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Standard Time Zones of the World

Interstate Commerce Commission and U. S. Hydrographic Office Standard time for the world, like longitude, is meridian. Places to the east of there have faster counted from Greenwich, England, as the prime time; places to the west of there have slower time.

INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE The International Meridian Conference, held in When crossing this line in a westerly direction Washington, D. c. (1884) established as the (1. e., from west longitude to east longitude), the prime meridian, from which time was to be date must be advanced 1 day, and when crossing counted, the meridian passing through Greenwich, in an easterly direction (east longtitude to west England. The meridian 180' from this prime longtitude), the date must be set back 1 day. meridian was made the International Date Line, The line is so bent that it passes through Bering but, in order to include islands of the same group Strast with Asia to the West and Alaska .to the in the same day, it has been necessary to vary the East, then bends West so as to leave all the Aleuline from the 180th meridian at some places. The tian Islands on the East. The line turning east official date line runs from 70° N to 60° S. in again follows the 180° meridian again until 5° accordance with the following description:

below the equator, when it bends to the east toward Starting at the 180th meridian at 70° N.; thence the Samoan Islands which are left to the east and southeasterly to 169° W., 65° N., thence south away from the Fiji Islands to the west. It continues westerly to 170° E. 52°30' N., thence southeasterly south on the meridian of 172°30' W. to 45°30' S., to the 180th meridian at 48° N., thence southerly Tonga Islands, New Zealand and thence the line on the 180th meridian to 5° S., thence southeasterly continues southwesterly to the 180th meridian at to 172°30' W., 15.30' S., thence southerly to 45°30' | 51°30' S., thence southerly on the 180th meridian S., thence southerly on the 180th meridian to 60° S. 'to 60° S.

STANDARD TIME DIFFERENCES-UNITED STATES CITIES
At 12 o'clock U. S. Eastern Standard Time, the clocks in the cities of the United States are:
Atlanta, Ga.

111.00 AMI Galveston, Tex......111.00 A.M. 11 Omaha, Neb..... 11.00 AM Baltimore, Md. ...... 12.00 NOON| Hartford, Conn...... 12.00 NOON Philadelphia, Pa..... 12.00 NOON Birmingham, Ala. 11.00 A.M. Houston, Texas..... 11.00 A.M. | Pittsburgh, Pa....... 12.00 NOON Boston, Mass, ... 12.00 NOON Indianapolis, Ind..... 11.00 A.M. Portland, Oregon.... 9.00 A.M. Buffalo, N. Y..

12.00 NOON Kansas City, Mo.....11,00 A.M, Providence, R. I..... 12.00 NOON Charleston, S.

12.00 NOON|| Los Angeles, Cal..... 9.00 A.M. Richmond, Va....... 12.00 NOON Chicago, Ill.

J11.00 A.M. ||Louisville, Ky.......11.00 A.M. St. Paul, Minn....... 11.00 A.M. Cincinnati, Ohio... 12.00 NOON Memphis, Tenn......11.00 A.M. Rochester, N. Y.... 12.00 NOON Cleveland, Ohio.. 12.00 NOON Milwaukee, Wis...... 11.00 A.M. Salt Lake City, Utah. 10.00 A.M. Columbus, Ohio. 12.00 NOON||Minneapolis, Minn... |11.00 A.M. San Francisco, Cal...

9.00 A.M. Dallas, Tex.....

11.00 A.M. Newark, New Jersey.. 12.00 NOON Savannah, Ga... 12.00 NOON Den ver, Col....

10.00 AM, New Haven, Conn.... 12.00 NOON Seattle, Wash.... | 9.00 A.M. Des Moines, Iow 11.00 A.M. I New York, N. Y..... 12.00 NOON St. Louis, Mo... |11.00 A.M. Detroit, Mich... . 12.00 NOON | New Orleans, La.....11.00 A. M. || Washington, D. C.... 12.00 NOON El Paso, Tex........111.00 A.M. || Norfolk, V&......... 12.00 NOON ||

STANDARD TIME DIFFERENCES-NEW YORK AND FOREIGN CITIES At 12 o'clock noon United States Eastern Standard Time, the standard time in foreign cities is as follows: Alexandria.... 7.00 PM Il Delhi.. 110.30 P.M. MOSCOW...

8.00 PM Amsterdam.. 5.19 PM Dublin.. 5.00 P.M. | Oslo.

6.00 PM 7.00 PM Edmonton, Alb. 10.00 AM Athens.

Paris.

5.00 P.M. Auckland. 4.30 A.M. Freetown, S. 4.00 P.M. Perth.

1.00 AM, Baghdad.. 8.00 PM Geneva.. 6.00 P.M. Rio de Jan

2.00 PM Bangkok.

12.00 MID
Halifax.......

1.00 PM
Rome....

6.00 PM Batavia. 12.30 A.M. Havan&....... 12.00 NOON Santiago (CI

1.00 PM Belfast..

5.00 P.M.
Havre.....
5.00 PM Shanghal....

1.00 A.M. Berlin..... 6.00 P.M. Honolulu... 6.30 A.M. Singapore..

12.00 MID, Bogota... 12.00 NOON Hong Kong

1.00 A.M. Stockholm...

6.00 PM Bombay.. 10.30 PM Istanbul 7.00 PM Sydney (N. S.

3.00 A.M. Bremen... 6.00 PM Leningrad. 8.00 P.M. Teheran.....

8.30 PM, Brussels... 5.00 P.M. Lima..... 12.00 NOON Tokyo

2.00 AM, Bucharest .. 7.00 PM Lisbon... 5.00 P.M. Valparaiso ...

1.00 PM Budapest... 6.00 PM Liverpool 5.00 P.M. Vancouver...

9.00 AM, Buenos Aires 1.00 P.M. London.. 5.00 PM Vienn&......

6.00 PM Calcutta... 10.53 PM Madrid... 5.00 P.M. Warsaw...

6.00 PM Cape Town. 7.00 PM Manila 1.00 A.M. Wellington,

4.30 A.M. 12.30 P.M. Caracas....

Mexico City
111.00 A.M. Winnipeg ...

11.00 A.M. Copenhagen.. 6.00 P.M. Montevideo. 11.30 P.M. ll Yokohama...

2.00 A.M. Danzig 6.00 PM Montreal ... 12.00 NOON| Zurich......

6.00 P.M. Dawson, Y....

8.00 A.M. 11 Germany. France and Italy operate during the war on German Summer Time which is seven hours ahead of New York Standard Time: England Summer Time is six hours ahead.

At places marked the time noted is in the morning of the following day.

[graphic]

Daylight Saving Time

Source: The Merchants Association of New York There has been a considerable extension of Day- | is observed by over 35,000,000 persons: in the world light Saving notably in the Southern States.

| by more than 250,000,000. The State-wide use of

| Daylight Saving Time has been established in New Georgia has been placed on Eastern Standard Time

Jersey. and Rhode Island, whereas in Massachuby the Legislature for State purposes.

setts and New Hampshire Daylight Time has been Daylight Saving is observed throughout Greater

legalized. Daylight Saving Time is generally obNew York, and this practice influences a large area served throughout the States of Maine and Consurrounding the City, including all of Long Island. Inecticut and it is gaining widespread use in all of Westchester County, the entire State of Con Vermont. In Pennsylvania it is observed in Philanecticut and the entire State of New Jersey. delphia and Pittsburgh, and their suburbs, and

During the last few years the observance of Day generally by municipalities. The advantage of Daylight Saving Time in New York State has expanded light Saving Time was secured to Ohio in 1927 when to such a degree that it is now in effect (for the the interstate Commerce Commission put the State most part, during five months of the year) in all on Eastern Standard Time. communities classified as cities in the State in In Canada, in Sept., 1940, just before Daylight practically all communities near those cities and Saving Time was to revert to Standard Time, the in all other sections of the State, excepting those in Federal Government, by Order-in-Council under which agricultural pursuits are dominant.

the War Measures Act, ordered those municipaliDaylight Saving Time means advancing the clock ties in the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec which by one hour during the summer, generally from the had operated on Daylight Saving Time during the last Sunday in April until the last Sunday in Sep Summer of 1940, to continue on fast time indef. tember in the Northern Hemisphere and from the nitely. Spring to early Autumn in the Southern Hemi | Cicago and neighboring communities observe sphere. In the United States Daylight Saving Time | Daylight Saving Time and it includes October.

Calendar Improvement

Source: The World Calendar Association Calendar revision continues to progress toward | years, after the completed second quarter, at the actual adoption in 1945, despite the war. The end of June. It is recommended that these extra World Calendar is the only plan now receiving Saturdays be observed as World-Holidays serious international consideration. It has already The object of The World Calendar is to remove the approval of 14 governments: Afghanistan, the needless complications which exist in our calBrazil, Chile, China, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, endar today and to simplify and stabilize it so Mexico, Norway, Panama, Peru, Spain, Turkey and that it will adequately meet modern requirements. Uruguay. It is sponsored internationally by the Among the advantages of The World Calendar Chambers of Commerce of the British Empire, the are these: Exact statistical comparisons could be Universal Christian Council, the World Federation made between corresponding periods of different of Education Associations, etc. In the United 1 years without having to weigh the results because States. It has the support of the National Education of a different number of Saturdays or Sundays: Association, the General Federation of Women's days and dates always agree; many holidays could Clubs, the National Federation of Business and be set so that they always come on Monday and Professional Women's Clubs, the New York State so make a long weekend: any holiday with a fixed Chamber of Commerce and other Chambers of month date, like Independence Day, would always Commerce, the American Association for the Ad come on the same day of the week; any date that vancement of Science, the American Academy of is now fixed by the day of the week, such as "the Arts and Sciences, etc. Among religious denomina- first Tuesday after the first Monday in November tions, it is approved by the Protestant Episcopal would always have the same date. Church, American Lutheran, Reformed and This reform, long the subject of international Methodist Episcopal South Churches.

conference and study, impartially meets the need The World Calendar is being advocated by cal I of industry, government, social life, agriculture, endar reform organizations in Argentina, Aus education, science, religion and all phases of tralia, New Zealand, Belgium, BoliviaBrazil, I activity. Holidays would be stabilized as to day Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, and date. Religious and secular holidays would be Dominican Republic Ecuador, England, France, fixed by their respective authorities, and the way Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, would be opened for the Churches to agree upon a Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Spain, Switzer fixed Easter. The date frequently suggested as land, Turkey, the United States, Uruguay, Vene nearest the historical date would be April 8th in zuela and Yugoslavia.

The World Calendar The World Calender rearranges the length of To put a revised calendar into actual operation the familiar 12 months, equalizes the quarters and it is obvious that some kind of international agreehall-years and makes the calendar perpetual, every | ment must be secured. No single nation can act year the same. Equalization of the quarters and alone. It is anticipated that definite international hall-years is accomplished by giving the first action within a year or two, by a nation or group month of every quarter 31 days and each of the of nations, will be inaugurated for the adoption of remaining two months 30 days. Thus the 12 The World Calendar on the last day of December, month year has four months of 31 days and eight 1944. December 31st in that year falls on Sunday, months of 30 days. Every month has exactly 26 which would be considered as the extra Saturday, weekdays in addition to Sundays; the quarters be the Year-End Day of the new calendar. The World gin on Sunday and end with Saturday: and every Calendar would then be placed in operation on the year begins with Sunday, January 1st. Symmetry. next day, Sunday, January 1, 1945. The working balance, order, and stability are achieved without week would begin with Monday, January 2d, as dificult transitional changes.

New Year's Day being preceded by the Year-End To conform to the necessary 365 days in ordinary | Day, the Saturday-World-Holiday, would not reyears and 366 days in leap years, vitally essential quire another celebration on Monday. Year-End if any calendar is to harmonize with the solar | Day would not be a day of labor but a world-Holiyear and make it comparable from year to year, day. The World Calendar adds Year-End Day as an The World Calendar Association, sponsors of extra Saturday at the end of every year after the The World Calendar and the world center of completion of the fourth quarter, and adds al calendar authority. is located in the International Leap-Year Day, another extra Saturday in leap | Building. Rockefeller Center, New York City.

Table of Days Between Two Dates

Source: Astronomical Records (The table applies to ordinary years only. For leap year, one day must be added after Feb. 28.)

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91 121 152 182213 244 274 305 335

517 547 578 609 | 92 122 153 214 245 275 306 336 367 398 426 457 48715181548 579 610 640 671 701

93 123 154 184 215 246 276 307 337 368 399 427 458 488 519549/5801611 641 672) 702 94 124 155 185 216 247 277 308 338 369 400 428 459 489 520 550 581612 642 673703 95 125 156 186 217 78 309 339 370 401 429/460 490 521 551 582/613164316741704

96 126 157 187218 79 310 340 371 402 430 461 491 522 552 583 614 644 675 705 66 97 127 158 188 219 280 311 341 372 403 431 462 492 523 553 584 615 645 676 706 39 671 98 128 159 189 220251 281312 342 373 404 432 463 493 524 554 585 616 646 677 707

68 99 129 160 190 221 252 2 2 313 343 374 405 433 464 494 525 555 586 617 647 678 708 69 100 130 161 191 222 253 283 314 314 375 406 434 465 495 526 556 587 618 648 679) 709 70 101 131 162 192 223 254 284 315 345 376 407 435 466 496 527 557 588 619 649 680 710 71 102 132 163 193 224 255 2 5 316 346 (377408 436 467 497 528 558 589/620/65016811711

72 103 133 164 194 225 256 286 317 347 378 409 437 468 498 529559 590 621 651|682712 | 73 104 134 165 195 226 257 287 318 348 1379 410 438 469 499 5301560591/622 652 6831713

105 135 166 196 227 88 3191 349 380 411 439 470 500 531 561 592 623 653 684 714 75 106 136 167 197 228 259 289 320 350 381 412 440 471 501 532 562 593 624 654 685 715 76 107 137 168 198 229 260 290 321 351 17. 382 413 441 472 502 533 563 594 625 655 686 716 77 108 138 169 199 230 261 291 322 352 18. 383 414 442 473 503 534 564 595 626 656 687 717 78 109 139 170 200 231 262 292 323 353 19 384 415 443 474 504 535 565 596 627 657688 718 79 110|140 171 201 232 263 293324354 385 416 444 475 505 536 566 597|628|658|689719 80/111|141 172 202 233 264/294/325 355 386/4171445/476|506 537 567 59816291659/690720 81 112 142 173 203 234 265 295 326 356

507 538 568 599 630 660 691 82 113 143 174 204 235 266 296 327 357 23. 388 419 447 478 508 539 569 600 631 661 692 722 83 114/144 175 205 236 267 297 328 358 24. 1389 420 448 479 509 540 570 601 632 662 693723 84/115 145 176 206 237 26812981329359 25. 1390 421 449 480 510 541 571 602 633 663 694 724 85 116 146 177 207 238 269 299 330 360 26. 1391 422 450 481 511 542 572 603 634 664 695 725 86/117 147 178 208 239 27013001331361 27. 13921423/451/4821512 543 57316041635166516961726 87 118 148 179 209 240 271 301 332 362 28. 1393/4241452/48315131544 574 6051636166616971727 88 119 149 180 210 241 272302 333 363

10.453 484 514 545 575 606 637 667 698 728 89 120 150 181 211 242 273 303 334 364

2:1454 485 515 546 576 607 638 6681699 ...1901..11511...1212/243...13041...1365 ||31: 13961: ::14551...1516)...1577 6081...16691...1730

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The Sun's Right Ascension and Declination, 1942

(Washington-Apparent Noon)
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The Sun's Semi-Diameter and Horizontal Parallax

(Washington-Apparent Noon)

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D. H. M. A

Pct. Sun.... 15 59.6 432196 1300000. 333434. 0.26 25 9 7 1

+ 12,000 Mercury

1504
0.055 0.04
87 23 15 43

600 Venus 8.4 30.4 3788 0.876 0.83 0.94 224 49

68 Earth.. 3959 1.000 1.000 1.00 23 56 4

59 Moon.. 1080 0.0200.012 0.60

43 12

200 Mars, 2108 0.150 0.108 0.71 24 37 23

15

60 Jupiter. 1 35.2 22.6 43341 1312 318.4 0.24

9 55 41

270 Saturn.. 19.0 9.2 36166 763 95.2 0.12 10 14 24

63

330 Uranus

34.3
1.9 15439
14.66 0.25 10 8

380 Neptune.. 36.6L 1.3 164661

17.16 0.24 | 15 40 .. At mean distance.

The planet Pluto was an object of search for by new methods, is about 0.83 of the mass of the many years in accordance with predictions made earth. Its average distance from the Sun is about by Dr. Percival Lowell, founder and director of 3.700.000,000 miles. Perihelion will occur in 1989 the Lowell Observatory, Flagstafl, Arizona. It was and Aphelion in 2114. It lies in the constellation finally located by C. W. Tombaugh of that observa of Cancer. During 1942 its position in the sky will tory and public announcement made on March 13. range in right ascension from 8h 28m to 8h 45m 1930. Its mass, according to a recent determination and in declination from + 23° 10' to + 23° 57'.

Eclipses in 1942

FIVE ECLIPSES DUE

CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE ECLIPSE
Three of Sun, Two of Moon

Greenwich Mean Time

d

h m • In the year 1942 there will be five eclipses, three of the Sun and two of the Moon.

Eclipse begins........... August 12 2 8.4 a.m.

Greatest eclipse.......... August 12 2 44.8 a.m. I. A Total Eclipse of the Moon, March 2-3, 1942,

Eclipse ends. ............ August 12 3 20.8 a.m. visible in the United States as a partial eclipse; the beginning visible in the extreme northeastern

IV. A Total Eclipse of the Moon, August 25-26,

1942, visible in the United States: the beginning part of North America, also generally in Asia except the extreme eastern part, in the Indian Ocean,

visible in North America except the northwestern Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean and eastern

and extreme western part. in South America, and central South America: the ending visible in

Central America, the southeastern part of the North America except the extreme northwestern

Pacific Ocean, Greenland, the Atlantic Ocean, and part, in Greenland, and generally in western Asia,

generally in southwestern Asia, the western part Europe, Africa, South America, the western part

of the Indian Ocean, Europe and Africa, the endof the Indian Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean and the

ing visible in North America except the extreme eastern part of the Pacific Ocean.

northwestern part. Central America, South America, the eastern part of the Pacific Ocean, the

Atlantic Ocean and generally in southwestern CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE ECLIPSE

Europe, in part of the British Isles and the Eastern Standard Time

western part of Africa. dh

CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE ECLIPSE Moon enters penumbra ... March 2 27.6

Eastern Standard Time Moon enters umbra ......March 2 31.3

dhm Total eclipse begins..... March

33.2
Moon enters penumbra. August 25

1.7 p.m. Middle of the eclipse..... March 2 7 21.5 p.m.

Moon enters umbra. ... August

0.5 p.m. Total eclipse ends ........ March 8 9.8

Total eclipse begins..... August 25

0.9 p.m. Moon leaves umbra ... March 2 9 11.5 p.

Middle of the eclipse.... August 25 10 48.0 p.m. Moon leaves penumbra... March 2 10 15.0 p.m.

Total eclipse ends ...... August 25 11 35.0 p.m. Magnitude of the eclipse = 1.567

Moon leaves umbra...... August 26 12 35.3 a.m. (Moon's diameter = 1.0)

Moon leaves penumbra... August 26 1 34.0 a.m.

Magnitude of the eclipse = 1.541 II. A Partial Eclipse of the Sun, March 16-17,

(Moon's diameter = 1.0) 1942, not visible in the United States; visible in V. A Partial Eclipse of the Sun, September 10, Antarctica, in the southern Pacific Ocean and in

1942, not visible in the United States. This eclipse the southern part of the Indian Ocean.

begins at sunrise in the Arctic Ocean northeast of

Alaska and ends at sunset in the Mediterranean CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE ECLIPSE

Sea south of Sicily. It is visible in the northern Greenwich Mean Time

part of North America, except Alaska, in the north

ern part of the Atlantic Ocean, the Arctic Ocean, dh m

Greenland, Europe, Asia Minor, the Mediterranean Eclipse begins .......... March 16 9 44.5 p.m.

Sea except the eastern end and on the north coast Greatest eclipse..... ....March 16 11 36.7 p.m

of Africa. It will attain nearly maximum size at Eclipse ends . ... ... March 17 1 29.4 a.m.

the north cape of Norway. Magnitude of greatest eclipse = 0.639

CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE ECLIPSE (Sun's diameter = 1.0)

Greenwich Mean Time

d h m III. A Partial Eclipse of the Sun, August 12, 1942,

the Sun, August 12, 1992, Eclipse begins..... ... September 10 1 57.1 p.m. not visible in the United States.

Greatest eclipse..... September 10 39.1 p.m. This is a small eclipse, about one-eighteenth of

Eclipse ends...... September 10 5 21.4 p.m. the Sun's surface being obscured at the maximum and is visible only in a small part of the Antarctic

Magnitude of the eclipse = 0.523 Ocean south of the Indian Ocean,

(Sun's diameter = 1.0)

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Comets, Meteors Donati's was the finest comet of the nineteenth

e wae the finest comat of the nineteenth A comet increases in brilliancy as it approaches century and is known as the typical comet. In

the sun and fades rapidly as it departs. There are

three parts, nucleus, coma, and tail; the nucleus October, 1858, its tall reached halfway from the

is supposed to be composed of stones or particles of horizon to the zenith. Its period is 2,000 years. I dust. One can see stars through comets.

COMETS THAT HAVE MADE PERIHELION PASSAGES

[graphic]

Deg. Deg.

Deg. Gregg-Skjellerup.... May 1942 5.02 1902 0.89

17

216 355 Wolf I... June 1942 8.28 1884 2.43 5.50

161 204 Perrine...

Sept. 1942

6.58
1896 1.19 4.57

242 167 Tempel-Swift Oct. 1942 5.68 1869 1.15 5.2

290 114 Neujmin II. Apr. 1943 1916 1.38 4.90

328 194 Schaumasse. Aug. 1943 1900 1.17 6.80

91

46 D'Arrest... Sept. 1943 6.68

1851
1.36
5.71

144 174 Comas Sola. Apr. 1944 1927 1.78 6.58

66

40 Encke.... Aug. 1944 3.29 1786 0.33 2.20

335 185 Metcall.. Mar. 1945 7.73 1906 1.63

190 203 Pons Winnecke July 1945 6.15 1819 1.04

96

170 Kopir Oct. 1945 6.56

1906
1.70

264

20 Tempel II

Apr 1946

5.18
1873 1.33 4.87

120 187 Borrelly.

July 1946

6.87
1904 1.40 5.87

77 353 Brooks II. Sept. 1946 6.94 1889 1.87

177 196 Finlay .. Mar. 1947 6.85 1886 1.06 6.16

45 321 Faye....

Oct. 1947 7.42 1843 1.60 5.97 11 206 200 Taylor

Nov. 1947 6.37 1915 1.56 3.52 16 114 355 Whipple.. Aug. 1948 7.50 1933 2.48 5.16 10

189

191 Tempel I Apr. 1966 33.36 1866 2.10 9.50

163

234 173 Halley.... 1985 76.02 240 B.C. 0.59 35.32. 162

112 The largest meteorite of which the date of fall is another 80 lbs., and there were many small pieces. known is the one which crashed to earth on Feb. The next largest meteorite of which the date of 17, 1930, about 14 miles southwest of Paragould fall is known is the one which fell at Knyahinya. Ark. It split into fragments. One weighed 820 lbs., Hungary, on June 9, 1866. It weighed 647 pounds.

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