« 上一頁繼續 »
THE SAYINGS OF CONFUCIUS
HE Master said: "In learning and straightway practising is there not pleasure also?
When friends gather round from afar do we not rejoice? Whom
lack of fame cannot vex is not he a gentleman?"
 Yu-tzu said: "A dutiful son and brother is seldom fond of thwarting those over him: a man unwilling to thwart those over him is never given to crime. A gentleman nurses the roots: when the root has taken, the truth will grow; and what are the roots of love, but the duty of son and of brother?"
 The Master said: "Honeyed words and flattering looks seldom speak of love."
 Tseng-tzu said: "Thrice daily I ask myself: 'Have I been unfaithful in dealing for others? Have I been untrue to friends? Do I practise what I preach?'"
 The Master said: "To guide a land of a thousand chariots, honour business, be true and sparing, love the people, and time thy claims upon them."
 The Master said: "The young should be dutiful at home, modest abroad, heedful and true, full of goodwill for the many, close friends with love; and should they have strength to spare, let them spend it upon the arts."
 Tzu-hsia' said: "If a man honour worth and forsake lust, serve father and mother with all his strength, be ready to give his life for the king, and keep faith with his friends; though men may call him rude, I call him learned."
 The Master said: "Of a gentleman who is frivolous none stand in awe, nor can his learning be sound. Make
faithfulness and truth thy masters: have no friends unlike thyself: be not ashamed to mend thy faults."
 Tseng-tzu' said: "Respect death and recall forefathers, the good in men will again grow sturdy."
 Tzu-ch'in' said to Tzu-kung': "The Master, on coming to a country, learns all about the government: does he ask, or is it told him?"
Tzu-kung said: "The Master learns it by his warmth and honesty, by politeness, modesty, and yielding. The way that the Master asks is unlike other men's asking."
 The Master said: "As long as his father lives a son should study his wishes; after he is dead, he should study his life. If for three years he do not forsake his father's ways, he may be called dutiful.”
 Yu-tzu said: "In daily courtesy ease is of price. This was the beauty of the old kings' ways; this they followed in small and great. But knowing this, it is not right to give way to ease, unchecked by courtesy. This also is wrong."
 Yu-tzu said: "If promises hug the right, word can be kept: if attentions are bounded by courtesy, shame will be banished: heroes may be worshipped, if we choose them aright."
 The Master said: "A gentleman who is not a greedy eater, nor a lover of ease at home, who is earnest in deed and careful of speech who seeks the righteous and profits by them, may be called fond of learning."
 Tzu-kung said: "Poor, but no flatterer; rich, but not proud. How were that?"
"Good," said the Master; "but better still were poor, yet merry; rich, yet courteous."
Tzu-kung said: "Where the poem says:
'If ye cut, if ye file,
If ye polish and grind';
is that what is meant?"
The Master said: "Now I can talk of poetry to thee, Tz'u. Given a clue, thou canst find the way."
 The Master said: "Not to be known should not grieve you: grieve that ye know not men."
 THE Master said: "In governing, cleave to good; as the north star holds his place, and the multitude of stars revolve upon him."
 The Master said: "To sum up the three hundred songs in a word, they are free from evil thought."
 The Master said: "Guide the people by law, subdue them by punishment; they may shun crime, but will be void of shame. Guide them by example, subdue them by courtesy; they will learn shame, and come to be good."
 The Master said: "At fifteen, I was bent on study; at thirty, I could stand; at forty, doubts ceased; at fifty, I understood the laws of Heaven; at sixty, my ears obeyed me; at seventy, I could do as my heart lusted, and never swerve from right."
 Meng Yi asked the duty of a son.
The Master said: "Obedience."
As Fan Ch'ih' was driving him, the Master said: "Mengsun' asked me the duty of a son; I answered 'Obedience."" "What did ye mean?" said Fan Ch'ih.
"To serve our parents with courtesy whilst they live," said the Master; "to bury them with all courtesy when they die; and to worship them with all courtesy."
 Meng Wu asked the duty of a son.
The Master said: "What weighs on your father and mother is concern for your health."
 Tzu-yu' asked the duty of a son.
The Master said: "To-day a man is called dutiful if he keep his father and mother. But we keep both our dogs and horses, and unless we honour parents, is it not all one?"  Tzu-hsia asked the duty of a son.
The Master said: “Our manner is the hard part. For the young to be a stay in toil, and leave the wine and cakes to their elders, is this to fulfil their duty?"
 The Master said: "If I talk all day to Hui,* like a dullard, he never stops me. But when he is gone, if I pry into his life, I find he can do what I say. No, Hui is no dullard."
1 A disciple. 2 Meng Yi. A disciple.
 The Master said: "Look at a man's acts; watch his motives; find out what pleases him: can the man evade you? Can the man evade you?
 The Master said: "Who keeps the old akindle and adds new knowledge is fitted to be a teacher."
 The Master said: "A gentleman is not a vessel."  Tzu-kung asked, What is a gentleman?
The Master said: "He puts words into deed first, and sorts what he says to the deed."
 The Master said: "A gentleman is broad and fair: the vulgar are biassed and petty."
 The Master said: "Study without thought is vain: thought without study is dangerous."
 The Master said: "Work on strange doctrines does harm."
 The Master said: "Yu, shall I teach thee what is understanding? To know what we know, and know what we do not know, that is understanding."
 Tzu-chang" studied with an eye to pay.
The Master said: "Listen much, keep silent when in doubt, and always take heed of the tongue; thou wilt make few mistakes. See much, beware of pitfalls, and always give heed to thy walk; thou wilt have little to rue. If thy words are seldom wrong, thy deeds leave little to rue, pay will follow."
 Duke Aï' asked: "What should be done to make the people loyal?"
Confucius answered: "Exalt the straight, set aside the crooked, the people will be loyal. Exalt the crooked, set aside the straight, the people will be disloyal."
 Chi K'ang asked how to make the people lowly, faithful, and willing.
The Master said: "Behave with dignity, they will be lowly be pious and merciful, they will be faithful: exalt the good, teach the unskilful, they will grow willing."
 One said to Confucius: "Why are ye not in power, Sir?"
The Master answered: "What does the book say of a good The disciple, Tzu-lu.
Duke of Lu, during Confucius' closing years.
son? An always dutiful son, who is a friend to his brothers, showeth the way to rule.' This also is to rule. What need to be in power?"
 The Master said: "Without truth I know not how man can live. A cart without a crosspole, a carriage without harness, how could they be moved?"
 Tzu-chang asked whether we can know what is to be ten generations hence.
The Master said: "The Yin' inherited the manners of the Hsia; the harm and the good that they wrought them is known. The Chou' inherited the manners of the Yin; the harm and the good that they wrought them is known. And we may know what is to be, even an hundred generations hence, when others follow Chou."
 The Master said: "To worship the ghosts of strangers is fawning. To see the right and not do it is want of courage."
 Or the Chi having eight rows of dancers' in his hall, Confucius said: "If this is to be borne, what is not to be borne ?"
 At the end of worship, the Three Clans made use of the Yung hymn.1
The Master said:
"The dukes and princes assist,
Solemn is the Son of Heaven ;'
what sense has this in the hall of the Three Clans?"
 The Master said: "A man without love, what is courtesy to him? A man without love, what is music to him?"
 Lin Fang asked, What is the life of ceremony? The Master said: "A great question! At hightides, waste is worse than thrift: at burials, grief outweighs nicety."  The Master said: "The wild tribes have kings; whilst the realm of Hsia' is without!"
 The Chi worshipped on Mount T'ai.
The three dynasties that had ruled China up till the time of Confucius. An imperial prerogative. China. A prerogative of the Duke of Lu.