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Oman, Joseph W. (76), U. S. real admiral; London, Radziwill, Dowager Princess Marie-Rose (77), July 1.
Rome, Aug. 7. O'Melveny, H. W. (81), lawyer, Anancier; Los Ransley, H. C. (78), ex-Philadelphia Congressman; Angeles, Calif., April 14.
Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 5. Oppenheim, C. J. Sr. (81), New York City mer- Rathbone, Miss Josephine A. (75+), ex-president chant; Mt. Kisco, N. Y., May 28.
American Library Association; Augusta, Ga., Osborn, Esther (Mrs. E. O. Nelson) (62), singer; May 17. New York City, Aug. 29.
Rea, J. A. (92), newspaperman, oldest Cornell Oxenham, John (W. A. Dunkerley) author; in graduate; Tacoma, Wash., Feb. 20. England, Jan, 24.
Reed, C. A. (83), lawyer, ex-president State Senate; Pace, C. A. (71), banker, educator; New York City, Plainfield, N. J., Dec. 17, 1940. Dec. 12, 1940.
Rees, A. C. (65), printer. "father of the open Paderewski, I. J. (80), ex-Premier of Poland, shop''; Salt Lake City, Utah, July 26. pianist; New York City, June 29.
Reid, Helen R. (76), Canadian author, social Paderewski-Wilkonska, Mme. Antonina (83), sister worker; Montreal, June 8.
of the late Polish pianist; Pelham Manor, N. Rennell, First Baron (JN R. Rodd) (82), British Y., Oct. 6.
diplomat; in England, July 27. Page, B. A. (68), insurance executive; Hartford, Reuter, Gebriele (82), novelist; in Germany, Conn., July 30.
Nov. 15. Page, G. T. (82), ex-Chicago U. S. jurist; in Revel, Bernard (55), president Reshire College; Calif., Nov. 4.
New York City, Dec. 2, 1940. Palmer, J. L. (76), painter of horses; in England, Reverman, Rev. T. H. (??), Roman Catholic June 22.
bishop; Superior, Wis., July 18. Pancoast. T. J. (76), developer of Miami Beach; Reyes, Juan, pianist; Buenos Aires, Jan. 21. Moorestown, N. J., Sept. 16.
Rhoads, H. E (58), ex-newspaper executive; San Papi, Gennaro, (53), opera music conductor; New Diego, Calif., Nov. 2. York City, Nov. 29.
Richards, C. R. (70), educator; Minneapolis, Minn., Pardee, Dr. G. C. (84), ex-Governor; Oakland, April 17. Calif., Sept. 1,
Richards, J. G. (77), ex-Governor; Liberty Hills, Parke, William (68), actor; New York City, July S. C., Oct. 9. 28.
Rickert, T. A. (65), vice president A. F. of L.; Parmoor, Baron (Charles A. Cripps) (88), lawyer, New York City, July 28. pacifist; in England, June 30.
Ridge, Lola (Mrs. David Lawson) (57), poet; Pavenstedt, A. J. (87), von Bernstorff aid in World Brooklyn, N, Y., May 19. War; Southhampton, N, Y., Oct. 9.
Riegelmann, Edward (71), jurist; Brooklyn, N. Y., Paxton, W. McG. (72), painter; Newton Center, Jan. 15 Mass., May 13.
Rigling. Alfred (72), Franklin Institute librarian; Peace, Col. W. G. (64), said to have ordered last Philadelphia, Pa., Dec. 8, 1940.
shot in World War; Laguna Beach, Calif., Feb. Ripley, W. Z. (73), Harvard economist; in Maine, 11.
Aug. 16. Pease, Dr. C. G. (86), anti-tobacco crusader; New Ripple, Pacie, opera singer; New York City, York City, Oct. 7.
April 16. Penn, A. A. (65), composer, songwriter; New Roberts, Miss Elizabeth Madox (55), poet, novelist; London, Conn., Feb. 6.
Orlando, Fla., March 13. Penner, Joe (Josef Pinter) (36), actor; Philadel- Roberts, Prof. G. L. (81), educator; Kansas City, phia, Pa., Jan. 10.
Mo., Feb. 26. Pennock, s. s. (72), horticulturist; La Jolla, Calif., Roberts, Dr. S. R. (62), heart specialist; Atlanta, April 12.
Ga., April 14. Peixotto, E. C. (71), painter; New York City, Dec. Robertson,
W. H. ("Sparrow"') (83), "Paris 6, 1940
Herald" sport columnist; Paris, June 10. Peoples, Rear Admiral C. J. (64); Washington, Robinson, F. B. (58), ex-president City College; D. C., Feb. 3.
New York City, Oct. 19.
Mexico, Nov. 2.
York City, March 27.
Rogers, Arch (42), foreign editor United Press; York City, June 27.
Mt. Vernon, N. Y., Oct. 14. Perry, R. H. (71), sculptor, painter; New York Rodriguez, J. L. (111), & promoter of CentroCity, Oct. 27.
American Union; San Salvador, Sept. 21. Petersen, C.O. (44), Byrd antarctic explorer; Port- Rogers, Prof. R. E, (53), language expert, Camland, Me., Nov. 10.
bridge, Mass., May 13. Phelan, M. F. (66), ex-Congressman; Lynn, Mass., Rollet, Gen. Paul (72), of French Foreign Legion; Oct. 12.
Paris, April 16. Phillips, Dr. P. K. (68), dog breeder: Cranbury, Roosevelt, G H (50), brother of Mrs. Franklin N, J., Oct. 20.
D. Roosevelt, consulting engineer; Washington, Pidgeon, E. E. (75), newspaper man; New York D. C., Sept. 25. City, Aug. 30.
Roosevelt, Mrs. James (Sara Delano) (86), mother Pilcher, L. F., ex-New York State architect; of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt; Hyde Overbrook, Pa., June 14.
Park, N. Y., Sept. 7. Pitman, Richard (67), actor; Jamaica, N. Y.,
Roosevelt, P. J. (49), banker, yachtsman; drowned Nov. 13.
in Oyster Bay, N. Y., Nov. 8. Pitts, E. C. ('Alabama") (30), ex-Sing-Sing foot
Rourke, Miss Constance M (55), author; Grand ball champion; Yaldese, N. C., June 7.
Rapids, Mich., March 23. Plant, P. M. (40), sportsman; New York City. Rousseau, Paul (73), boxing executive; in France, June 18.
May 5. Plaskett, J. S., astronomer; Eskimalt, B. C., Oct. Rowell, N. W. (74), ex-Chief Justice of Ontario; 17.
Toronto, Nov. 22. Pocock, Capt. Roger (76), traveler, author; in Rubens, Col. H. R. (71), Cuban 1895-'98 junta England, Nov. 12.
leader; New York City, April 3. Porter, E. S. (71), Alm fiction; New York City, Russell, C. E (80), newspaperman; Washington, April 30.
D. C., April 23. Portney. J. K. (69), President Jewish Socialist Russel, Countess ("'Elizabeth") (74) novelist; Party of Poland; New York City, Sept. 27.
Charleston, S. C., April 9. dePourtales, Count Guy (57), novelist; in Switzer
Russell, P. W. (63), New York stock broker; New land, June 13. Powers, H. J. (81). Chicago theatre manager:
Haven, Conn., Aug. 24.
Sabatier, Paul (86), scientist, chemist, 1912 Nobel Morristown, N. J., Feb. 21.
Prize Winner; in France, Aug. 14. Prevost, Marcel (78), novelist, playwright, member Sackett, F. M'(72), ex-Ambassador to Germany, of French Academy, in France, April 8.
ex-U.'s. Senator from Kentucky, lawyer; BaltiPrice, Mrs. Clara Babbit (85), actress; Santa Monica, Calif., Feb. 1.
more, Md., May 18. Price, C. F. (85), horse race judge; Louisville, Ky.,
Sakatani, Viscount Yoshiro (79), financier; Tokio. July 27
NOV. 14. Prugh, Rev. B. E. (**), Prohibition leader; Harris
Salinger, Charles (69), Schuylkill navy commodore; burg, Pa., April 28.
Philadelphia, Pa., April 28, Purvis, A. B. (51), head of British Supply Council
Samary, Marie (93), actress, Paris, June in North America; British airport plane crash,
Sanborn, J. Pitts (61), music critic; New York Aug. 14.
City, March 7. Quidde, Ludwig (82), Nobel Peace Prize (1927); Sanders, A. D. (84), ex-Congressman; Rochester Geneva, March 4.
N. Y., July 15. Quist, Hugo (51), Finnish athletic trainer; New Sanders, Capt. W. 8. (70), Parliament labor leader; York City, Feb. 14.
in England, Feb. 4.
Saunders, Peggy (Mrs. L. R. C. Michell (36), tennis | Stamp, Josiah (60), financier, economist; London, player: London, June 21.
April 16. Saxon, Marie (Mrs. Sidne Silverman) (37), actress; Stanley-Brown, Joseph (83), banker of Kew GarHarrison, N, Y., Nov. 12.
dens, New York City: Pasadena, Calif., Nov. 2. Scaffa, N. C. (53). New York private detective; Scanton, W. T. (64), jurist; Chicago, Ill., Nov. 8. Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 31.
Starr, Rev. E. C. (97), Oldest Yale graduate; Schaeffer, J. A. (54), educator: Lancaster, Pa., Cornwall, Conn., Jan. 16. April 6.
Stearly. Rev. W.R. (72), Protestant Episcopal Schertzinger, Victor (52), song writer; Hollywood, Church bishop; Montclair, N. J., Nov. 8. Calif., Oct. 26.
Steel, Willis (75), playwright, critic; New York Schilder, Dr. P. F. (54), Bellevue psychiatrist; City, Jan. 31. New York City, Dec. 8, 1940.
Stelzle, Rev. Charles (72), Labor Temple founder: Schlacks, C. H. (75), industrialist; Pasadena, New York City, Feb, 27. Calif., March 3.
Stephenson, James (41), actor; Santa Monica, Schoener, Rev. G. M. A. (79), rose breeder; San Calil., July 29. Jose, Calif., Feb. 10.
Stern, Louis (81), actor; Hollywood, Calif., Feb. 15. Schoenheimer, Prof. Rudolf (43), biochemist; Stevens, W. A (61), ex-New Jersey Attorney Yonkers, N. Y., Sept. 11.
General; Philadelphia, Pa., March 9. Schroder, Baron Bruno (73), banker; in England, Stevens, Landers (63), actor; Hollywood, Calif., Dec. 10, 1940.
Dec. 19, 1940. Schuelke, Eric (51), inventor of tracer bullet; Stewart, Robert (68), checker champion; in ScotHackensack, N. J., Jan. 28.
land, Aug. 11. Schulte, Karl (69), Roman Catholic archbishop of Stewart, W. G. (72), actor; Glendale, Calif., Cologne; there, March 11.
July 16. Schweppe, c. 8. (60), banker; Chicago, III., Stiles, Dr. c. W. (73), hookworm discoverer: BaltiAug. 26
more, Md., Jan. 24. Schwerin, R. C. (41), polo player, yachtsman; San Still, Sir Frediric, physician to the King, Children's Francisco, Calii.. April 4.
diseases expert; in England, June 30. Schwert, P. L. (48), Buffalo, N. Y., Congressman, Stillwell, L. B. (77), of Princeton, N. J., electrical
ex-baseball player; Washington, D. C., March 11. engineer; Baltimore, Md., Jan. 19. Scribner, S. A. (82), showman; Bronxville, N. Y., Stockbridge, Frank . (70), author, Journalist; July 8.
Stockbridge, Mass., Dec. 7, 1940. Secor, A. J. (83), art collector, donor; Toledo, O., Stoddard, Henry (97), oldest practicing lawyer in July 27.
U. S.; Woodbridge, Conn.. Feb. 9. Severance, H. C. (62), New York architect; Nep- Stolz, Rev. Joseph (19), dean of Reformed Rabbis tune, N. J., Sept. 2.
in U. S.; Chicago, Ill., Feb. 7. Sewall, W. G. (67), rubber grower, African game Stone, C. A. (74), civil engineer; New York City. hunter; New York City, July 14,
Feb. 25. Shakzky, Prof. Boris (51), Kerensky aid in Russia, Stone, Dr. H. M. (Hannah Mayer) (47), birth conjurist; Santiago, Chile, Jan. 22.
trol pioneer: New York City, July 10. Shamberg, A. J. (70), exporter, Port Authority Stonehaven, Viscount (J. L. Baird) (67), ev-Gov. officer: New York City, Nov. 20.
Gen. of Australia; in England, Aug. 20. Shannon, Peggy (31), actress; Hollywood, Calif., Strawbridge. Miss Anna W. (58), painter, author, May 11.
fier; Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 9. Shannon, Mrs. Walter (Leona Lannar); Englewood, Strong. L. A. (54), U. S. Government entomologist; N. J., April 22.
Madera Canyon, Ariz., June 2. Shawkey, M. P. (72), W. Va, educator; in Georgia, Strong, W. M. (42), New York advertising execuFeb. 6.
tive; Pasadena, Calif, March 23. Shelton, D. O. (73), founder National Bible In
Stroock, S. M. (67), New York lawyer, president stitute; Briarcliff Manor, N. Y., Jan. 29.
American Jewish Committee; in W. Va., Sept. 11. Sheppard, Morris (65), U. S. Senator from Texas;
Stuart, Prof. D. R. (67), Princeton, N. J., Latin Washington, April 9.
scholar; in Vermont, Aug. 29. Sherley, Swagar (69), ex-Kentucky Congressman, Stuart, J. E. (88), painter; San Francisco, Calif., lawyer; Louisville, Ky., Feb. 13.
Jan. 1. Siemers, C. F. von (68), electrical industrialist:
Suffolk, Earl of (C. H. Y. Howard) (35); in EngBerlin, July 10.
land, May 12. Sikes, E. W. (72), educator, author; Clemson, Sulzer, William (78), ex-Governor, ex-CongressS. C., Jan. 8.
man, lawyer; New York City, Nov. 6. Simon, 'Heinrick (61), German refugee newspaper- Swift, E. J. (58), Red Cross executive; Washington, man; Washington, May 6.
D. C., Oct. 19. Simonds, F. W. (87), geologist; Austin, Tex., Sydell, Rose (Mrs. W. S. Campbell) (76), actress; March 27.
Brooklyn, N. Y., Aug. 4. Simonds, G. K. (60), industrialist; Brookline, Symmonds, Brig. Gen. c. J. (74); Chevy Chase, Mass., March 20.
Md., July 16. Simons, Rev. Minot (72), Unitarian; New York Taberski, Frank (52), pocket billiardist; SchenecCity, May 25,
tady, N. Y., Oct. 23 Simpson, Mrs. E. A. (Mary Kirk) third wife of
Tagore, Sir Rabindranath (80), poet; Calcutta. Ernest A. Simpson, former husband of the
Aug. 7. Duchess of Windsor; in England, Oct. 2.
Tague, P. F. (70), Boston postmaster; Boston, Simpson, Kenneth F. (45), lawyer, Congressman,
Mass., Sept. 17. ex-Chairman New York County Republican Com- Tarafa, J. S. (84), Puerto Rico sugar cane grower; mittee; New York City, Jan. 25.
San Juan, P. R., July 12. Skilton, C. S. (72), composer: Lawrence, Kan., Tassin, Prof. A. dev. (72), New York educator: March 12
Montclair, N. J., Nov. 3. Smith, Hamilton (54), movie novelist; Hollywood,
Tauscher, Capt. Hans (73), arms dealer; New York Calli., Oct. 29.
City, Sept. 5. Smith, Prof. Preserved (60), historian; Louisville,
Taylor, C.H. (73), newspaper owner; Boston, Ky., May 15.
Mass., Aug. 18. Smith, Tony (Anthony Stelmachowski) (63), clown,
Taylor, E. T. (73), Congressman: Denver, Colo., acrobat; Milwaukee, Wis., Jan. 14.
Sept. 3. Smith, Maj. Gen. W. R. (73); West Point, N. Y.,
Taylor, H. O. (89), historian; New York City, July 15.
April 13. Smoot, Reed (79), U. S. Senator from Utah 1903
Teleki, Count Paul (61), Premier of Hungary; 33, Mormon leader; St. Petersburg, Fla., Feb. 9.
Budapest, April 3. Snowden, Mrs. Joanna (72), Negro social worker:
Thayer, J. V. B. (88), banker; Brooklyn, N. Y., Chicago, Ill., Oct. 11.
Dec. 5. Snyder, H s. (72), steel manufacturer; Bethlehem,
Thomas, Elton (Kenneth Davenport) (63); HollyP&., Oct. 1.
wood, Calif., Nov. 16. Soberances, Pearl (Mrs. G. E. Linn) (65), singer;
Thompson, G. L. (76), State Senator; Kings Park, Santa Barbara, Calif., Feb. 22.
N. Y., Sept. 1. *Soloveitchik, Prof. and Rabbi (62), Moses Talmud
Thompson, J. W. (72), educator; San Francisco, expert; New York City, Jan. 31.
Calif., Sept. 30.
Thompson, Prof. R. C. (64), archaeologist, Lon-
Thomson, F. G. (67). Philadelphia financier and Spafford, E. E. (63), New York lawyer; Annapolis, benefactor; New York City, Sept. 13. Md., Nov. 13.
Thorne, J. C. (68), hotel owner, industrialist: Speers, J. M. (79), New York City liner merchant; New York City, Sept. 16. Laconia, N. H., July 24.
Timberlake, C. B. (86), ex-Congressman, farmer' Speyer, James (80), banker, New York City, Oct. 31. Sterling, Colo., May 31.
Tinkham, H. L. (72), shoe manufacturer; Brockton, Watkins, Rev. A. S. (77), Prohibition candidate
for president, 1920; Bellefontaine, o., Feb. 10. Titulescue, Nicholas (67), ex-Foreign Minister of Wear, J. W. (64), tennis player, banker; PhilaRumania; Cannes, March 17.
delphia, Pa., June 4. Todd, H. 's. (69), painter; Northport, N. Y., Webber, John (103), mine owner: Toronto, Dec. 5. April 21.
Weeks, Mrs. A. G. (Alice Standish) (77). "Mother
G. A. R. post, Martinsville, m.; Glendale, Calif., Boston, Mass., Dec. 12, 1940.
Welch, Michael (82), ex-pitcher for New York
Weldon, Elizabeth (70), actress; Los Angeles,
Wells, R. S. (86), Mormon leader; Salt Lake City,
Welsh, Herbert (89), Philadelphia, Pa., artist,
friend of Indians; Montpelier, Vt.. June 28. in Kenya Colony, Sept. 30.
West, J. M. (70), Texas newspaper owner and oil Trautmann, Mrs. Ralph, leader in health pro- man; Kansas City, Mo., Aug. 24. tective work; New York City, Aug. 18.
Wexler, Jacob (58), actor; New York City, Jan. 16. Treanon, W. E. (57), federal Judge; Indianapolis, Whitcomb, Mrs. Harriet M. (102) Jamaica Plain, April 26.
Mass., Jan. 25. Treanor, Vincent (64), New York sports news- White, A, B. (84), ex-Governor, newspaperman; paperman; Andover, Mass., Aug. 8.
Parkersburg, W. V., July 3. Treat, Maj. Gen. C. G. (81), Washington, D. C.,
Whitney, Mrs. Caspar (62), civic leader; White
River Junction, Vt., July 2.
Whitney, Mrs. G. E. (80), novelist; Augusta, Ga.,
May 22 Udet, Col. Gen. Ernst (45), German flying war Whittelsey, Mrs. Andrews (92), Ventnor, N. J., ace; in that country, Nov. 17.
Feb. 25. Ulrich, c. K. (82), playwright; New York City Whittlesey, c. W. (79), retired actor, decorator; (L. I. City), July 5.
New York City, Dec. 6, 1940 Underhill, Evelyn (Mrs. H. S. Moore) (65), mystic Wick, Frances G. (65), cold-light expert; Poughauthor; in England, June
keepsie, N. Y., June 15. Ussishkin, M. M. (78), Zionist leader; Jerusalem,
Wilberforce, Sir H. W. W. (77), tennis executive; Oct. 2
near London, March 28. Van Devanter, Willis (81), ex justice U. S. Supreme
Wile, F. W. (67), newspaperman; Washington, Court; Washington, DC., Feb. 8.
April 7. Van Gelder, Martinus (87), pianist, composer;
Wiles, J. H, (80), biscuit manufacturer; Kansas Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 26.
City, Mo., June 22. Van Horn, Brig. Gen. R. O. (64), World War
Wilhelm II ex-German Kaiser (Emperor) and commander; San Francisco, Calif., June 26.
King of Prussia (Wilhelm Hohenzollern) (82);
in exile. Doorn, the Netherlands, June 4. Velez-Perez, ex-Consul Gen. of' Colombia; New
Wilkins, Brig. Gen. H. E. (80); Des Moines, Ia., York City. Jan. 18.
Wilkins, Prof. T. Venturi, Prof. Adolfo (84), art historian; in Italy,
R. (49), atom researcher:
Rochester, N. Y., Dec. 10, 1940. June 9.
Wilkinson, Sir N. R. (71), First Herald of Ireland, Veragua, Duke of (Ramon Colon Carvajal), descendant of Columbus; Madrid, Jan. 24.
architect of Titanias Palace; Dublin, Dec. 22,
1940. Vernon, Gronville (58), critic; New York City,
Williams, Craig (64), actor; New York City,
Williams, J. D., theatrical producer; New York Vincent, G. E. (76), educator, ex-head Rockefeller
City, March 22, Foundation; New York City, Feb. 1,
Williams, W. T. B. (74), Tuskegee vice pres.; Von Wise, L. B. (55), baseball club owner; Mont
Tuskekee, Ala., March 26.
(F. clair, N. J., March 12.
Willington, Marquess of Freeman-Thomas) Wakefield. Viscount (81), oil, ex-Lord Mayor of
(74), ex-Gov. Gen. of Canada; London, Aug. 12. London; in England, Jan. 15.
Wills, C. H (62), automobile engineer: Detroit. Walker, Stuart (53), actor, playwright; Beverly
Mich., Dec. 30. 1940. Hills, Calif., March 13.
Winn, Maj. Gen. F. L. (76), Palo Alto, Calif.,
Winston, F. D. (83), jurist; Chapel Hill, N. C..
Whorf, B. L. (44), Aztec culture expert; Wethers.
Worthington, W. J. (69), actor, play producer:
Beverly Hills, Calif., April 9.
Wright, Huntley (71), actor; in Wales, July 10.
Yorkney, J. C. (70). actor; Ft. Lee, N. J., Aug. 20.
Yost, C. S. (77), newspaper editor; St. Louis, Mo., 30. and his wife, Sept. 1.
N. Y., July 6.
Holyoke alumna: Jamestown, N. Y, May 17 New York City, Sept. 20.
there, May 4.
The Oxford Group and Buchmanism The Oxford Group, now at work in more than 50 ; human relationships, for unselfish cooperation, for countries, seeks to solve personal, national and cleaner business, cieaner politics, for the eliminainternational problems by bringing men and wo
tion of political, industrial and racial antagonmen everywhere back to the basic principles of the
isms." Christian faith, enhancing all their primary loyal
Dr. Buchman was born in Pennsburg. Pa., in
1878, son of a business man of Swiss descent. In ties. It is not an organization, sect, society or
1921 he arrived in Oxford University with his mesdenomination. It has no membership list, subscriptions, badge or rules. It includes a large num
sage of absolute honesty, purity, unselfishness
and love," "listening to God," and ''world-changber of persons, members of all the recognized ing through life-changing," From its beginnings Christian churches throughout the world. repre- at that time in the rooms of an undergraduate, the senting almost every creed, political party, class Oxford Group has spread in post-war years: and color
Dr. Buchman and other leaders of Moral ReAccording to the founder, Dr. Frank N. D. Armament in the United States can be reached at Buchman, their aim is "a new social order under the Fairmont Hotel, San Francisco, and at 61 the control of the Spirit of God, making for better Gramercy Park North, New York City.
Science Review of the Year 1941 These many advances in science and technology during 1941 have been reported by Science Service. Most of them are deseribed in the pages of the weekly magazine published by Science Service, SCIENCE NEWS LETTER, to which you can refer in your local library. If you wish more information about any partieular report, you may find it through the SCIENCE NEWS LETTER Index contained in the issues of June 28 and Dec. 27, or if you have dimeulty in finding the issue you want, send your request, with two 3-cent stamps for each Inquiry, to Scienee Service, 1719 N Street, N.W., Washington, D. C.
AERONAUTICS The Northrup "Flying Wing," housing motor a cloud and warned the pilot to change his course and personnel within the airfoil and with radically when he was approaching too close to lightning, new control means, was successfully tested.
The exhaust-gas turbosupercharger which paoks The world's largest flying boat, capable of flying
the thin air of high altitudes into engine cylinders
until their oxygen is the equivalent of sea-level non-stop across the Atlantic and back, with a
density was produced in mass for lend-lease planes. 200-foot wing-spread and powered by four 2.000
A method of preventing air locks in fuel lines horsepower engines, 70-ton Martin's XPB2M-1, and accumulation of gasoline vapors in fuel tanks was launched.
was developed as a modified centrifugal pump The world's largest bomber, the 212-foot wing- attached directly to the fuel tank. spread, 82-ton Douglas B-19, took to the air, Methods for contact, projection, and electrolytic
A 2,000 horsepower single-seater interceptor printing directly onto metal patterns or templates plane, powered by one 14-cylinder motor, was speeded airplane production. produced by Republie for the Army, its mission A new technique for spot-welding aluminum being to climb fast to sub-stratosphere altitudes alloys speeded aircraft production, and attack bombers with its exceptional strong Explosive rivets, set off by a heat unit gun, fire power,
were used in the thousands of fastening points on A new four-engined bomber, Boeing B-17 E, airplanes which are accessible from only one side, equipped with superchargers for high altitudes, to speed production. self-sealing tanks, armor, retractable power tur- Equipment was furnished for meteorological obrets and increased fre power, was announced by servations of the upper air to be made from the Army Air Corps
steamships over a route from New York to Lisbon A twin-engined monoplane constructed of resin- for the benefit of transatlantic flying. bonded plywood was successfully flown.
Bullet-sealing fuel hose was used with selfA helicopter was successfully kept in the air for sealing fuel tanks to prevent leakage and are in a short time in the United States.
the air. An airplane instrument consisting of a neon A new speed record for a west-east crossing of tube and micrometer connected to a pointed the Atlantic was set in delivering an American tungsten rod picked up electrical discharge from plane to Great Britain.
ANTHROPOLOGY AND ARCHAEOLOGY Life two to three miles above sea level has trans- and wore clothes, probably more than 25,000 years formed Andean people into a distinct physiological ago, according to geologists, and revealed through variety of the human species, was the report from five seasons of excavation in Sandia Cave, New Peru.
Mexico. The Government's first scientifically designed Rough stone knives and other tools used in the functional fashions for women in defense industry beach life of Canadians apparently more than and farm work were launched.
10,000 years ago were discovered near Lake Huron Found in Siberia, a unique statuette representing in Ontario. an Old Stone Age woman in costume was pro- A large collection of 500 skeletons was unearthed nounced by an American archaeologist to be strik- at Point Hope, Alaska, where previous digging had ing evidence of style survival, since northeast unearthed a well-planned town of the prehistoric Siberian natives wear the 15,000-year-old type of Arctic, abandoned about 2,000 years ago. garment.
First detected by a schoolboy, cliff shelters at A blood test given to Wan, 4,000-year-old Bear Mountain, N. Y., yielded quantities of pottery Egyptian mummy, showed his blood to be type B, and artifacts left by the Algonoquian Indlans who like that of many modern Egyptians.
preceded the Iroquois in the Hudson Valley. Australia's first people were probably pigmies Some of the Mississippi Valley's progressive who occupied the entire continent was the new Indians of the Hopewell Mound Builder culture theory advanced by & scientist who told of migrated as far east as Pennsylvania was the measuring and observing inherited traits in 2,500 deduction from finding there a well-preserved natives and half-castes in 100 living Australian skeleton of Hopewell type with Hopewell objects, tribes.
A presidential proclamation authorizing addiWord came from unoccupied France that a tion of five acres to the Acmulgee National Monu. magnificent 30,000-year-old gallery of prehistoric ment near Macon, Georgia, made it possible for cave art was discovered near Montignac, southwest CCC boys to evacuate an Indian stoekade and Prance
provide data for reconstructing an old Creek Soviet archaeologists opened tombs in the great
Indian town. mausoleum of Tamerlane and his descendants at Resembling previous discoveries in Texas caves, Samarkand, and examined the kneecap damage skeletons and artifacts of a primitive type of cave
dwelling Indian were found in northern Mexico, causing Tamerlane's lameness. The Arst
full account was published of the flying indicating that several thousand years ago this explorations which Americans undertook in 1935
culture was spread over a considerable area.
Homes of plain citizens of the Mayan Indian to 1937, surveying Iran archaelogically from the air,
world were examined in the ruined "City of the
stone lady" in British Honduras, showing a wide That Iraq's earliest people, the Sumerians, ate
social gap between lower and upper classes. pork, mutton, beef, and some game and fish was determined by study of animal bones from ruins As a good neighbor project, the United States
launched ten archaeology expeditions in Latin of Tell Asmar near the Tigris.
American countries, joining hands with scientists Jesus Christ was not 33 but a middle-aged man
of these lands to niin missing data regarding nearly 50 years old when he died, an American
America's prehistoric past. scholar concluded from new studies of the
Explorers found two lost Incan cities 12,000 feet Babylonian calendar.
high in the Peruvian Andes, and evidence that : A remarkably large tower of the famed Third
Indians occupied a network of high altitude cities Wall fortification built by King Herod Agrippa in hat is now rank wilderness, came to light during excavations in northern
The opportunity to unearth stratified burials in Jerusalem.
Peru's northern coast aided archaeologists in fitNew light on évolution of architecture of Jewish
ting little-known peoples of pre-Incan times into synagogues was gained from a report on ruins at Peru's prehistory. Dura, Syria, where early synagogues had living For the first time, an anthropologist measured quarters attached.
bare bones of some of Peru's gorgeously wrapped Oider than America's Folsom Man type, Sandia mummies from Paracas, as a step toward underMan emerged as a type that lived in caves, hunted standing their relationship to other ancient Indians now extinct animals. built fires, cooked his food of Peru.
ASTRONOMY One of the most brilliant displays of aurora ob- Star 26 in Draco was found to be a triple system served in the United States occurred Sept. 18 in like alpha Centauri. connection with large sunspot groups, accompanied The Andromeda galaxy was shown to be about by magnetic storms and interrupted radio and wire as big as our own galaxy or Milky Way. communications.
Spectra of supernovae were interpreted without The presence of the chemical element thullum in the assumption of an excessively high temperathe sun's atmosphere was demonstrated.
ture, indicating they are similar fundamentally The temperature in the sun's core was computed
to ordinary novae. to be 25,700,000 degrees Centigrade.
A force 200 times gravity, caused by light pres"Coronium" causing mysterious solar spectral sure and acting on dust particles between the lines, was ascribed to "broken atoms" or ionized
stars, was discovered. iron, calcium, and nickel, especially Fe XIV with
Planets may be born of a triple star constantly loss of 13 electrons
picking up matter from cosmic clouds in space.
according to & Temperatures in excess of 1,000,000 degrees
new theory that would make Centigrade just above the sun's suriace, instead
planetary systems less rare than previously thought. of 10,000 degrees previously measured, were pro
Because meteors passing through the atmosphere posed to accord with the new ideas about the
many miles above the ground leave behind for origin of the sun's "coronium" lines.
many minutes a mirror for radio waves, consisting
of broken atoms, experiments show the possibility A more accurate solar parallax was determined
of counting meteors in daylight or cloudy weather from observations of the 1931 opposition of Eros,
by radio echoes. corresponding to a mean sun-earth distance of
Some of the glow of the night sky was shown 93,003,000 miles, with the small probable error of
to be due to the magnetic activity of the earth only 8,000 miles.
and its atmosphere. Actual motion of solar prominences was made Atmospheric pressure causes meteors to fly apart possible of determination by a new instrument
as they plunge to earth, studies of their trails that gives radial velocity.
showed A brilliant eruption of hydrogen gas from sun- A vanishing kind of matter, contraterrene, which spots was associated with severe radio dis- explodes devastatingly in contact with ordinary turbances of July 4..
matter, was postulated to account for meteor The sun sweeps up about 110,000,000 tons of craters in which meteorites are not found. hydrogen from space each second and uses it as New comets discovered included: Friend-Reese, tule, according to a new theory.
Paraskevopoulas, Van Gent, du Toit-Neujmin. Stars were calculated to change shape while Cunningham's comet discovered in 1940 reached revolving in elongated orbits around their com- naked eye brilliance at the beginning of 1941. panions, stretching to egg-shape and at other Periodic comets resighted were: Encke, first times being more round.
Schwassmann-Wachmann, second SchwassmannThe star Sheliak (beta Lyrae) was described as Wachmann (1929 I). involving a gigantic pinwheel of red, yellow and The first Schwassmann-Wachmann comet exgreen gases, spiralling outwards for 50,000,000 perienced a remarkable temporary increase in miles from a double star.
BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Radioactive "tagged" carbon atoms made it pos- Wax from a green-linted cotton variety was sible to follow food substances through a plant's investigated as a possible ingredient for polishes. whole nutrition cycle.
A new species of white blackberry was disPlant tumor tissue, free of the bacteria that covered in Florida. originally accompanied its growth, was grafted It was demonstrated that tobacco plants produce into healthy plants and grew there.
nicotine in their roots. Seeds buried in bottles 60 years ago
Pressures on the order of 5,000 pounds per square
were resurrected and found still viable.
inch were found to have a paralyzing effect on
protoplasm in movement. Seedless watermelons were produced by treating
Fly larvae that, like spiders, catch other insects unpollenated flowers with growth hormones.
in webs, were discovered in the Southern AppaThere was a very large increase in waterfowl
The parasitic dodder vine was proved capable of The U. S. bird population was estimated as at
carrying disease viruses from plant to plant. least five billion.
A one-dose vaccine for hog cholera was anA natural growth-promoting substance. more
nounced. powerful than synthetic chemicals, was found in
Arsenic was found to be a good antidote for ripening pollen.
selenium poisoning in animals. Colchicine injected into incubating eggs pro- Effective contact sprays were discovered for duced chickens with double-sized combs.
combating Japanese beetle, and distribution of Sulfanilamide was found to have somewhat the the "milky disease'' bacteria that kill their larvae same effects as colchicine, in speeding evolutionary was undertaken on a large scale. changes in plants.
Chloropicrin, tear-gas of World War I fame, Hormone modification of sex after birth was
was found a good preventive of eelworm damage accomplished in experiments on opossums
to several crops. Week-old mouse embroyos grew successfully To Prof. D. R Hoagland and Dr. D. I. Arnon, when grafted on three-day-old chick embryos. University of California, were awarded the $1,000
Success in transplantation of eyes of talle prize of the American Association for the Adamphibians with return of vision was announced. vancement of Science for revolutionary discoveries Vitamin B, was found concentrated in tree buds.
regarding plant nutrition.
CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS American commercially built electron micro- low-grade manganese ores, to render this country scopes, magnifying 10,000 to 125,000 diameters, independent of overseas sources.
Cotton plants were found to be as good a source were used to probe minute structural secrets of
of cellulose, much used in plastics, as wood. rubber, plastics, industrial dust, smoke, rouge, face
A synthetic method of making glycerine from powder, radio tube laments, and even biological
petroleum refinery gases was discovered. tissues, cells, bacteria, viruses; it is believed or
Starch was synthetically produced from glucose ganic molecules have actually been photographed.
for the first time without aid of living organisms. The surface of steel and other materials opaque
X-rays disclosed that the hardness of a plastic to electron rays were nevertheless studied with the
depends upon the degree of orderliness in the electron microscope by the device of making a
arrangement of its molecules and this can be thin plastic replica of the surface,
regulated by the heat treatment. Extraction of magnesium from sea water was
The theory that cosmic rays are born of the begun commercially.
suicide atoms in outer space received confirmation Synthetic rubbers finally got into quantity pro- in new evidence that the rays before entering the duction, and one type, combining the cold- earth's atmosphere have energies corresponding to resistant powers of natural rubber with the oil- the annihilation energies of the most common prooiness of the synthetic, was found useful for atoms. Evidence that cosmic rays in outer space automobile and airplane tires.
are protons (the heavy parts of atoms) was also A new process of making chlorine without the found. use of electricity was discovered, thus saving large A new measurement of the speed of light gave quantities of electrical energy for the manufacture its velocity as 186.272 miles per second, 12 miles of aluminum and other vital defense purposes. per second less than the previously accepted value.
A new process was developed for the working of The speed of radio waves was proved by direct