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nuts. Government revenues (1939-1940) was £58,- all goods sold by commercial establishments. 902: expenditures £73,554.

Pitcairn Island is situate in the Pacific, equiGilbert and Ellice Islands Colony. The group of distant from America and Australia. The Island Islands in the Colony was proclaimed a Protector- was discovered (1767) by Carteret but was not inate (1892) and, at the request of the native Govern- habited until 23 years later when the mutineers of ments, was annexed (Nov. 10, 1915) as the Gilbert the Bounty landed there. Their existence became and Ellice Islands Colony. The Colony includes the known (1808) when ships visited the islands and Ellice Islands, Fanning, Washington and Ocean gave assistance to the mutineers and their Otaheite Islands, Christmas Island (annexed by Great Bri- women. The population became too large for the tain, 1888, and included in the Colony, Nov. 1919), resources of the Island and the mutineers and their which is the largest atoll in the Pacific, the Phoe- women, 192 in all, moved (1856) to Norfolk Island. nix Group and the Gilbert Islands. The total area Forty returned later to Pitcairn and the populais 180 square miles and the population (1938) tion increased (1879) to 90. The area is two 32,838 Exports are chiefly of copra and phos- square miles and population (1936) 209. It is & phates. Government revenue (1937-1938) is British Colony by settlement and was brought £77,260; expenditures, £68,421.

(1898) within the jurisdiction of the High ComA sales tax of 5 per cent was imposed (1941) on missioner of the Western Pacific. British South American Possessions

GUJANA British Guiana is on the north shore of South are extensive deposits of gold, diamonds. manAmerica, with Venezuela on the west, Dutch Guiana ganese, mica and bauxite. Timber is also an inon the east, and Brazil on the south. It is a Crown portant export, besides sugar, rice, rum, molasses, Colony administered by a governor and a small balata, charcoal and copra. elected legislative body. The area is 89,480 square The Falkland Islands lie 300 miles east of the miles; the population (estimated 1939) is 341,237. Strait of Magellan at the southern end of South Georgetown is the capital.

America. Their main value is in their strategic There are many beautiful waterfalls in British location, although there are large sheep farms and Guiana, including Kukenaam, which has been whaling interests. generally conceded to be the tallest in the world There are more than 100 islands in the group. with a drop of 2,000 ft. Dr. Paul Arthur Zahl, The area is 4,618 square miles: the population research associate at Haskins Laboratory. Sche- (estimated 1939) is 3.203. Wool is the chief export. nectady, N. Y., reported (May 11. 1938) the

Although Great Britain has held possession of discovery (May 8) of a waterfalls of 3,500 ft. in the Islands since 1834, Argentina refuses to rethe Karanang River in the heart of Guiana's nounce her claim of ownership. richest diamond area, 80 miles northeast of Mt. South Georgia is a whaling station. Its area is Roraima. Another famous waterfalls-Kaiteuris 1.000 square miles. The population (estimated noted for its scenic splendor.

1939) consists of 705 Whale produce is the Much of British Guiana is jungle land, but there principal export.

Canada

(DOMINION OF CANADA) Capital, Ottawa--Area, 3,694,863 square miles--Population (est. 1941), 11,422,000 The boundaries of Canada are: On the east, The House of Commons elected March 26, 1940, Baffin Bay, Labrador, the Gulf of St. Lawrence and stands; the Atlantic: on the south, the Atlantic, Maine, Liberals, 177; Conservatives, 40; IndependentNew Hampshire, Vermont, New York, the St. Conservative, 1: Cooperative Commonwealth FedLawrence and the Great Lakes, Minnesota, North eration, 8: New Democracy. 10; Unity, 1; IndependDakota, Montana, Idaho, Washington and the Juan ent, 1; Lib.-Prog., 3; Ind.-Lib., 3; vacant, 1. de Fuca Strait; and on the West, Alaska and the

The Communist party and the National Unity

(Fascist) party were outlawed with fourteen other Pacific Ocean. Canada includes all the Arctic islands in an area beginning half-way between Canada regulations.

organizaticns (June 5, 1940) under the Defense of Greenland and Baffin and extending westward to

The Governor-General of Canada is the Earl 141° longitude, which coincides approximately with

of Athlone (born April 14, 1874). He took office the Alaskan border. Altogether, Canada has 24,500

June 21, 1940. miles of coastline. The 4,000-mile boundary between

The Dominion Cabinet (as of October, 1941) in Canada and the United States has been unfortified

order of precedence follows: for more than one hundred years.

The country has an extremely varied topography Prime Minister President of the Privy Council, -- mountains in the West, then foothills and

Secretary of State for External Affairs-W. L.

Mackenzie King. prairies, the barrens north of Lake Superior, the open lands of Ontario, the rocky Laurentian district Minister without Portfolio--Raoul Dandurand. in Quebec, with the fertile Eastern Townships to Minister of Mines and Resources Thomas Alex

der Crerar. the south of it, and then plains sloping down to sea level in the East; the mountains of New England Minister of Justice and Attorney General of extend north into Canada, where they attain to

Canada--Ernest Lapointe. practically the same height as in the United States.

Minister of Public Works and Transport-Pierre Lakes, large and small, abound in Canada. Some

Joseph Arthur Cardin. of them exceed in size the famed Great Lakes on

Minister of National Defense - James L. Ralston. the United States border.

Minister of Pensions and National Health Ian Great Bear Lake in the Canadian Northwest Alastair Mackenzie, Territory, is larger than Erie by 1.720 square miles Associate Minister of National Defense and Minister and larger than Ontario by 4.120 square miles.

of National Defense for Air-Charles Gavan Great Slave Lake is nearly the size of Great Bear.

Power. Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba is about 2,000 square

Minister of Finance James Lorimer Ilsley. miles larger than Lake Ontario, Eleven Canadian

Minister of Fisheries--Joseph Enoil Michaud. lakes are above 1,100 square miles in extent. The Minister of Munitions and Supply-Clarence Delakes wholly within Canada are of high importance

catur Hore. to transportation and fisheries, climate and sport. Minister of Agriculture-James Garfield Gardiner.

The once common misconception that Canada is Minister of Labor-Norman A. McLarty. almost Arctic has been nearly dispelled. The cli- Minister of Trade and Commerce-James A. mate of the southern parts of Canada corresponds MacKinnon. to that of the northern States. The mean annual Secretary of State Pierre F. Casgrain. temperature is 49° at Victoria; 34° at Winnipeg: Minister of National Revenue-Colin W. G, Gibson. 44° at Toronto; 40° at Fredericton; and 44® Fah- Postmaster General-William Pate Mulock. renheit at Yarmouth. These figures show only slight Minister of National Defense for Naval Services -variations from West to East, but the extremes are

Augus L. Macdonald. much greater in the prairie and eastern provinces Minister of National War Services - Joseph T. than in British Columbia.

Thorson. Like the United States, Canada is a federation The British High Commissioner to Canada is with provincial governments similar on the whole Malcom MacDonald. to the State governments of the United States, and Canada is largely agricultural, although many. with Ottawa corresponding to Washington, D. C., facturing industries now dominate the economic as the chief legislative, executive and judicial seat life of the nation. The principal crops are wheat, of the country. The members of the Senate are oats. barley, rye, flaxseed, potatoes, roots, tonominated for life by summons of the Governor- bacco, and corn. Dairy and fruit products are General The House of Commons is elected directly enormous. The wool yield is considerable. Fishing is by the people for terms of five years.

a huge commercial enterprise, and fresh and canned varieties are an important export. The chief kinds, Arctic Circle. of fish marketed are salmon, lobsters, cod, herring. Among Canada's greatest tourist attractions are halibut, white fish, sardines, haddock, pickerel. her national parks, consisting of approximately trout and pilchards, Furs are a prolific source 12,403 square miles of outstanding scenic beauty. of income and the fox, mink, muskrat, beaver, rac- They conserve wild life under natural conditions, coon, marten, and fisher are raised commercially preserve in its primitive state the grandeur of on large farms. Hydroelectric power is extensive. Figures of capital for the last 9 years include The single track mileage of the Canadian Pacific advances of Dominion Government to Canadian Railway (1939) was 17,169. The other principal National for operating expenses, interest charges railways are now, in pursuance of the government and stock acquired by Dominion Government which policy of nationalization, included in the Canadian at time of acquiring had relatively little value, National Railway System, which has a trackage also cost of constructing Government lines.

scenic regions and commemorate persons and The country is rich in minerals, particularly events of especial importance in the nation's gold, although deposits of copper. 'lead, nickel, history. They may be divided into three groups: platinum, silver, zinc, coal, natural gas and petro- the scenic and recreational parks of the Rockies, leum are mined. Canada leads the world in Selkirks and prairies and Eastern Canada; the wild production of asbestos.

animal parks, and the national historic parks. The most important manufactures and their The first group includes Banff, Jasper and gross value in 1939 were: vegetable products, $660,- Waterton Lakes Parks in Alberta; Kootenay. Yoho, 000,000; wood and paper, $580,000,000; iron and Glacier and Mount Revelstoke Parks in British its products, $553,000,000; animal products. $462,- Columbia; Prince Albert Park in Saskatchewan; 000,000; non-ferrous metal products, $416,000,000; and Riding Mountain Park in Manitoba. In Ontextiles and textile products, $393,000,000; non

tario there are three smaller recreational parks, metallic mineral products, $208,000,000; chemicals Point Pelee, Georgian Bay Islands and the St. and allied products, $ 160,000,000.

Lawrence Islands Park. Recent additions to the The gross value of the chief exports (exclusive system of recreational parks are the Cape Breton of gold) in the calendar year 1940 follows-News- Highlands Park in Nova Scotia and a shore-line print paper$151,000,000; wheat, $120,000,000; park area on the northern coast of Prince Edward planks and boards. $68,000,000; meats, $63,000,000; Island. nickel, $61,000,000; wood-pulp. $61,000,000; auto- The wild animal parks include Elk Island Park mobiles, $54,000,000; copper in forms, $40.000.000; in Alberta, noted for its large herd of buffalo, and aluminum in bars, $32,000,000; fish, $30,000,000.

Nemiskam Park, also in Alberta, which is a sancCanada's export trade in 1940 was distributed tuary for prong-horned antelope. Fort Anne mainly among the following countries-- United Park in Nova Scotia and Fort Beausejour in New

Brunswick are the outstanding historic parks. Kingdom, 42.96; United States, 37.9%; British South Africa, 3.2; Australia, 2.8%; Newfound

In Nova Scotia is the Evangeline country, the land, 1.1%; France, 1.0%. Imports are received

land of Acadian memories. Here are found the chiefly from the following-United States, 68.8%;

largest aggregation of apple orchards in the

British Dominions. Grand United Kingdom , 14.9%; British Straits Settle

Pre, made classic

attracts ments, 2.5%: Australia, 1.5%; British India, 1.5%;

ground by Longfellow's "Evangeline, Columbia. 0.9%.

visitors from all over the world to see Evangeline The St. Lawrence River is navigable to ocean

Park, established on the site of the original going vessels for 600 miles, as far as Montreal, Acadian village, with its ancient well still intact, which is by virtue of its Great Lakes connections its old wíliows still surviving. A replica of the and its proximity

to London and Liverpool, one of original Acadian church houses relics of the first the greatest grain exporting harbors on the con

settlers and in the gardens are flowers brought tinent. The Port of Montreal has nine miles of

from the ancestral homes of the leaders of the deep-draft wharf, capable of accommodating 100

Acadian pioneers. large ocean steamers.

Five distinct white races are represented in Nova of the railways in Canada, the Canadian Pacific and Hanoverian, all holding to many traits of their

Scotia: English, Scottish, French-Canadian, Irish is the great privately owned corporation.

forefathers. Canadian National Railway System operates prac- from Normandy and Brittany, cling to their own

The Acadians, first white settlers, tically all other important lines in the Dominion customs and traditions, thus making a contact with -Canada (Jan. 1, 1940) had 212,619 telephones in

the long ago. The Hanoverians settled largely in Government systems and 1,184,653 in private com

Lunenburg and today their descendants, skilled panies, a total of 1,397,272 being 12.35 to every 100

sailors and fishermen, possess one of the finest persons, and 3.31 of the world's telephones. In

fishing fleets in the world. The Highland Scots this respect it is exceeded only by the United

settled in Cape Breton Island, Pictou and AntiStates. The number of licensed radio receiving sets

gonish counties, and their descendants reserve the on March 31, 1940 was 1.345,157.

kilt and plaid for ceremonial occasions and cherish The monetary unit of Canada is the dollar. As

the Gaelic language of their forebears. from Sept. 16, 1939, buying and selling rates for

Ancient Quebec. only walled city in North the U. S. Dollar, as set by the Foreign Exchange

America, sitting in a gigantic amphitheater of Control Board, were $1.10-$1.11, respectively. hills, former capital of the Dominion, is one of

The Bank of Canada was incorporated as a central bank by Act of Parliament (1934). It capital elongated, crooked streets, turreted battlements.

the oldest cities in America (founded in 1608), with stock then fixed at $500.000 was increased (June 18, casemented windows and other medieval aspects. 1936) to $10,000,000 of which $100,000 Class B some points of interest to the tourist are: the shares were issued to the Dominion of Canada at Fortifications. comprising the Citadel, on par. The rest (Class A shares of $50 each) were

promontory 350 ft. high; the Enclosing Wall, two sold to the public and the maximum holding per- miles long; the three City Gates, part of the city's mitted to one person is 50 shares. Directors, officers old defense system; the Battlefields Park, site of or employees of the chartered banks may not hold the Battle of the Plains of Abraham (1759); shares of the Bank. Shares may be held only by Wolfe's Cove, with its goat-path up the cliff, scaled British subjects ordinarily resident in Canada, or by British soldiers for the Battle of the Plains; by corporations controlled by such persons. The Dufferin Terrace, world-famed boardwalk overBank became (Aug. 15, 1938) a wholly government- looking the St. Lawrence: Montmorency Park, loowned institution, the capital being reduced to cation of Canada's first House of Parliament: the $5.000.000

Ramparts, with their ancient cannon; Avenue des The statement of Aug. 30, 1941 showed assets and Braves, Ste. Foy Park, where the last clash between liabilities of $722,981.799.

the British and the French occurred; Notre Dame Canada--with its great stretches of virgin des Victoires Church, built in 1688. timberland, its rolling hills and skyscraping Two miles outside of the village of Beaupre, on mountains, its many lakes and streams and rivers: Highway 15, stands the shrine of Ste. Anne de its odd villages, customs and picturesque peoples-Beaupre, founded (1650) by storm-wearied Breton has become the vacationland of thousands of sailors and today one of the most famous places American tourists. It is reached by many highways. in the world. It is the home of countless miracles

Ontario's attractions include its great variety of and is annually visited by thousands of pilgrims. developed summer resorts, its extensive fishing and A chapel erected by the sailors to Ste. Anne in hunting areas and its multitude of lakes and thanksgiving for their deliverance is still carefully rivers. Quebec's are its old-world atmosphere, its preserved. historical traditions and its diversified scenery. The census (1931) gave the religious population Nova Scotia and New Brunswick offer moose hunt- as follows: ing apd salmon fishing, sailing and surf bathing, Roman Catholics.

4,098,734 In the Bay of Chaleur, which New Brunswick United Church.

2,017,375 shares with Quebec's famous Gaspe Peninsula, the Anglicans

1,635,615 tourist finds the warmest sea water north of Presbyterians

870.728 New York

Baptists

443.341 Western Alberta and Eastern British Columbia Lutherans

394,194 have the Rockies, which means mountain climbing, Greek Catholics

186,654 canoe and pack trail trips and matchless scenery. Jews

155.614 The Yukon has the midnight sun and unexcelled Greek Orthodox

102,389 sport for the hunter of big game and game fish. Miscellaneous creeds

456, 100 The Northwest Territories have become popular Not given

16.042 arnong Americans, some of whom camp and canoe on the Mackenzie River, 300 miles beyond the Total

10.376,79

a

*Includes pagans.

Canadian Statistics
Source: R. H. Coats, Dominion Statistician; revised figures are given for 1911 to agree with boundary

changes made in 1912.
LAND AND FRESH WATER AREA, AND POPULATION BY PROVINCES
Area in Square Miles

Population
Provinces, Territories Capitals

Land Water Total 1911

1921

1931

1

2,198

Prince Edward

Charlottetown
2,184

2,184 93.728 88.615 88.038 Nova Scotia.

Halifax

20,743 3251 21,068 492,338 523.837 512,846 New Brunswick.

Fredericton.. 27,473 512 27,985 351.889 387,876 408,219 Quebec

Quebec

523,534 71.000 594,5342.005,776 2,360, 665) 2,874.255 Ontario

Toronto..

363,282) 49,300 412,582 2,527,292 2,933,662 3,431,683 Manitoba.

Winnipeg. 219,723) 26,789 246,512 461,394 610,118 700.139 Saskatchewan.

Regina.

237.975) 13,725 251,700 492, 432 757,510 921,785 Alberta

Edmonton. 248,800 6,485 255, 285 374,295 588,454 731,605 British Columbia.

Victoria..

359,279 6,976 366,255 392,480 524,582 694, 263 Yukon Territory

Dawson.
205,346 1,730 207,076 8,512

4,157 4,230 Northwest Territories

1.258,217 51,465 1,309,682 6,507

7.988 9.723 Total...

3,466,556228,307 3,694,863 7,206,643 (a)8,787,949 10,376,786 (a) The Royal Canadian Navy in 1921 contained 485 included in the total, which has been revised in accordance with the Labrador award of the Privy Council, March 1, 1927.

of the population (1931) there were 5,374,541 , following main classes: German, 473,544; Scandi. males and 5,002,245 females; population per square' navian, 228,049; Ukrainian, 225, 113; Hebrew, 156,mile, 3.0. Of the males, 3,179,444 were single, 726; Dutch, 148,962; Polish, 145,503; Italian, 98.173; 2,033,240 were married, 148,954 were widowed. Russian, 88, 148; Austrian, 48,639; Chinese, 46,519; 4,049 were divorced, and 8,854 were not given. Of Finnish, 43,885, Hungarian, 40,582; Bulgarian and the females, 2,771,968 were single, 1,937,950 were Roumanian, 32,216; Belgian, 27,585; Japanese, 23,married, 288,641 were widowed, 3,392 were di- 342. vorced, and 294 were not given.

Owing to the Labrador Boundary Award, the of the total population (1931) of 10,376,786, area of Canada was reduced (1927) by 112,400 5,381,071 were of British, and 2,927,990 of French square miles-106,970 square miles of land and origin. There remain 2,067,725, comprehending the 5,430 square miles of water.

CANADIAN IMMIGRATION
From From From

From From From
Year
United United Other Total Year United United Other

Total (Fiscal) Kingdm States Count.

(Fiscal) Kingdm States Count. 1910. 59,790 91,048 45,206 196,044| 1926

37,080 18,778 40,256 96,064 1911 123,013 104,884 66,620 294,517| 1927.

49,784 21.025 73,180 143,989 1912 138,121 114,326 82,406 334,853|| 1928

50.872 25,007 75,721 151.600 1913 150,542 119,418 112.881 382,841| 1929.

58,880 30,560 78,283 167,723 1914. 142,622 89,892 134,726 367, 240 || 1930.

64,082 30,727 68,479 163,288 1915. 43,276 41.768 41.734 126,778 | 1931.

27.584 24,280 36,359 88,223 1916. 8,664 25,853 2.936 37,453|| 1932.

7.088 14,297

4,367 25,752 1917 8.282 51.143 5,703 65,128 | 1933.

3.097 13,196 3,489 19,782 1918 3,178 58,185 4,582 65,915 || 1934.

2,200 7,740 3,903 13,903 1919.

9.914
31.955 7,0731 48,942 1935.

5.960 3,978 12.136 1920. 59,603 40.728 8.077 108,408 || 1936.

2,049 5,121 3.933 11,103 1921. 74,262 38,310 26,156) 138,728 || 1937

2.264 5,113 4.646 12,023 1922. 39,020 21.670 21,634 82,324 1938

2.972 5,643 7,030 15,645 1923. 34,508 16,566 16,372 67,446 || 1939

3,373 5.663 2.092 17,128 1924 72,919 17,211 55,120 145,250 || 1940.

3,566 5.748 6,891 16,205 1925. 63.178 15,818 42.366) 111.36 1941.

3,104 7,443 949 11,496 The Canadian fiscal year since 1907 ends with March 31.

CHIEF SOURCES OF REVENUE-CONSOLIDATED FUND ONLY
War Tax Revenue

Public

Int. Year

Works Do- Rec'd Ending Income Sales, Other

Post and minion from Total Mar. 31

Tax etc. Taxes Customs Excise Office Canals Lands Invest. Rec'pts

$1.000 $1,000 $1,000 $1.000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1.000 1923. 59,712 106.483 15,441 118,056 35,762 29,017 1,229 2,348 16,465 394,615 1924.. 54,204 120,676 7,156 121,501 38,182 28.865 1.400 2,282 11,916 396.838 1925. 56,248 85,811 5,105 108,147 38,603 28,783 1,391 2.390 11.332 346,834 1926. 55,572 98,097 3,627 127,355 42,924 30,335 1,416 2,804 8,535 380,746 1927. 47.386 105,613 3,168 141,969 48,513 29.069 1.502 3,327 8,559 398,696 1928..

56,571 90,223 3,525 156,986 57,401 31,563 1,809 3,689 10.938 422,718 1929.. 59,422 83,007 2,600 187,206 63,685 30,612 1,690 4,070 12,228 455,464 1930. 69,021 63,409 1.656 179,430 65,036 33,345 1,505 4,139 13,518 441,412 1931 71,048 34,735 1.538 131,209 57.747 30,212 1,444 1,655 10,421 349,587 1932 61,254 59.606 1,405 104,133 48,655 32.235 1.336 485 9,330 329,709 1933. 62,067 82,192 2,154 70,073 37,834 30.928 1.119

11,221 306.637 1934.. 61,399 106,576 2.077 66,305 35,494 30,893 1,232 419 11.148 324.062 1935 66,808 112,192 5.692 76,562 43,190 31,248 1,092 516 10.963 358,475 1936. 82,710 112.733 3,455 74.005 44,410 32,508 1,141

458

10,614 372.222 1937 102,365 152,473 1,984 83,771 45,957 34,275 1.278 478 11,231 445,029 1938 120,366 180.819 1.974 93,456 52,037 35,546 2.184 540 13,120 510,298 1939

142,026 161.711 1.905 78.751 51,314 35,288 1.020 680 13,163 498,017 1940. 134,449 166,028 1.875 104.301 61,032 36,729

1.068

13,393 541,616 1941 248,1431 284.167 25,865 130,757 88,608

40,383 2

2

14,911 859,755 Note The total includes other unenumerated items.

INSURANCE IN FORCE IN CANADA-DOMINION COMPANIES
Life-In Force at End of Year

Fire-At Risk at End

of Year
Dollars
Dollars
Dollars 1

Dollars 1923. 3,433,508,673 1932, 6,471,608,546|1923 7,224.475, 267 1932 9,301,747,991 1924. 3,763,996,472 1933 6,247.625,974|1924 7.583, 297,899 1933 9.008.262.736 1925. 4.159,019,848 1934. 6.220,725,929|1925. 8,051,444,136 1934

8,804,840,676 1926

4.610.196,334 1935. 6,259,158,4041926. 8,287.732,966 1935 8,782,698,099 1927 5.044,408,834 1936 6,403,037,477|1927 8,761,579,512 1936

9,248,273,260 1928. 5,607,645,623 1937. 6.541.625.0461928

6,020,513,839 1937

9,773,324,476 1929

6,157,262,207 1938. 6.630.183,5941929 9.431.169.592 1938 9,953,905,417 1930 16,492,283.194.1939. 6,776,262,587|1930

9,672.996.973 1939 10,200.346,551 1931 16.622.267.793 1940. 6.975,318,3461|1931 19.544 641.293 1940. 10,759,934,401

National defense tax ($27,672,000), shown under income tax; excess profits tax ($23.995,000), shown under "other taxes." ? Net now shown separately in preliminary statement.

459

676

CANADIAN BANKING STATISTICS
Chartered Banks

P. O. and

Gov. Say. Paid Up

ings Bank Year (a)

Capital

Assets Liabilities(b) Deposits Depos. (c)
Dollars
Dollars
Dollars

Dollars Dollars 1927

121,666.774 3,029,680.616 3,010,312,384 2,415,132,260 31,922,043 1928

122.839.879 3,323,163,195 3,301,669.529 2.610.594.865 31,103,776 1929.

137.269,085 3,528,468,027 3,503,408,865 2,696,747,857 28,375,770 1930..

144,560,874 3,237,073,853 3,214,730,383 2,516,611,587 26,086,036 1931

144,674,853 3,066,018,472 3,048,304,073 2.422.834,828 24,750,227 1932.

144,500,000 2.869.429.779 2.852,649.789 2.256,639,530 23,919,677 1933.

144,500,000 2.831.393.641 2,819,684.260 2.236,841,539 23.920,915 1934

144.916.667 2.837.919.961 2.826.241.267 2,274,607,936 23.158.919 1935.

145,500,000 2,956,577,704 2.946,200,352 2,426,760,923 22.547.006 1936.

145,500,000 3,144,506,755 3.134,122,223 2.614.895,597 22.047,287 1937

145,500,000 3,317,087.132 3,304,971.653 2,775,530,413 21,879,593 1938.

145,500,000 3.348, 708,580 3.335,934.905 2,823,686.934 22,587,233 1939.

145,500,000 3,591,564,586 3,577,601,099 3,060,839.111 23,045,576 1940.

145,500,000 3,707.316,459 3.690.354,825 3,179.523.062 23,100.118 1941

145,500,000(d) 4,067.926.723(d) 4,051.049,894(d) 3,524,193,735(d): 22,176,633 (2) Average of the 12 monthly statements for each year. (b) Includes liabilities to shareholders. (c) Figures are as Mar. 31, (d) Figures are as at June 30.

CHIEF CONSOLIDATED AND TOTAL EXPENDITURES

Pen-
Interest Old Age

sions,
Total,

Gov't Grand Fiscal on Pen- Nat'l

War,

Post Ordin'ry Capital Special Owned Total Year Public sions Defense Milit'ry Office Exp'ndi- Exp'nd- Exp'nd- Enter- Exp'ndDebt

& Civil

ture iture iture prises iture $1.000 $1.000 $1.000 $1.000 $1.000 $1.000 $1.000 $1.000 $1.000 $1.000 1935 138,533 14,942 13,920 43,786 30,252 359,700

7,107 60.659 50,136 478,106 1936

134,549 16,764 16,593 43,337 31, 137 372,539 6.544 102,047 50,940 532,585 1937

137,410 21.149 21.678 43.356 31,906 387,112 3.491 78.003 44,218 532,005 1938

132.117 28.653 32,760 42,823 33.762 414,891 4.430 68.534 44,833 534.408 1939.

127.996 29.044 34,432 42,793 35.455 413,032 5.424 71.895 58.943 553,063 1940

129.315 29.977 13,189 42,869 36,726 398,323 7.030 207.404 42,079 680,794 1941 139,179 29.912 1941 42,196 38.700 390,621 3,358 794,914

18,182

1,249,601 Note- The National Defense expenditures include Militia, Naval Service, Air Force (covering also Civil Government air operations. Railway and Canals include Collection and Income. The total includes other unenumerated items.

Since Sept. 1, 1939, nearly all National Defence expenditure, including administration, has been charged under the War appropriation classified as Special Expenditures.

ASSETS, NET DEBT, AND PER CAPITA TAXATION
Year

Per
Year

Per
Capita
Ending

Capita March

Assets
Net Debt Taration March 31 Assets

Net Debt Taxation
Dollars
Dollars Dollars

Dollars

Dollars Dollars 1934, 411,063,957 2.729.978,141 25.12 1938.

438,570.044 3,101.667.570 40.03 1935, 359 845,411 2,846,110,958 27.84 1939.

485.761,502 3,152,559,314 38.51 1936 425,843,510 3.006.100,517 28.77 1940.

687.976.735 3.271.259.647 40.95 1937

458,568.937 3.083.952.202 34.76 1941 11,362,707,671 3,648,691,449
INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL FAILURES IN CANADA

Source: Dun and Bradstreet, incorporated
Manu- Wholesale Retail

Con- Commercial Total facturing Trade

Trade
struction Service

Totals
Year and
Province

Lia-
Lia-
Lia-
Lia-
Lia-

Lia
No, bilities No. bilities No. billties No. billties No. bilities No. bilities

Endinti

Not av.

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(1939) of 21.903 miles.
U. S.-CANADA MERCHANDISE TRADE IN DOLLARS
Exports to U. S.

Imports
Calendar

from
year

Canadian
Foreign
Total

U.S. 1920.

555,337,289

26,071,180

581,408,469 921,235,401 1921

323,101,184

11.871,437 334,972,621 555,091,001 1922

336.202,309

11,415,052
347,617.361

509,909,469 1923

409,517,195

10,811.013 420,328,208 610.354, 278 1924

384,611,743

10,012.304
394,624,047

524.473,366 1925.

441.002.198

9,854,766 450.856,964 578,575.073 1926.

457,877.594

12,686,575

470,564,169 668,747,247 1927

466.887.149

16.963,393 483.850,542 706,683,861 1928.

481,531,086

21,158,661 502,689,747 825,651,549 1929.

492,685,606

22,652,175
515,337.781

893,585,482 1930

373,424,236

16,487,858

389,912,094 653.676,496 1931

240.196,849

9,603,772
249.800,621

393,775,289 1932.

158,705,050

6,316,726

165,021,776 263,549,346 1933

168,292,840

4,712,124 172,954,964 217,291,498 1934

218,597,071

5,426,186

224.023,257 293.779,813 1935

261,685,372

11,434,232 273.119.604 312,416,604 1936.

333,916,949

10,869,594

344,786,543 369,141,513 1937

360,012,143

12,208.624
372.220,767

490,504,978 1938

270,461,189

8,296.737 278,757.926 424,730,567 1939,

380,392,047

9.361.551

359,753,598 496,898,466 1940

442,984,157

8,959,511
451,943,668

744,231,156

ESTIMATED CANADIAN BALANCE OF INTERNATIONAL PAYMENTS, 1939 AND 1940

(Millions of Canadian dollars)

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143

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110

Credits Debits Net Credits Debits Net Canada and All Countries Current Account Merchandise trade-after adjustment.

906 713 +193 1.212 Net exports of non-monetary gold.

1,046

+ 166 184

+184 203 Tourist expenditures

+ 203 164

86
+ 78

128 43 Interest and dividends.

+ 85 57 311 - 254 52

306 Freight and shipping

- 254 87 119

138 132 All other current transactions

+ 6 36 68

32 113 TOTALS-Current Account

- 30

1,434 1,297 + 137 1,846 1,670 Special Gold Transactions (1)

+ 176 248

248 Capital Movements.

495 651 - 156 283 475 Balancing Item (2).

- 192

+ 19 Canada and Empire Countries

+ 16 Current Account Merchandise trade-after adjustment.

436 177 + 259 708 261 Tourist expenditures

+447 9 13 4 6

3 Interest and dividends

+ 3 5 81 76

3 Freight and shippng,

72 69 39

8
76

36 All other current transactions.

+ 40 6 14 8

61 TOTALS-Current Account-- United Kingdom

+ 2 371 245 +126 670

323 Other Empire

+ 347 Countries.

116
79 + 37 186

+ 76 All Empire Countries 487 324 + 163 856 433 Capital Credits..

+423 97

97 116 Sub-total.

+ 116

584 324 +260 972 Special Gold Transactions (1)

433 + 539

248 Capital Debits

248 180 180

334 Balancing Item(2)

- 334

80 Canada and Non-Empire Countries

+ 43 Current Account Merchandise trade-after adjustment.

470 536 66 504

785 Net exports of non-monetary gold

- 281 184

+184 203 Tourist expenditures

+ 203 155 73 + 82 122

40 Interest and dividends.

+ 82

52 230 -179 49 Freight and shipping

234 - 185 56 80

24
62

90 All other current transactions

34 30 54 24

50 82 TOTALS-- Current Account-United States

- 32 775 864

89 869 1,138 Other Foreign

-269 Countries

172 109 + 63 121 99 All Non-Empire

22 Countries.

947 973

26

990 Capital Debits.

1,237 -247 534 .534

141 Sub-total

- 141

947 1,507 - 560 990 Special Gold Transactions().

1,378 -388

248 Capital Credits

+ 248 461

+ 461 167 Balancing Itein (2)

+167 + 99

27 (1) This represents gold received from the United Kingdom in part settlement of her deficiency with Canada, and used in turn to settle part of Canada's deficiency with the United States.

(2) This balancing item reflects possible errors and the omission of certain factors which cannot be measured statistically, such as changes in the timing of payments for goods and services, and before the war the conversion of surplus sterling into other currencies.

(3) Preliminary statement.

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Transcontinental air service was inaugurated in ronto to Montreal. Twenty hours service is schedCanada (March 1, 1939) when Trans-Canada Air uled from coast to coast.

Trans-Canada Air Lines transported 53,180 per. Lines planes took off from Montreal and Van

sons (1940) as compared with 21,596 (1939). The couver on 3,500-mile flights. A preliminary "jig

air-mail and express Volume (1940) was twice that ger" service was made the same day from To-l of the previous year,

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