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peats, in brief but energetic terms, his visionary crime * As I am inclined to believe that the artists of England may be less acquainted with these feelings of nera gelosia (to use the words of the Italian whom I have quoted) than the more impassioned natives of France and Italy, I hope they will approve my endeavour to vindicate from the horrible imputation of an envious murder their ancient brother of Athens. At all events I have a pleasure in persuading myself that he was as clearly innocent as he was confessedly ingenious. When he removed from Attica, whatever the cause of that removal might be, he is said to have obtained the friendship of Minos, the second of that name, who reigned in Crete; and to have executed, in wood, two statues of Phædra and Ariadne, the celebrated daughters of the Cretan monarch. In Crete he is reported to have built a labyrinth of marvellous intricacy, and copied, on a smaller fcale, from a portentous edifice of Ægypt. He must have studied, therefore, the works of Ægyptian art in their own country, before his visit to Crete. The Cretans were ever remarkable for their gross deviation from truth; and the narrative of fome sculptural works ascribed to Dædalus, in their island, contains the most filthy and disgusting fable that ever sullied the pages of fiction. The reader acquainted with mythology will immediately perceive that I allude to the fable of Pasiphae, the most cruelly calumniated queen that ever suffered from the licentiousness of fancy. Some decent interpreters of her story have supposed that she was enamoured of a Cretan officer who bore the name of Taurus, and that Dædalus was employed in assisting their illicit attachment : but Lucian, with an admirable mixture of wit and good-nature, imagines the Taurus of Pasi

• « Fra’ suoi allievi fi contraddisinse un suo nipote da alcuni detto calo, da altri attalo, il. « quale invento tra le altre cose la sega e'l compallo; ma Dedalo ne concepi si nera gelosia, “ che l'uccise."- Memorie degli Architetti Antichi e Moderni, tomo i. p. 13. Parma, 1781.

phae's affection to have been merely the sign of the zodiac distinguished by that appellation; and Dædalus is very happily metamorphosed, by this supposition, from the culpable confident of a dishonourable intrigue, into an innocent master of astronomy. But however blameless the intercourse might be between the flandered Pasiphae and the ingenious Athenian, Dædalus appears to have incurred the resentment of the Cretan monarch, and to have been under the necessity of escaping from his dominion with secret rapidity. Hence arose the fable of his inventing wings for himself and his son Icarus ; a fable so captivating to the fancy of the Latin poets, that Ovid has related it twice at considerable length*, Virgil has embellished it in a few verses of singular delicacy and pathos. Horace, Silius Italicus, and Ausonius have all mentioned it occasionally. The ancient and sensible interpreter of incredible fictions, Palæphatus, has turned the fabulous wings of Dædalus and his son into fails. He asserts, that being imprisoned by Minos, they escaped from a window of their prison, and embarked in a skiff : but being pursued by the vessels of Minos, in tempestuous weather, the father only got safe to land and completed his escape. Apollodorus relates that Hercules found the body of Icarus cast ashore upon an island, to which he gave the name of Icaria, in honour of the youth, whom he buried. The same author adds, that Dædalus rewarded his illustrious friend for this humanity shewn to his unfortunate child, by executing a statue of Hercules, which that hero mistaking in the night, for a living figure, is said to have struck with a stone. Pausanias mentions this statue as preserved by the Thebans in a temple of Hercules, and gives a similar account of its origin as a tribute of gratitude from the affli&ed father, whose escape from Crete he also ascribes, like Pa. læphatus, to the use of fails. Though Virgil and Silius Italicus represent Dædalus as building the temple of the Cumæan Apollo, immedi

* Metamorph. lib. viii. Artis Amatoriæ, lib.ii.

ately after his escape from the tyranny of Minos, the Greek historian of his adventures supposes him to have proceeded from Crete to Sicily, and to have ingratiated himself so successfully with Cocalus, a prince of that country, that when Minos, with a naval force, pursued and demanded the fugitive, his generous protector, instead of betraying his ingenious guest, from whose architectural talents he is said to have derived great advantage, endeavoured to negotiate with Minos in his favour. The Cretan monarch accepted the invitation of the Sicilian prince, and, according to the accounts of more than one ancient Greek author, the daughters of Cocalus contrived, from their partiality to the Athenian artist, to destroy his formidable enemy; which they are said to have accomplished by the means of a hot bath, in such a manner, that the Cretans who attended their king supposed his death to be natural, and departed in peace with his remains-a tale that has much the appearance of fiction.

Dædalus is reported to have expressed his gratitude towards his Sicilian protector by executing many ingenious works in his country, Diodorus relates that he built an impregnable palace for his royal friend ; that he fortified and adorned the temple of Venus Erycina; and that he constructed a vapour-bath, in which the fick were pleafantly cured of their infirmities, without suffering from its heat *. Concerning the latter days and death of Dædalus antiquity furnishes no anecdotes: but the learned Abbé Gedoyn imagines, with great probability, that from Italy he passed again into Ægypt, and ended his life in that country-an idea that he rests on the authority of the Ægyptian priests, who reported, according to the narrative of Diodorus Siculus, that Dædalus constructed a most beautiful vestibule to the temple of Vulcan at Memphis, and was held in such veneration by the Ægyptians, that they placed in that temple a statue which he had carved in wood of himself, and raised, in one of the adjacent islands, a temple to the artist, in which his memory was religiously worshipped by the natives of that country.

* Τριτον δε σπηλαιον κατα την Σελωνιων χωραν κατεσκευαστη, εν ω την ατμιδα τα κατ' αυτην πυρος ετως ευφοχως εξελαβεν, ως τε δια την μαλακοτητα της θερμασιας εξιδρων λεληθοτως, και κατα μικρον τους ενδιαδριτας μετα rept ewe Sepam IVEY TA Owuatan under trapevoxha PL ENDS UTO TNS Deputatos. DIODORUS SICULUS, lib. 4.

A curious proof of the antiquity and excellence of vapour-baths !

Thus incomplete are the best accounts that ancient and modern authors afford of this extraordinary and interesting personage, whose existence, like that of Prometheus and Semiramis, has been questioned by the scrutinizing spirit of modern refinement. A very ingenious and learned French commentator on Pliny, who seems actuated, like Mr. Bryant, by a passion for etymological chemistry, would reduce the active Athenian artist into a mere Syrian symbol*. But presuming on the evidence of several works (very credibly imputed to this early sculptor) that he really existed, and presuming this with the more confidence because one of his works has the happy and immortal distinction of being described by Homer, I shall proceed to enumerate those memorable productions in Sculpture which antiquity assigned to him, and which the course of this narrative has not yet led me to mention. Of these, the most striking are two statues of himself and his son Icarus ; the one formed of tin, the other of brass, and said to have been stationed in those islands of the Adriatic gulf that were called Electrides t.

* “ Dædale est un nom Syrien, dont les racines se retrouvent dans les deux mots Hebreur dai (preposition qui de même que da, en Grec, augmente le sens du mot qu'elle précede) et dal, pauvre. Dædale est donc l'emblême de la pauvreté, du besoin, première source ne“ cessaire des arts..... On reconnoit manifestement le genie oriental dans cette fiction morale." -M. POINSINET DE Sivry, in a note to his splendid and elaborate edition of Pliny, in Latin and French, twelve vols. quarto.

It is remarkable that Pliny does not mention the elder Dædalus as a sculptor, but celebrates him as the inventor of the faw, the hatchet, the level, the gimblet, isinglas, and glue.


+ Hextpodes ynor 06-89 Ass Elon duo avapautes Aardado xai Inapo. bibus, edit. 1694, p. 379.

Aristotle, from whom Stephanus of Byzantium borrowed his account of these questionable statues, has mentioned Dædalus as a maker of puppets that moved by an infusion of quicksilver ; an idea that D’Hancarville has ridiculed with contemptuous pleasantry:

“ Sur le temoignage d'un certain Philippe, Aristote, plus de neuf “ cents ans après Dedale, assuroit qu'au moyen du vif argent, il fit « une statue qui marchoit effectivement. Beaucoup d'auteurs, mal“ heureusement très-graves, Dion Chryfoftome entr’autres, copierent “ cette fable, et suivant l'usage l'appuyèrent de leur autorité ; je les e croirois plus volontiers s'ils eussent écrit que Dedale fit des automates “ .philosophes, capables d'écrire seriusement de tels contes ; ils servis “ roient eux-mêmes de justification à ma croyance.” · Pausanias records, with particular care, the more authentic works of Dædalus that remained in his time : his statue of Hercules, at Thebes ; of Trophonius, among the Lebadenses in Boeotia : those of Britomartis and of Minerva, in Crete; with the dance of Ariadne, mentioned by Homer in the Iliad, and wrought on white marble ; among the Delians, a Venus in wood, with her right hand perishing by Time, and raised on a square basis instead of feet. “I am persuaded,” says Pausanias, “ that Ariadne received this image from Dædalus, and car“ ried it with her, when she attended Theseus. The Delians affirm " that Theseus himself devoted it to their Apollo, that it might not, “ on his return to his own country, awaken in his mind a painful and “ passionate recollection of Ariadne. Besides these,” concludes Pausanias, “ I know not any works of Dædalus remaining; for as to those “ which the Argives had consecrated in their temple of Juno, and those “ removed to Gela in Sicily from Omphace, they have disappeared by 16 the influence of Time.”

Pausanias, in a former part of his description, had mentioned another statue of Hercules by the same artist, executed also in wood, and

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