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wide on the outer side of each roadway: The elevated Gen. Wilhelm Keitel to chief of staff and average total width of a Reich motor road is Col. Gen. Walther von Brauchitsch to Commander 7872 it.

in Chief of the Army. Entering and leaving the roads can be done Conscription of all German youth between the only at certain points which are provided at ages of 10 and 18 for service in the Hitler Youth average intervals of from 1214 to 1513 miles. At was decreed (April 5, 1939) by Chancellor Hitler. these points of entry it is also possible to turn By this decree the Hitler Youth gets exclusive by using special bridges.

charge of the "physical, mental and moral educaBy the end of 1938 approximately 2,000 miles of tion of the entire German youth within the Reich these roads were completed and more were under territory outside of the home and school." The construction. It is planned to add 750 miles of decree abrogates voluntary membership and imnew roads each year. The roads are used in the plements the Hitler Youth Law (Dec. 1, 1936) movement of troops throughout the Reich.

which declared "the entire German youth within National motor roads construction and mainte- the territory of the Reich is comprised in the nance (1939) involved an expenditure of 1,120,- Hitler Youth." The principle of voluntary mem800,000 marks, an increase of 152,000,000 marks bership was in force then. There were within the over the preceding year. Construction costs proper confines of the Reich (1939) approximately 11,(1939) were 921,300,000 marks with contingent ex- 750,000 boys and girls between the ages of 10 and penditures set at 199,500,000 marks.

18 and the Hitler Youth membership was given as The Lufthansa airlines announced (Jan. 25. 7.000.000. As a result of the new decree all Ger1941) that their planes flew approximately 3,230.000 man males, excluding the unworthy and unft. miles, carrying 40,000 passengers in 1940. Baggage begin compulsory service on reaching 10 and are carried was 440 tons, an increase of 50 per cent

discharged only on death. From the Hitler Youth over 1939, and freight transported was estimated they go to the Labor Service, then to the army. at 900 tons, an increase of 20 per cent. Mail carried

then into the armed reserve and Reich Warriors decreased to 1.000 tons.

League, in all of which they are under constant Lufthansa extended its air routes (1941) to touch supervision. ten more foreign countries and to furnish air con- Facing the Maginot Line of France, Germany nections with 15.

has constructed a similar series of fortifications Agriculture is a highly specialized industry al- along the eastern shore of the Rhine from Switzerthough the ground is not naturally fertile and land to Luxemburg. The line, originally known as requires much artificial fertilizer. Some of the the Siegfried Line and West Wall and later more important crops are wheat, rye,

barley, oats, changed to "Limes Germanicus" by Hitler, is built potatoes, sugar beets and hay. Other commer

of steel and concrete with tank traps with pillcial products are tobacco, grapes, hops, apples,

boxes of slightly more flexible construction than pears, plums, cherries, apricots, peaches and

those in the Maginot Line. walnuts.

The labor code (effective May 1, 1934), defi. The principal minerals are coal, Ilgnite, iron, nitely eliminates collective wage agreements and zinc. lead, copper, salt, potash, petroleum.

substitutes the fixing of wage scales for the individThe Ruhr and Saarland are the chief seat of ual enterprises. Manufacturers falling to comply iron and steel production, though the industry is

with the national economic policy may be deprived

under the law of their managerial rights. carried on to a lesser degree in the Sieg, Lahn and Dill districts and along the lower Rhine and in

It was announced (Jan, 15, 1941) that 1.391,000 Westphalia. Berlin is the center of the electrical

foreign laborers were working on German farms. industry. Bavaria, Rhenish Prussia and Prussian

They were classified as 650.000 Polish, French Saxony lead in the manufacture of chemicals;

and Belgium prisoners of war: 180,000 former Saxony in textiles; Silesia and Westphalia in

Polish prisoners working voluntarily in Germany: linen. Cotton goods are made in Saxony. West

469,000' Polish civilians; 47,000 Italians: 32.000 phalia, Wurttemberg and Bavaria; woollens in

Slovaks and lesser numbers of other nationalities. Saxony, Brardenburg, Rhenish Prussia and Baden. Germany's foreign trade (1913) formed 13.3% Beetroot sugar is manufactured in Prussia (chiefly of the world's commerce, and (1927) it had so far in the provinces of Saxony, Silesia, Hanover and recovered as to reach 10%. German commerce conPomerania). Potash is produced in Prussian Saxony, tinued its expansion until 1939 when the publicaThuringia and Hanover; glass, porcelain and tion of foreign trade statistics was discontinued. earthenware in Bavaria, Thuringia, Silesia, The principal German imports in the order of Brandenburg and Saxony; clocks and woodenware their value on the last available returns are in Baden, Wurttemberg and Bavaria; and beer in wool, raw cotton, Iron ore, mineral oil, wheat, cofBavaria.

fee, butter, fruit, coal, timber and copper ore. The The German merchant marine (1939) had 2,466 chief exports are coal, iron and steel, dyes, pharships of 4,492,708 gross tonnage, compared with maceuticals, paper, copperware, glass and glass5,459,296 tons (1914).

ware, leather, silk and rayon, cotton goods, woollen Chancellor Hitler (March 16, 1935) reintroduced goods. compulsory military service and increased the peace The Reich-owned railway system began a fourbasis of the Army to 36 divisions in 12 corps. year replacement program (1939) costing 3,500.probably about 600.000 men, inclusive of police 000.000 marks to include the purchase of 10.000 troops. By the Versailles treaty, Germany passenger cars, 112.000 freight cars and 17,300 allowed an army of 100.000, in which the soldiers automobile trailers. An additional 620,000,000 were enlisted for 12 years and the officers for 20. marks were added to the replacement budget (1939).

The Army was increased by one corps (1938) and The Reich had (1938) 42.299 miles of railroad. two more were added with the absorption of Aus- Germany also has vast inland waterways of some tria into the Reich, There has been a vast in- 7,000 miles (1938). crease in the size of the Army with the War in The rolling stock of the Reich Railways is reEurope and its true size has not been made public. ported by the Foreign Commerce Weekly of the The new army law, (May 21, 1935), provides

United States Department of Commerce (Feb. i. for one year of active training of all ablebodied.

1941) as follows: non-Jewish Germans between the ages of 18 and 45, with active military service beginning

Item

1935 1938 at 20. The trained soldier then passes into the Reserve until he is 35. then becomes a member of Locomotives.

20,663 24,200 the Landwehr from 36 to 45. From 1813 to 1892 Motorized cars.

1,561 1.990 the term of active service was three years, and

Passenger cars.

63,793 76.000 from 1892 to 1919, two years; however, the present

Express cars..

20,317 28,400 one-year term follows compulsory service in the labor camps.

Freight cars.

580,151 640,000 The Air Force, under control of the Air Ministry,

Closed cars.

212,272 274,000 was organized (1939, before the outbreak of war) Railway service cars.

16,484 19.000 into seven groups, including one in Austria, with 60 squadrons each of 12 aircraft in commission

The American investment in the Reich is estiand to have more than 2.000 reserve aircraft. The Air Force has been increased vastly since the War bulletin of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic

mated at a billion and a half dollars. Th in Europe and the true facts as to its size have not been made available.

Commerce listed American investments as 87 man

ufacturing plants, valued at $151,480,000; 30 disBy assuming the cabinet post of Minister of Defense (Feb. 4. 1938) Chancellor Hitler became tributing firms with assets of $20.393,000; 11 oil supreme commander of all the armed forces of the companies valued at $49,993,000 and 23 miscellaReich. Simultaneously he removed Field Marshall neous enterprises with a total worth of $5,951,000. Werner von Blomberg. War Minister and Col. Added to these assets are loans in return for state, Peneral Werner von Fritsch, Commander in Chief municipal and corporate bonds, bringing the total

the Army, on grounds of "11 health" and to a billion and a half dollars.

was

Greece

(KINGDOM OF HELLAS) Capital, Athens-Area, 50,257 square miles- Population (1938) 7,196,900 Greece occupies the southern peninsula of the the son was born, is next in line of succession. Balkans, stretching down into the Mediterranean Nilitary service was compulsory between the ages Sea, with the Ionian Sea on the west and the of 21 and 50. Service was for two years in the Aegean Sea on the east. On the northwest lies Army followed by 9 years in the first reserve and Albania, on the north Yugo-Slavia and Bulgaria, 8 in the second. About 50,000 recruits were called and on the northeast Turkey. It is about the size up each year, The Greek Navy comprises light of New York State. The Indus Mountains with craft, used mainly for defense purposes. many spurs, a continuation of the Balkans. run Greece, Turkey, Rumania and Yugoslavia signed through the country from north to south. Gulfs a Balkan non-aggression pact (Feb. 9, 1934). and bays are many.

Greece proper is chiefly agricultural, with little, The authentic history of Greece begins (776 manufacturing. Only one-fifth of the total area is B. C.) although the country obtained its greatest arable; 13.350,000 of the total of 16,074,000 acres glory and power in the fifth century B. C. It be- are covered by mountains and lakes and rivers. came a province of the Roman Empire (46 B. C.,) The forests have been denuded, but reforestation of the Byzantine Empire (395 A. D.) and was con- is going on; they cover 5,944,059 acres of which quered by the Turks in 1456. Greece won its war 4,121,119 are state-owned. The chief agricultural of independence (1821-1829) and became a kingdom products are wheat, rye, barley, oats, corn, tobacunder the guarantee of Great Britain, France and co, olives, lemons, oranges, mandarins, apples, Russia.

pears, figs and nuts. The principal minerals are Greece was occupied by Axis forces (May, 1940) iron, zinc, lignite and salt. and the Government filed to Egypt. The Cabinet It is planned to convert Mount Olympus, the resigned (June, 1940) and a new one was formed by mythical home of the gods, into a National Park Premier T souderos.

modeled on American lines. The region is wild Greece, by treaty (1923) ceded for 50 years to and largely uninhabited. Olympus is a precipitous, Yugoslavia a free zone in the harbor of Saloniki broken mass fronting on the sea, in part forested. (now called Thessaloniki), thus giving the Serbs rising to an altitude of 9,800 ft. an outlet to the Aegean.

Greek Orthodox is the State church. Education The Greek National Assembly (1925) voted the is compulsory. There are two universities in overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment Athens, and one in Thessaloniki. of a republic, which lasted for ten years, or until The rocky promontory of Mount Athos (121 a plebiscite (Nov. 3. 1935) restored the throne to square miles), is occupied by 20 monasteries of the George II, King of the Hellenes, who had fled Greek Orthodox Church, each a sort of little reGreece during an uprising against him (Dec. 18, public in itself. The monks number 4.800. No 1923). Gen. John Metaxas became premier (Aug. females are allowed to enter the territory, which 4, 1936). Metaxas tried to fashion a Fascist state. has been granted a constitution by the Greek with large expenditures for rearmament. He died government, receiving, autonomous powers as a (Jan 29, 1941) and was succeeded by Alexander nomastic republic under Greek sovereignty. but Korizis. Korizis died a suicide (April 18) and was with an appointed Greek Governor. succeeded by Emmanuel Tsouderos. King George, The monetary unit is the drachma with an averaccompanied by his brother Crown Prince Paul, age value of $.066. Government receipts (1939and high officials of the Government arrived in 1940) were estimated at 14,014,821,680 drachmai: London (Sept. 22, 1941) to establish a Government expenditures 14,653,841,014 in exile.

The principal imports are agricultural products, A son, heir to the throne, was born (June 2, yarns and textiles and metal manufactures; pri1940) to Crown Princess Frederika. Greece's King mary exports are horticultural products, oils and is childless and his brother, Prince Paul, to whom waxes, minerals, wines, spirits and beverages.

Guatemala

(REPUBLICA DE GUATEMALA) Capital, Guatomala City-Area, 45,452 square miles—Population (1938), 3,284,000 Guatemala, the northern state of Central | The University of Guatemala is in Guatemala City. America, has Mexico for its neighbor on the north The language of the country is Spanish. and west. British Honduras on the east, Honduras More than 70% of the population is pure Indian and Salvador on the east and south and the Pacific and most of the remainder are half castes. Peonage on the southwest. A range of mountains containing was abolished. (1936). Military service is compulmany volcanic peaks runs from northwest to south-sory between the ages of 18 and 50. east near the Pacific. The narrow west slope is The monetary unit is the quetzal with an average well watered, fertile and the most densely settled value of $1. The budget (1939-1940) is estimated part.

to balance at 10.332,650 quetzales. Agriculture is the most important industry, the There are famous Mayan ruins in Uaxactun Guatemalan soil being exceedingly fertile. Coffee (pronounced Wa-shock-tune) in Peten. northern accounts for 70% of the exports. Between 30 and Guatemala, about 25 miles south of the Mexican 40% of the plantations are owned by Germans. and 20 miles west of the British Honduran Other important crops are bananas, sugar, beans, boundaries. They are partially surrounded by logcorn and wheat. Chicle gum is exported to the wood swamps an by thick ung whose hux ant United States. Silver, gold, copper, iron, lead and foilage swarms with howling monkeys and green chrome are found The principal imports are cot- parrots. Only habitations are the rude camps of ton textiles, wheat, flour, cotton yarn, petroleum, chicle gatherers and timber cutters. medicines, hardware and motor cars, and silk An airfield was cut out of the jungle (1938) and textiles. The main port of entry is Puerto Barrios | tourists may now fly directly to the ruins from on the Atlantic, 800 miles south of New Orleans. A Guatemala City. A net of 5,000 miles of motor railroad connects the port with the capital, Guate- roads leads from the capital in all directions. mala City, and San Jose, 2 port on the Pacific. Besides these and other ruins in the Department

Under the Guatemala Constitution (proclaimed of Petén, there are the beautiful Maya ruins of 1879, modified 1928), the President is elected for Quiriguá, discovered (1840) by the American exsix years, the National Assembly for four years and plorer John L. Stephens and situated in the valley the Council of State of 13 members is partly elected of the Motagua river, 60 miles south of Puerto by the Assembly and partly appointed by the Barrios, in the center of the banana plantations President. Gen. Jorge Ubico (born 1879), was of the Atlantic coast of Guatemala. The ruins are elected President (1931) and his term was due to only two miles from Guatemala City and consist of expire in 1937 but as the result of a plebiscite temples and monoliths covered with inscriptions (June, 1935), it was extended to 1943. The Con- of the Maya chronology. The old Maya empire stitutional Convention (1941) extended his term to flourished in what is today Guatemala during the 1949. The President is normally barred from re- first 1000 years of the Christian era. For reasons election for a period of 12 years.

unknown they abandoned these cities after the IX Roman Catholic is the prevailing religion but all or X century and built a new Empire in the Pencreeds are tolerated. Education is compulsory. I insula of Yucatán.

Haiti

(REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI) Capital, Port-au-Prince-Area, 10,204 square miles--Population (est. 1937), 3,000,000 Haiti occupies the western third of the Island of and Puerto Rico on the east. The boundary which Hispaniola (or Haiti), the second largest of the separates it from the Dominican Republic to the Greater Antilles lying between Cuba on the west east is about 193 miles long. Copper is found, but is not worked commercially, and there are few in the French Legation (July 26, 1915) after 167 other mineral resources. Coffee is the most impor - political prisoners had been massacred in jail, and tant crop and the production of cotton, sugar and at the funeral of the victims he was dragged out log wood is increasing. Sisal, tobacco, cattle, trop- and killed. Two nours later a United States cruiser ical fruits and cashew nuts are promising new landed marines at Port-au-Prince. United States industries.

forces occupied the country and restored order. Negroes form the majority of the population, the remainder being mulattoes descended from former 1934). A fiscal representative appointed by the

The American occupation terminated (Aug. 14, French settlers. There are about 1,500 white for- President of Haiti on recommendation of Presieigners. Roman Catholicism is the state religion, dent Franklin D. Roosevelt remained to supervise and the clergy are French (mostly Bretons). Edu- the customs. cation is compulsory. Illiteracy is about 85%. Administration of the Republic is carried on by There are approximately 1,060 schools with 1,190 teachers and an enrollment of 90,000 pupils.

departments under the direction of the President. French is the official language of the country, but

The only military force is an armed constabua dialect known as French Creole is spoken by the

lary (Garde d'Haiti) consisting of 2,500 officers and

men. majority. Haiti, discovered by Columbus (1492) and a

Elie Lescot was elected (April 15, 1941) President French colony from 1677. attained its independence 56 to 2.

for a five-year term by Congress by a vote of (1804), following the rebellion headed by Toussaint L'Ouverture (1791).

The unit of currency is the gourde with an Revolutions and bloodshed characterized its early political history. From 1910

average value of $.20. to 1915 there were seven presidents: the last. Gen.

Government receipts (1939-1940) were estimated Sam, assumed office (March 4, 1915), took refuge at 5,837,800 gourdes; expenditures 5,837,796.

Honduras

(REPUBLICA DE HONDURAS) Capital, Tegucigalpa-Area, 44,275 square miles- Population (1940), 1,105,504 Honduras is an agricultural and cattle raising antimony and coal. The chief export (65%) is state of Central America, bounded on the north by bananas, grown on the Caribbean coast. Cocoathe Caribbean Sea, on the east and south by nuts, coffee and tobacco are other important Nicaragua, on the south and west by Salvador and

products.

The President is elected for six years, as are on the west by Guatemala.

the members of the only legislative house--the The coast line on the Caribbean is 400 miles long,

Chamber of Deputies. The term of Dr. Tiburcio the chief ports being Truxillo, Tela, Puerto Cortez, Carias Andino, who became President (Feb. 1, Omoa, Roatan and La Ceiba. On the Pacific side 1933) was extended by the Congress (1937) until it has a coast line of 40 miles on the Gulf of Jan. 1. 1943. Fonseca. The country is mountainous, very fertile, Education is compulsory. There is a university though mostly uncultivated, and covered with rich in the capital. Roman Catholic is the prevailing forests. It is about the size of Pennsylvania. The religion. The language is Spanish. inhabitants are chiefly Indians with an admixture Military service is compulsory. The monetary of Spanish blood.

unit is the lempira with an average value of $.49. Mineral resources are abundant but undeveloped, The budget (1940-1941) is estimated to balance at and includes gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, / 10,848,005 lempiras.

Hungary

(KINGDOM OF HUNGARY) (MAGYAR ORSZAG) Capital, Budapest-Area, 63,810 square miles-Population (1940), 14,471,543 Hungary for a thousand years has been the in the district of Pecs. Other istries are millabode of the Magyars. Formerly a kingdom in ing, distilling, manufacture of sugar, hemp, flax, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it was much re

iron and steel. About three-quarters of her oil duced in size by the Treaty of the Trianon (June requirements are found in the wells recently

drilled by American interests in the southwest 4, 1920) losing Transylvania to Rumania, Croatia

corner of Trans-Danubia. Hungary had to import, and Batchka to Yugoslavia, as well as Upper

among other prime necessaries, timber and salt Hungary (i.e. Slovakia and Carpatho-Ruthenia) since her dismemberment (1918), but with the to Czecho-Slovakia. Pre-war it had 21,000,000 return of the northern provinces, she abounds in population on 125,608 square miles of territory. forests and has salt well above her needs. It is bounded by Czecho-Slovakia on the north, The monetary unit is the pengo with an average Yugoslavia on the south, Rumania on the east and value of $.20. Government receipts (1941) were Germany (Austria) on the west.

estimated at 2,063,230,000 pengoes, with expendiIn the dismemberment of Czecho-Slovakia (1938) tures of 2,084,442,000. Hungary obtained. by virtue of the Vienna arbi- After the abdication of King Charles (Nov. 13 tral award, the predominantly Magyar-populated 1918), a republic was proclaimed with Michael south-eastern strip of Slovakia and a part of Sub- Karolyi as president. A Bolshevik government carpathian Russia. Hungary incorporated (March, with Bela Kun dominant was set up (March 22, 1939) within her boundaries the rest of Subcar- 1919), but was swept away by public distrust. pathian Russia and a strip of territory in Eastern An elected government (March 23, 1920) declared Slovakia. By these annexations Hungary added Hungary a monarchy and named Admiral Nicholas 9,261 miles of territory with a population of Horthy (governor since Aug. 1919), as Regent. 1,728,000.

Ladislaus Bardossy was named Premier (April The Vienna Conference (Germany and Italy) 1, 1941) after the death of Count Paul Teleki. awarded to Hungary (1940) approximately half The legislature consists of two houses. The of Rumania's Transylvania territory with an area upper house is composed of representatives of of 16,642 square miles and a population of 2,633,000. former hereditary members and people of disThe award returned to Hungary a large share of tinction in the national life. The lower house has the property she had lost in the settlement after approximately 260 members elected by a restrictive the World War but to which she never had re- franchise extended to men over 24 and literate, nounced her claims. Also returned to Hungary and to womeu over 30, who have had three chilwere Batchka province, the Baranya triangle and dren or have earned an independent livelihood or the Murakos district.

have had a diploma from an institution of higher Budapest, the Hungarian capital, is built on education or who are wives of secondary school or both banks of the Danube, the two parts, Buda college graduates. and Pest, being connected by bridges. Buda, the At the elections (May 28-29, 1939) the following old city, with its background of wooded hillsides, parties were elected: Party of National Unity, its ancient buildings and narrow winding streets, 186: National Socialist, 45; Agrarian, 14; Socialist, and Pest, the modern metropolis with up-to-date 5; Liberal, 5: Christian, 3; Independents, 2. The architecture and wide tree-lined avenues, present total number of ballots cast was 3.928,334, of & striking contrast,

which the government parties polled 2,137,667 or Hungary is primarily an agricultural country. | about 54 per cent of the total. The principal Hungarian crops are wheat, rye, There is no state religion. The religious affiliabarley, oats, corn, potatoes, sugar beets. It is in tion of the population (1930) is as followsthe hilly country, near Tokay, in the northeast Roman Catholic, 64.9%; Reformed Calvinists, section of the country, that the best Hungarian 20.9%; Augsburg' Evangelicals. 6.1%; Jews, 5.1%; wines are made. Another important wine district is Greek Catholics, 2.32; Greek Orientals, 0.5%; situated along the north shore of Lake Balaton. Unitarians, 0.1%. There are six universities, all

Hungary's bauxite deposits are considered one of maintained by the State. Education is compulsory. the largest in the world. The output of coal is ex- All males between the ages of 18 and 60 are liable nsive, particularly from the Mecsek Mountain to military service. Active service is two years

with the Army and three years in the Air Corps Chief exports are: Wheat, live animals, electrical after which the men belong to the reserves. The machinery and apparatus, poultry, lard and first reserve includes those up to the age of 42; the fruits. second from 42 to 48, and the third from 48 to 60. Much social legislation has been enacted. The Hungary has no Navy, but has a police patrol on measures include minimum wage, old age penthe Danube.

sion and the distribution of almost 2,000,000 acres Parliament passed (May 3, 1939) anti-Jewish among the landless rural population. Public laws limiting Jewish participation in business and works and rearmament proceed with the 1,000,the professions to 6 to 12 per cent of the total 000.000 pengos special fund. number of persons engaged in the various call- Public school education is compulsory and free ings. Hungary has an estimated Jewish popula- for eight years. National minorities may acquire tion (1939) of 750,000.

a high school education in their native tongue, The principal imports in the order of their while there are collegiate institutions where value are: Raw cotton, paper, hides, machi- subjects are taught exclusively in English, French nery and apparatus, metals, and mineral oil. or Italian.

Iceland

(ISLAND) Capital, Reykjavik-Area, 39,709 square miles-Population (1939) 118,888 Iceland is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean Iceland is admitted to have attained approxiof volcanic origin. It has many geysers and hot mately absolute justice of the sterner sort. It has springs. The climate is much modified by the Gulf neither army nor navy, nor fortifications; no deficit Stream. The land is treeless. There are no rail- and no unemployment.

The Althing is composed of a varying number of roads,

Natural hot water from many of Iceland's vol- members, not exceeding 49, of whom 38 are elected canic springs is piped into Reykjavik and provides in constituencies, each electing one or two mem

bers of simple majorities except the capital. In the heat for office buildings, homes and hot houses. A

capital six members are elected by proportional public swimming pool and a laundry derive their heat from this source. The flow of hot springs in representation, while a necessary number of sup

plementary mandates is distributed among the the vicinity of Reykjavik is more than 200 gallons a

parties which have got too few in proportion to minute with a larger supply easily obtainable.

their voting numbers. The King of Denmark apVegetables are rare in Iceland where the climate

points the President of a Council of Ministers, all is too severe for their normal growth, but big garden plantations have sprung up around the hot

of whom are subject to the approval of the Althing. springs and have been able to grow even semi

Herman Jonasson has been President since July

29, 1934. Men and women over 21 enjoy the suffrage. tropical products.

Agriculture engages 47,512 of the population. The people of Iceland celebrated (June 23-28, About six-sevenths of the land is unproductive and 1930) the 1,000th anniversary of the Althing, the only about 65,000 acres are under cultivation, pro

oldest parliamentary assembly in the world. ducing potatoes, turnips and hay. The fishing in- The Icelandic language has maintained its dustry is important and the catch, mostly cod and purity, as in Eddas and Sagas, for 1,000 years. herring, is huge.

Danish is widely spoken. Illiteracy is low. There Iceland was an independent republic (930- is a University in Reykjavik. The national church 1263), when it joined with Norway. The two came is Evangelical Lutheran, but there is complete reunder Danish rule (1381). When Norway separat- ligious freedom. ed from Denmark (1814) Iceland remained under Leif Ericson, the Norseman, sailed from Iceland Denmark. Denmark acknowledged Iceland as a in the year 1000 and discovered the American sovereign state (1918) united with Denmark only mainland, starting a colony called Vinland, probin that the Danish King. Christian X., was also ably at New Bedford, Mass. A colossal bronze King of Iceland.

statue, by A. Stirling Cadder, the gift of the The Althing (Parliament) voted (May, 1941) to United States Congress, was presented to Iceland cancel the union with Denmark, declaring Iceland and unveiled at Reykjavik (July 17, 1932.) independent; resolved to elect a regent to assume

The unit of currency is the krona whose value the functions of the King and to introduce & re

is fixed officially as that of the Danish krone. publican constitution as soon as the union ceased.

Government receipts (1941) were estimated at 18,The Althing assumed control of Iceland's foreign affairs (April, 1940) when Germany occupied Den

478,173 kronur and expenditures 18,016,263. mark. A British Expeditionary force occupied Ice- The principal imports in the order of their value land a month later. Sveinn Bjoerrsson was elected are--vessels, carriages and machinery: coal: texregent for a period of one year.

tlles manufactures; oils and tallow; cereals, metals United States naval forces occupied Iceland and hardware: timber and wooden goods. Ex(1941) on invitation of the island's Government, ports, in order, are living animals and animal which later approved the occupation by a vote of

food; oils and tallow; fish and herring meal; skins 39 to 3.

and hair; textile materials.

Iran

(PERSIA) Capital, Teheran-Area, 628,000 square miles-Population (1933) 15,055,115 Iran is the official name for Persia. The people Across the plateau, which lies at an altitude of refer to themselves as Irani. Persia was the name 4,000 to 8,000 ft., in the north central part, from of a province. The Kingdom occupies the western northwest to southeast, stretches a desert, 800

miles long, varying from 100 to 200 miles wide. and larger half of the great Iranian Plateau be

There are many peaks from 9,000 to 10,000 ft. tween the rivers Indus and Tigris in Southwestern Asia. It is bounded on the north by Transcaucasia high. Fine forests cover the maritime plains and

Mineral deposits still unde(Russia), the Caspian Sea and Turkestan; on the veloped, are known to be considerable. Turquoise east by Afghanistan and Beluchistan (British In

mines are worked crudely in Nishapur. dia); on the south by the Arabian Sea and the The Iranian oil field in the southwest territory at Persian Gulf; on the west by Mesopotamia (Iraq) the head of the Persian Gulf is the richest single and Armenia. The boundaries are indeterminate field in existence. William Knox D'Arcy, an Eng

a cause of much friction. The people are Moslems, lishman, obtained (1901) for about $20,000 a 60mostly of the Shi'a sect, and generally illiterate. year monopoly for the exploitation of petroleum Legislative government consists of a National As- in a territory comprising 500,000 square miles, sembly called Majllis, elected every two years The five-sixths of the Kingdom. The British govern. king--called Shah-appoints a Prime Minister who ment owns a controlling interest in the company; (11 acceptable himsell) selects a cabinet agreeable the Anglo-Iranian Oil Co. A new agreement, much to the Majilis. Mirza Riza Pahlevi (born March more favorable to the Iranian government,

was 16, 1878) was proclaimed Shah (Dec. 16, 1925). drawn up by the League of Nations, and signed by Crown Prince Mohammed Reza Pahlevi (born Oct. the company and the Persian government (1933). 26, 1919) married Princess Fawzia, 17-year-old The Shah granted (March 6, 1937) American sister of King Farouk of Egypt (March 15, 1939). companies the privilege of developing oil conces

British and Soviet forces occupied Iran (Aug.- sions in eastern district of Iran. Other minerals Sept., 1941) until war conditions permit their include iron, coal, copper, lead, manganese, withdrawal. Riza Shah Pahlevi abdicated (Sept. marble, borax, nickel and cobalt. 15, 1941) and was succeeded by his son, Mohammed Agriculture is a prime industry, wheat, barley, Riza Pahlevi. The Prime Minister is Alo Furanghi. rice, fruits, gums, drugs, wool, tobacco and cotton being the chief products. Some wines are famous. , active reserve, 14 years in the first general reserve Persian carpets, all made on hand looms, are pro- and five years in the supplementary reserve. The duced in Tabriz, Sultanabad and Kerman. Khura- strength of the active peace time Army is approxisan is famous for the quality of its wool. The chief mately 120,000 officers and men. exports are petroleum, cotton, carpets, fruits, The unit of currency is the rial with an average gums, hides, wool, opium and rice; the chief im- value of $.585. ports are textiles, sugar, tea and manufactures Government receipts (1940-1941) were 3,094,of metals. Rug exports to the United States aver- 393,000_rials and expenditures 3,210,973.000. age more than $3,000,000 a year.

The Trans-Iranian Railway, the nation's major Military service is compulsory beginning with construction project, was opened to freight trafic the age of 21. Active service in the Army is for (1938). Branch lines connect Teheran with Tabriz, & period of two years followed by four years in the Yezd and Meshed.

Iraq

(MESOPOTAMIA) Capital, Bagdad--Area, 140,000 square miles Population (est. 1937) 3,670,000 Mesopotamia is the name applied to the whole then King of the Hejaz. was chosen ruler by a Euphrates country in southwest Asia--the former referendum. On his death (Sept. 9, 1933), he Turkish Vilayets of Basra, Bagdad and Mosul.

was succeeded by his son, Ghazi Ihn Feisal (born The Arab name for this territory is Iraq. It is March 21, 1912). King Ghazi was killed in an bounded on the north by Kurdistan, Turkey; on

automobile accident (April 4, 1939) and was suc

ceeded on the throne by his son, Emil Feisal, as the east by Persia; on the south by the Persian King Feisal II (born May 2, 1935). King Feisal II Gulf and Kuweit and on the west by the Arabian

was proclaimed (April 4) and later a five-man and Syrian deserts.

regency council was named to rule until he became The country is a great alluvial plain. The tem

of age. perature varies widely; 120° fahrenheit in the A Constituent Assembly met in Bagdad (1924) shade is not uncommon with severe frosts in the and passed an organic law and an electoral law for winter.

the election of a Chamber of Deputies. A ConstiElementary education is free but not compul- tutional Monarchy, hereditary in the family of sory. Arabic is the language of the majority. The King Feisal, was created with a Senate of 20 mempeople are preponderantly Mohammedan, 1, 146,685 bers nominated by the King for eight years and a adhering to the Sunni sect, and 1,494,015 to the Chamber of Deputies of 150 members, elected by Shi'ah sect. Jews number 87,488; Christians. 78.- suffrage. The Prime Minister

is appointed by the 792. The soil is of extraordinary fertility, and en- agreeable to the legislature.

king and (if acceptable himself) selects a cabinet gineers estimate that the Tigris-Euphrates Rivers A pro-British Government was set up (June 3. could irrigate 7,000,000 acres in winter and 3,000,- 1941) under Prime Minister Jamil al-Midiai after 000 of varied crops in summer. The Tigris-Eu- a revolt had been crushed and the insurgent leaders phrates valley is the legendary cradle of the had fled to Iran. Jamil al-Midfai resigned (Sept. human race, regarded by some Biblical scholars 21, 1941) and was succeeded by Nuri es-Said. as the original Garden of Eden. It was here that The Iraq army numbers 28,000. Military serthe ancient cities of Nineveh and Babylon flour-vice is compulsory between the ages of 19 and 25. ished.

A treaty with Great Britain was signed at Bagdad Wheat, barley, rice and millet are the chief (June 30, 1930). By it the British mandatory rights crops, with tobacco in the Kurdish hills. Dates are were formally renounced and the independence of grown in the tidal stretches of the Shatt el Arab Iraq recognized. and the hundred miles from Fao to Qurna on both The monetary unit is the dinar, equal to about sides of the river is a continuous date grove. Large $5 in American money. The government's receipts flocks of sheep are raised in the north, and wool (1939-1940) were 6.093,054 dinars, exclusive of oil and skins form a considerable export.

royalties totaling 2,054,503: expenditures were The Bagdad railway line links Iraq and Turkey, 6,369,148, exclusive of capital works expenditures connecting the cities of Iraq, Mosul, Bagdad and amounting to 2,232,916 dinars. Basra. Bagdad has a modern airport.

The principal imports in the order of their Irag is one of the great oil-producing countries monetary value are iron and steel; cotton piece of the world.

goods; machinery and tools; silk and rayon goods; The mandate (under the Treaty of Peace with sugar; tea; vehicles; and woollen piece-goods. ExTurkey. 1920) for Mesopotamia as an independent ports, in order, are (besides petroleum) dates, state was intrusted to Great Britain by the Allies. barley, wool, wheat, hides and skins. The chief British and Indian forces having conquered the sources of imports are Great Britain, Japan, India, country during the World War, occupying Basra Germany, United States and Iran, respectively. (Nov. 22, 1914) and Bagdad (March 11, 1917). Emir Exports are consigned mainly to Great Britain, Feisal, third son of the Grand Sherif of Mecca,

United States, India and Iran.

Italy

(REGNO D'ITALIA) Capital, Rome-Area, 119,800 square miles-Population (1940) 45,330,441 The Kingdom of Italy occupies the entire Italian cano, Mt. Etna (altitude 10,755 ft.) having a recpeninsula, stretching from the Alps southeast into ord of more than 120 eruptions. The active vol. the Mediterranean, with the islands of Sicily, Sar- cano, Mt.

Vesuvius (altitude about 4,300 ft.). dinia, Elba and about 70 smaller ones. On the with a record of 50 known eruptions, rises to an east is the Adriatic Sea, which it dominates: altitude of more than 4,000 it on the Bay of on the south, the Mediterranean, on the west be- Naples, and north of the Strait of Messina is the tween the mainland and Sicily and Sardinia is the

island volcano of Stromboli (3,040 it.) Tyrrhenian Sea, and further north the Ligurian Italy annexed the province of Lubiana. Further

After the occupation of Yugoslavia (April, 1941) Sea. The Maritime Alps on the west separate it

more, Croatia, an ethnical unit of Yugoslavia, was from France, the Swiss Alps in the north from declared an independent kingdom. Prince of Switzerland, and the Dolomite Alps from Ger

Spoleto, of the Italian royal family of Savoy, was many (Austria), and the Carnac and Julian Alps given the crown under the title of King Almone. on the east from Yugo-Slavia. The great plain A customs and monetary union between Italy and shut in by these huge mountains, and the Ligur- Croatia was established. Italy also placed under ian Apennines, and watered by the River Po (220 her own sovereignty several islands along the miles long) and the Adige, shared by the depart - Dalmatian coast. ments, Piedmont, Lombardy, Emilla and Venetia, The length of the peninsula is 760 miles, while stretches across the top from the Maritime Alps its breadth nowhere exceeds 150 miles and does to the head of the Adriatic. The Ligurian Moun- not generally measure more than 100 miles, Italy tains, circling the Gulf of Genoa, run down the is slightly larger than New England and New middle of the peninsula as the Apennines, with York and has more than twice their population. many summits like Monte Cimone (altitude 7,103 Two rivers, having the greatest historic imporIt.) in the northern part, and the Gran Sasso tance, rise in the Apennines, and flow west to d'Italia (9,560 ft.) in Central Italy nearing the the sea-the Tiber, which moves through Rome. western coastline in Campagna and continuing and the Arno, which waters the Florentine plain. down (with altitudes of about 6,000 ft.), through Between the spurs of the Alps lie seven beautiful the southern province, Calabria, to the “toe of Italian lakes, especially noteworthy being Como, the boot" at Cap Spartivento. Across the narrow Lugano, Maggiore and Garda, the largest. Both Strait of Messina the mountain range continues Maggiore and Garda are more than 30 miles long. through the Island of Sicily with its famous vol- The Adriatic coastline is flat and has five ports

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