, Renato Ricci. one half of this has been harnessed.
National Education, Giuseppe Bottal. Italy's principal exports in the order of their monetary value are-vegetables and fruit: cotton;
Agriculture and Forests, Guiseppe Tassinari.
Finance, Count Paolo Thaon di Revel. vehicles: artificial silk: cereals and roots: wool and Justice, Count Dino Grandi. hair; hemp, linen and jute: stones. earths and Communications, Giovanni Host Venturi. minerals; silk; machines and apparatus: dairy Popular Culture, Alessandro Pavolini. products: Iron and steel. Imports, in order, are- Public Works, Giuseppe Gorla. stones, earths and minerals; cereals, roots; mineral Trade and International Payments, Raffael Ricolls; tron and steel; wool and hair; machines and cardi.
Minister-Secretary of Fascist Party, Adelchi The Fascist party membership (as of Oct. 28, Serena.
1939) follows: Bottai, Ciano, Gorla, Grandi, Farinacci, Ricci Fasces (Fasce di combattimento) 2,633,514. Riccardi, di Revel and Pavolini were called to Women groups (Fasci Femminili) 774,181. active war duty (1940).
University Group (Gruppi Universitari) 105,883. Four Under Secretaries of State were named to Youth Organizations (Gioventù Italiana del Litcarry on the work of superiors or predecessors torio) 7,891,547, divided as follows: called to the front. The appointees named for the duration of the war are:
BOYS Public Works, Pio Calletti: Finance, Pietro Lis- 4-5 Figli della Lupa, 1,546,389. sia; Education, Emilio Bodrero: Trade and Inter- 6-14 Balilla, 1,746,560. national Payments, Salvatore Gatti. Bodrero shares 14-18 Avanguardisti, 906,785. the Education post with Riccardo del Guidice.
18-21 Giovani Fascisti, 1,176,798. The original Fascisti--called Black Shirts because
GIRLS of their garb--were a group of ex-soldiers (150 in Piccole Italiane, 1,622,766. number) organized (March 23, 1919) into an asso- Giovani Italiane, 441,254. ciation against Communism and Socialism by Benito Giovani Fasciste, 450,995. Mussolini, himself an ex-Socialist and former
The teachers in all Italian schools, both men newspaper editor, who had fought and been and women, are ordered to wear the uniform of wounded in the World War. The organization grew officers of either the Balilla or the Fascist militia. in numbers and power until (Oct. 24, 1922), fol- In secondary schools and colleges, army officers in lowing a general strike (Aug. 22, 1922) and chaotic
uniform now occupy the platforms of teachers durconditions in the capital, it marched on Rome and ing the period of compulsory military courses in a bloodless revolution took over the government (military history. military mathematics, war at the invitation of the King.
geography and tactics and manoeuvres) prescribed As leader of the Fascisti and head of the gov- by a decree (Sept. 18, 1934). No student can be ernment. Mussolini. the son of a poor Socialist promoted or graduated unless he has satisfactorily blacksmith and school teacher mother has acquired completed his military course. dictatorial powers over the life of the country. Military service is compulsory between the ages The Fascist party exercises virtual control over of 18 and 55. The normal period of training serevery private and public activity of the nation. vice in all branches is 18 months, after which the Industry. labor, agriculture, commerce, the pro- recruits are transferred to the reserve where they fessions, the arts, the press-all are controlled by remain until 55. Military expenditures (1941-1942) the Fascisti.
are estimated at 12,210, 400,000 lire for all three Under the terms of a decree issued by the Fascist services. Grand Council (Oct. 6. 1938) no Italian is per- The monetary unit is the lira with an average mitted to marry a Jew, whether or not the Jew is value of $.0526. a citizen of Italy, and no Italian is allowed to The budget (1941-1942) estimates receipts of marry & foreigner unless the marriage is specifically 31,082,400,000 lire and expenditures of 39,876,500,approved by the Ministry of Interior Affairs.
ERITREA Italy's colonial venture in Africa began (1870) | Irrigation is necessary to supplement rainfall for when the port of Assab. in the extreme southern the crops, and the soil is poor. Agriculture and part of Eritrea, was purchased. Lagging interest
stock raising are the chief industries. There is a was revived (1885), when the colonial project was
railroad 75 miles long connecting the seaport
Massawa (population. 12,277) with the capital, vigorously pushed. An effort to establish a pro
Asmara (altitude 7,765 ft.). thence 65 miles to tectorate over Abyssinia (now called Ethiopia) was
Cheren, thence 53 miles to Agordat. It is being made in (1889) but was upset by King Menelek,
constructed to Tessenei to open up a cotton-growing who, with an army of 80,000, annihilated a force district. Gold is mined in Hamassen and petroleum of 12.000 Italians at the Battle of Adowa (1896). is found but there has been as yet no development. Eritrea was constituted a colony (1890).
The monetary unit is the Italian lira. Eritrea stretches for 670 miles along the African Italian Somaliland (area, 194,000 square miles; coast of the Red Sea from Cape Kasar to Cape population, (est. 1936) 1,300,000) extends along Dumereh. To the west it is bordered by the the Indian Ocean from the Gulf of Aden to the Soudan, on the south by Ethiopia, and French Juba River. The coastline extending in a northSomaliland, a small section of which bordering on east-southwest direction, is 1,100 miles long, with the Gulf of Eden was transferred to Italy by France no indentation of importance. (1935) when an interest in the railroad from Italian Somaliland was occupied by British Djibouti to Addis Ababa was also transferred to Colonial forces (April, 1940). her. The total area (1931) was 15,754 square miles Italian Somaliland is the source of half the and the population 600,573, including 4,188 Italians. world's supply of incense. Other exports are oil, The Italian government (June 1, 1936) transferred gum, hides, kapok, resin, and ivory. The principal the districts of Tigry (Tigrat). Danakilland (Dan- imports are cottons, sugar, rice, tea, coffee, iron, calia) and Haussa (Aussa), all formerly a part of machinery and timber. The Italian lira is the Ethiopia, to Eritrea.
monetary unit. The budget (1935-36) showed reEritrea was occupied by British Colonial Forces ceipts of 70,750,000 lire, including a contribution (April, 1940)
of 47,190,00 from the Italian Government: exThe lowlands along the coast are hot and
penditures were 70,750,000, of which 29,960,000 demalarial, but the uplands are cool, sometimes cold. I frayed military expenses.
(Libia Italiana) Italian Libya in North Africa extends along the The prevailing religion is Mohammedan, and Mediterranean Sea from Egypt on the East to Arabic is generally spoken. Tunis (French) and Algeria on the West. On the
The country is rather barren, but has date palm south Libya extends to Algeria, to French West orchards, olive groves, lemon, almond and fig trees, Africa and the Soudan. Libya for administrative and vineyards. Other products include tobacco. and military purposes is divided into four prov- inatting. carpets. leather articles, and fabrics eminces (Tripoli, Misurata, Benghazi and Derne and broidered with gold and silver. into a military territory in the South having juris- The Italian lira is the monetary unit. Governdiction over the southern sections of the four mental receipts and expenditures (1939-1940) were provinces. The area of the territory is estimated balanced at 600.115,000. at 679,358 square miles with a population (1939) of Fourteen Aegean Isles were occupied by Italy 888,401. The capitals are Tripoll and Benghazi. during the war of 1912 with Turkey and though
Tripoli, formerly one of the Barbary States and claimed by Greece have been retained by Italy. independent (since 1714) was reconquered by Tur- Rhodes has been fortified. The area is 1,035 square key (1835). During the Turko-Italian war (1911- miles, and population 140,848. Rhodes (popula12) Italy proclaimed the annexation of Tripoli, tion, 56,754) is the capital. It is heavily fortified which was recognized by the great powers in the and was made in 1935 a hospital and munitions Treaty of Ouchy (Oct. 18, 1912). The oasis of center. Jarabub, on the eastern side of Cirenaica, was Tientsin, an Italian concession (since June 7. ceded to Italy by Egypt (1926).
1902) lies on the left bank of Hai-Ho and consists The legislative power is reserved to Rome. and of about 130 acres with a population (1936) of governors have purely administrative functions. 7,953 (Chinese, 7,411; Italians, 358; other Euroun courts have final jurisdiction.
(NIPPON) Capital, Tokio-Area, 148,756 square miles-Population (est. 1939), 72,875,800 The island empire of Japan lies in the north / wool, wrought iron, mineral oil, machinery, beans, Pacific Ocean off the coast of China and Siberia crude rubber, wood. iron ore and coal. Exports from 21° 46' north latitude, the southern point of comprise, in order, cotton tissues, raw silk, rayon Formost (Taiwan), due east of Hong Kong, to 50° cloth, machinery, canned goods, silk tissues, 55' north latitude. the last of the Kurile Islands. knitted goods. potteries, wrought iron, cotton
yarns, toys and vegetable oil. a few miles south of Kamchatka. It includes also
Japan's trade (1939) was distributed among the southern half of the island of Sakhalin, and
these nations in the following order: Importsthe ancient Kingdom of Korea (annexed Aug. 22,
United States, Manchukuo, British India, China 1910) on the mainland. Japan also holds the Kwantung peninsula (Port Arthur and Dairen) China, British India, and Netherlands Indies.
and Germany. Exports-Manchukuo. United States on & 99-year lease, and has the mandate for the
There are 67 ports open to foreign trade, the Marshall, Caroline. Ladrone and Pelew Islands,
most important being Yokohama, Kobe and Osaka former German possessions in the Pacific.
on the Pacific Coast of the main island, and Nigata The southernmost island is subtropical: the on the Japan Sea Coast, the port of trans-shipment northernmost subarctic. Were the empire stretched for Vladivostok, out in the Atlantic of the coast of the United
The monetary unit is the yen with an average States at the same latitudes, Formosa would lie value of $.2344. across Cuba and Southern Florida. Tokio would The budget (1941-1942), including war expendibe due east of Norfolk, Hakodate due east of New tures. is 13.875.000,000 yen, of which 7,574.000,000 York, and Sakhalin would be athwart Newfound. yen must be borrowed. The extraordinary war land with the northernmost island, Paramushir. expenditures, including the "affair in China," is off Labrador. The Japanese Empire has a total area of 260,644
2,241,000,000 yen over the preceding fiscal year. square miles and a population (est. 1940) of 105.- The cabinet, at a special meeting (July 12, 1941) 226. 101.
decided on an extension of government control over While nominally an independent State. Man finance, industry, production and distribution in chukuo (formerly Manchuria, & Chinese province) line with the wartime planned economy. A capital is in reality a Japanese possession with Nipponese mobilization plan is to be formulated each year on advisers in practical control of the government. the "composite basis of the total production of The Sino-Japanese conflict has brought other large the nation's economy." Available capital is to be sections of China under Japanese tutelage.
allocated "rationally under government control. The Japanese coast is deeply indented, its coast Japan put herself on a full economic war footing line measuring 17.150 miles. Few places in Japan (Aug. 11, 1941) by invoking the terms of the are far removed from the mountains or really dis- general mobilization act of 1938. This act provides tant from the sea. The northern islands are a con- a parallel in an economic sense, of military tinuation of the Russian Karasuto chain running mobilization. It confers on the Government undown through Yezo and the mainland. The con- limited power to draft man power for industry and tinuation of the Kuentin mountain range of China to draft all economic resources. The act virtually appears in the southern islands, the ranges meet- permits all constitutional checks on executive ing in the grand Japanese Alps. In the vast trans- action to be set aside. verse fissure crossing the mainland from the Sea
The government of Japan rests in an Emperor of Japan to the Paciñc rises a group of volcanoes, and an Imperial Diet consisting of a House of mostly extinct or dormant, with the majestic sacred Peers and a House of Representatives. There are mountain Fujiyama lifting its white cone 60 miles 404 members of the House of Peers composed of west of Tokio to an altitude of 12, 425 ft. The princes, marquises, counts, viscounts, barons and earthquake zone-where the average is said to be persons of great distinction or wealth. The 466 four slight ones a day, with serious ones every six members of the House of Representatives are or seven years has its greatest center along the elected by direct suffrage for terms of four years. Pacific Coast near the Bay of Tokio.
The Emperor exercises complete executive power Tokio (1939) had an estimated population of with the advice and assistance of Cabinet Ministers 7,094,600. The city absorbed (Oct. 1, 1932) 82 appointed by him and responsible to him, and (in suburban boroughs and villages, increasing its area important matters of State) with the help of a 214 square miles (137,190 acres), about the size Privy Council. The Emperor exercises legislative of Chicago.
power with the consent of the Imperial Diet. He Separating the islands of Shikoku and Kiushiu
may declare war, conclude peace and consummate from the mainland is the famous Inland Sea, open- treaties; and give sanction to legislation enacted ing both into the Sea of Japan and the Pacific. by the Houses of the Diet, in either of which it It is 255 miles long and 56 wide, with a coast line may originate, and he may dissolve. prorogue, open of 700 miles and a surface expanse of 1.325 square and close the Diet miies.
The Emperor is Hirohito (the 124th of his line, Heavy snowfalls are frequent on the Japan Sea
born April 29, 1901). He succeeded his father, slopes of the mountains of Yezo, while the Pacific Yoshihito (Dec, 26, 1926): was crowned (Nov. 10-14. side, by which flows the Japan Current. enjoys
1928): constituted Regent (Nov. 25. 1921) because pleasing winter weather. There is an abundant of his father's ill health; was married (Jan. 26. rainfall. The streams are short, swift and often
1924) to Princess Nagako Kuni. The Crown Prince unruly, of little value for transportation, yet offer - is Akihito Tsugu No Miya (born Dec. 23, 1933). ing a vast but as yet little developed supply of
Other children are Princess Shigeko (born Dec. 6, hydroelectric power.
1925), Princess Kazuko (born Sept. 30, 1929), PrinMyriads of waterfalls add their charm to the
cess Atsuko (born March 7, 1931). Princess Masamagnificent scenery. The “Splendor of the Sun"
hito (born Nov. 28, 1935). A daughter, the sixth at Nikko makes an unbroken plunge of 350 ft. child, was born (March 2, 1939) and christened There are a thousand mineral springs.
Takako Suganomiya (pure and noble princess). Three-fourths of the mountain land is un
She is known as Princess Suga. cultivable, and the soil of the rest is only moder
The Emperor has three brothers-Prince Yasuately fertile. yet by intensive cultivation, hard work nito Chicibu (born June 25. 1902), married Miss and great frugality more than half the people wrest Setsu Matsudarra (Sept. 28, 1929); Prince Nobutheir living from the soil. There is a rich supply
hito Takamatsu (born Jan. 3, 1905), married Prinof fish of many kinds in the sea, and fish is a
cess Kikuko Tokugawa, granddaughter of the last staple diet.
of the Shogun of Japan (Feb. 4, 1930), and Prince About three-fifths of the arable land is cultivated
Takahito (born Dec. 2, 1915). by small peasant proprietors, the rest by tenants.
The succession to the throne is fixed by Imperial More than half the land is used for growing rice, the chief food of the country. Wheat, barley, rye,
House Law upon the male descendants; in case of
failure of direct descendants, the throne passes tobacco, tea, beans, peaches. pears, apples, grapes.
to the nearest prince and his descendants. persimmons and mandarins are also produced. Mulberry trees are widely grown, and the annual The political amhliation of the members of the output of silk is huge (three-fourths of the world's Diet (elected April 30, 1937) is-Minselto, 179; Seltotal).
country possesses a variety of yukai, 175; Labor, 36: Independents. 29: Showakai. minerals including gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc,
18: Kokumindome, 11; other groups, 18. iron, chromite, white arsenic, coal, sulphur, salt The Cabinet (organized July 16, 1941) follows: and petroleum.
Premier-Prince Fuminaro Konoye. After agriculture and the making of silk. the Foreign and Overseas Affairs-Vice Admiral principal industries are the manufacture of
Toyoda. woollens, cottons, paper, pottery, vegetable oil, War--Lieut. Gen. Eiki Tojo. leather and matting. The chief imports in the Navy--Admiral Koshiro Oikawa. order of their monetary value are--raw cotton, Home-Harumichi Tanabe.
Commerce and Industry-Vice Admiral Masazo (5) The proposed national organization must be Sakonji.
of a permanent nature. Communications and RailwaysShozo Murata. Japan has no State religion and all faiths are Welfare Lieut. Gen. Chikahiko Koizumi.
tolerated. The principal forms of religion are Finance Masatsune Ogura.
Shintoism with 13 sects and Buddhism with 12
sects. There are 110,431 Shinto shrines, 106,634 Education--Kunihiko Hashida.
Buddhist temples and 2,104 Christian Churches. Agriculture and Forestry-Hiroyasu Ino.
The Roman Catholics have an archbishop and Justice-Michiyo Iwahura.
three suffragan bishops. Ministers Without Portfolio Baron Kiichiro Elementary education is compulsory. There are Hiranuma, Lieut. Gen. Helsuke Yanagawa, Major six imperial universities, as follows-Tokio, Gen. Teiichi Suzuki.
(founded 1877), Kyoto ((1897), Tohoku at Sendai As scion of one of Japan's five noblest houses. (1907), Kyusho at Fukuoka (1910). Hokkaido at Prince Konoye is exempt from personal criticism Sapporo (1918) and Osaka (1931). Illiteracy is sometimes directed at premiers.
only 10% in the nation. English is the language Prince Konoye, in an address (Aug. 22, 1940) at
of commerce and a required study in the high the first session of the Prepatory Committee, an
schools. nounced a plan for a new national structure. His
Western athletic games have become popular and principal points follow:
Japanese baseball players, swimmers and tennis (1) The basis of the proposed new national
players have made reputations all over the world. structure is the reorganization of the people with 10, 1931) in a Tokio park.
A stadium with seats for 65,000 was opened (May the object of the whole nation assisting the Throne in the conduct of State affairs.
Muitary service is compulsory and universal, (2) There must be both & vertical and horizontal
liability beginning at the age of 17, though active unification of economy and culture on a nation
service commences at 20. Conscripts are divided
into two clasess--the "fit" and the absolutely fit." wide scale. (3) There must be provision for the people to
Actual service is for two years with five years and participate in the establishment
four months in first line of reserve and 12 years of national
and eight months in second line reserve and home policies.
defense. Liability continues to the age of 40. (4)
The movement for the proposed national Parliament passed (March 26, 1940) a eugenics reorganization cannot be a so-called political move- bill providing for the compulsory sterilization of ment, and it must. therefore, not attempt to find mentally deranged and physically unfit persons, expression in a single party for the nation.
including lepers. KOREA
(Chosen) Korea is an ancient kingdom with a history ex- The country is mountainous, especially in the tending back to the 12th century B. C., and known north, where the forests are of great value, and in recent centuries as the “Hermit Kingdom." It there is much mineral wealth awaiting_developoccupies & peninsula in northeastern Asia dividing ment. The climate is dry and bracing. The multhe Yellow Sea from the Sea of Japan. The bound berry tree thrives, 60.000 acres being planted with aries on the mainland are the Yalu River and the by the Japanese and the quality of the cocoons im
them. Silkworm culture has been much encouraged Tamean Rivers. Its coastline is more than 6,000 proved. Some 786,000 families are engaged in the miles long. Southern Manchuria lies along its industry. Rice is an important crop. The cultiva. northwest frontier for 500 miles and it touches tion of tobacco is also fostered. Barley, wheat and Siberia for a few miles, a scant 100 miles from beans also are grown, Vladivostok. in the extreme northeast. Situated There has been considerable development of cotbetween that Russian port and Port Arthur, then ton spinning, cotton, silk and rayon weaving indusa Russian leasehold and subject to diplomatic tries in recent years. Fertilizer and chemical control and penetration by Russia, Korea became to works have been developed; also cement, paper, Japan "a dagger pointed at her heart"-the chief pottery, electric bulbs and enamelled ironwares. immediate cause of the Russo-Japanese War of Mining concessions covering 270,000 acres, mostly 1904-1905. After this was the "complete inde- gold-bearing, which had been in the hands of about pendence of Korea that had been recognized in 15 foreign corporations (four American) and inine treaty following Sino-Japanese War of 1894- dividuals (four Americans) before annexation are 1895 (which also was for the control of Korea) respected, but the law of April 1, 1916, prohibits gave way to a recognition by Russia of Japan's foreigners from acquiring mining rights Silver, paramount interest in Korea. Japan continued her zinc. copper, lead, iron, tungsten, graphite, anmilitary occupation of the country, and (Aug. 22, thracite coal and kaolin are present. 1910), annexed Korea outright.
Trade is chiefly with Japan. The principal imThe area of Korea is 85,246 square miles; the ports are cotton goods. iron, machinery, silk and population (1939) was 22,633,857.
rayon, timber, mineral oil millet, sugar, paper, Confucianism. Buddhism and Shintoism are the flour. fertilizers and coal. The main exports are chief religions and Christianity has grown greatly. rice, beans, copper, iron and silk. Many modern schools have been established by the The monetary unit is the Japanese yen. GovernJapanese. There is a university in Seoul (Keijo),ment revenue (1940-1941) is estimated at 874,745 the capital.
yen and expenditures 873,095.
KWANTUNG Kwantung is the southern part of the Liaotung ( Kwantung by Imperial Ordinance (April 12, 1919) peninsula, the southernmost portion of Manchuria, has a civil government superseding the former which has the Bay of Korea on the east. the military government. Yellow Sea to the south and the Liaotung Gulf on Darien is the chief seaport of Manchuria and the west. Japan has taken it as spoils of war from the southern terminus of the South Manchurian China by the Treaty of Shimonoseki but was forced Railroad, which connects with the Peiping and to turn it back by diplomatic pressure from Russia, Korean lines at Mukden and with the TransGermany and France. Russia then leased it for 25 Siberian at Changchun, now Hsinching. years from China, and constructed the strongly Manufactured salt is the chief product of the fortified city of Port Arthur and the nearby com- territory, and the salt deposits are enormous. mercial ice-free port of Dalny (now Darien). the Principal agricultural products are corn, millet, capital. The area is 1,438 square miles; the popu- beans, wheat, buckwheat, rice, tobacco and hemp. lation (Oct. 1. 1935). 1.656,726.
Trade is mostly with Japan and China, about 40% Japan took Port Arthur by siege (1905), and at with the former and 25 with the latter.
A the close of the Russo-Japanese War took over the Japanese governor rules the territory. lease in the Treaty of Portsmouth (1905). The lease The budget (1938-1939) is estimated to balance was extended (May, 1915) to 99 years by China. at 23,021.024 yen.
(Taiwan) Formosa is an island lying between the Philip- crops a year. The temperature rarely falls below pines on the south and Japan to the north, with
96° F. Rain is abundant. The area is 13.880 square the China Sea on the west and the Pacific Ocean
miles; the population (Oct. 1, 1935), 5,212,426.
Taihcku is the capital. on the east. A range of mountains from north to
Besides rice, the principal agricultural products south forms the backbone of the island (highest
are tea, sugar, sweet potatoes, ramie, jute, turmeric peak, Mt. Niitaka, 14.500 ft.); the eastern half is and camphor. Minerals include gold, silver, copexceedingly steep and craggy, but the western slope per and coal. Trade is mainly with Japan. i fiat, fertile and well cultivated, yielding two rice Formosa was ceded by China (1895) after the
Sino-Japanese War and Japan has made it a source 439, and the Caroline Islands, population, 30,915. of profit. Japanese colonists were encouraged. The chief islands in the group are Ponape, Yap and schools established, rallroads built, telegraph and Parao. Each group has a language of its own. telephone lines laid, harbors improved, industries The principal resources are phosphorous ores aided and much done in public works. The (chiefly in the Carolines), cocoanut and copra. The aborigines, who in the north are savage head- seat of government is in Paro (Palaou) in the hunters, gave much trouble, and the government Carolines (1910) began a thorough subjugation program.
Japan opened a commercial air service from The monetary unit is the Japanese yen. The Yokahoma to Palaou in the South Sea mandated governmental budget (1938-1939) was estimated to Islands (April 6, 1939). The distance is 2.595 balance at 183,014,971 yen.
miles, with a halt at Saipan. The flying time is The Pescadores (Pheng-hu), a group of islands approximately 15 hours. with an area of 50 square miles and a population The budget (1937-1938) was estimated to balance of about 60,000, are between Taiwan and the coast at 8,682,482 yen. of China, by whom they were ceded to Japan in The Spratly Islands, 7 in number and consisting 1895 The islands are under the government of of 247 acres of coral reefs in the South China Sea, Taiwan.
700 miles southwest of Manila, P. I., were annexed Japanese Sakhalin (Karafuto) is the southern by Japan (March 31, 1939). The annexation was half of the island of that name. below the 50th extended (Apri: 18) when Japan included the enparallel, which was ceded by Russia (Oct. tire group of reefs and islets in the South China 1905) in the Treaty of Portsmouth. The area is Sea, 300 miles long, in her plans. The islands are 13,930 square miles, and the population, (Oct. 1, about 700 miles south of Hainan, an important 1935) was 331,949. The country is mountainous, and island off the coast of French-Indo China, 500 primeval forests cover 70% of the land, Coal output miles west of the northern Philippines. The is considerable. Fisheries are important. In an islands are about 300 miles from French-Indo effort to colonize the island. 9.988 families, number. China, 350 miles southward from British Sarawak ing 42.683 persons, have been placed on the land. and 600 miles from the great British naval base at
The budget (1939) was balanced at 46,747,712 Singapore. yen.
France occupied the islands (1933), making the Japanese Mandates in the Pacific extend for first formal claim to their ownership since dis1.200 miles north from the equator and for about covery (1867). Previously Britain had regarded 2.500 miles from east to west. The total area of the islands as British. Japan protested, implying land in this immense expanse of sea is only 829 a claim to sovereignty because Japanese traders square miles. The islands, formerly German posses- had tried to exploit the phosphate deposits (1925), sions. number 623: the groups are the Marianne. The islands have no great coinmercial value but or Ladrone (except Guam, U. S.), population, 44,- might be useful as an observation station in a Far 205 (1935); the Marshall Islands, population, 10.- Eastern war or as a ship or air base.
Liberia Capital, Monrovia--Area, 45,000 square miles—Population (est.), 1,500,000 Liberia lies on the southwest (Guinea) coast of eight years; a Senate of eight, elected for six years, Africa between Sierra Leone (British) on the west
and a House of Representatives of fifteen, elected and the French colony of the Ivory Coast on the
for four years. The President is Edwin J. Barclay: east, with a coast line on the South Atlantic of
he was elected (May, 1931) for a four-year term; about 350 miles. It extends inland 75 to 150 miles.
re-elected (May 7, 1935) for an eight-year term, Most of the country is covered with tropical forests, bearing arms are liable to military service. The
All citizens from 16 to 50 years and capable of rich in timber and oil nuts but lacking in transpor- militia numbers approximately 4,000 with a border tation. There were estimated (1937) to be 10,000,- force of 750. 000 rubber trees. There are no railroads but 180 The control of customs (since 1912) has been in miles of motor road can carry light traffic.
the hands of the General Receiver and Financial The population is entirely of the African race; Adviser, designated by the United States. Liberian about 100,000 of the dwellers along the coast may mints make silver and copper pieces although tne be considered civilized. The number of American money chiefly used is British silver. Official acNegroes is estimated at 20.000. Liberia was founded counts are kept in dollars and cents; commercial (1822) when a settlement was made at Monrovia accounts in British currency. by Negro freedmen from the United States with the The budget (1941), estimated revenues and exassistance of American colonization societies. It penditures balancing at $674,800. was declared a republic (July 26, 1847). Its Con- Coffee, rubber, oil, nuts, raffia, ivory and ginger stitution is modelled on that of the United States. are the chief exports: and textiles, hardware, glass Electors must be of Negro blood and owners of land. and earthenware, tobacco, spirits, rice and foodThe Government rests with a President elected for stuffs are the principal imports.
Liechtenstein Capital, Vaduz-Area, 65 square miles--Population (est. 1938) 12,000 Liechtenstein is on the Upper Rhine between Franz I, on the latter's abdication (March 30, 1938). Austria and Switzerland. It was (until 1866) a The ruler of Liechtenstein makes an annual member of the German Confederation. It was contribution to the public treasury (about $110.000 practically a dependency of Austria until the Diet a year). The country is virtually taxless, not only declared its complete independence (Nov. 7. 1918). by reason of the ruler's contribution but through By treaty with Switzerland (1920) that country ad- the fact that, because they are tax-exempt, large ministers its posts and telegraphs and by treaty international corporations set up headquarters (March 29, 1923) it was incorporated in the Swiss there, pay nominal fees for the privilege and escape customs territory. Its foreign interests are rep- the taxes in their own countries, resented by Switzerland.
Liechtenstein has no military forces. Owing to The people are agricultural; stock raising is an oversight in the drafting of the treaties after highly developed. The monarchy is hereditary. By the War of 1870, Liechtenstein is still technically the Constitution (1921) legislative powers rest at war with Prussia, although she managed to in & Diet of 15 members, elected for four years remain out of the World War by direct vote, on a basis of universal suffrage and The country is predominantly Catholic. proportional representation. The reigning prince is Government revenues (1940-1941) are estimated Franz Joseph II. He succeeded his uncle, Prince at 1,937,000 francs, expenditures 1,918,705.
Luxemburg Capital, Luxemburg-Area, 999 square miles_Population (1938) 301.000 Luxemburg is a European Grand Duchy. four- As a Grand Duchy Luxemburg was governed fifths the size of Rhode Island, bounded by Ger- under a Constitution (1868), modified (1919). many on the east, Belgium on the west. and Legislative power rested with a Chamber of DepuFrance on the south. Its integrity and neutrality ties elected by universal suffrage with executive were guaranteed by the Treaty of London (May 11, power held by a Minister of State and a Cabinet 1867), having been previously (since 1815) a part of of four or five ministers. As a Grand Duchy the Germanic Confederation. The population is Luxemburg was ruled by Grand Duchess Charalmost entirely Roman Catholic. Education is lotte (born Jan 23, 1896), who succeeded on the compulsory between 6 and 13. The nation has abdication of her sister, Marie Adelaide (Jan. 9, several colleges and higher institutions of learning. 1919) and was married (Nov. 6. 1919) to Prince