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THE

ANNUAL REGISTER,

FOR THE YEAR

1842.

HISTORY OF EUROPE.

CHAPTER I.

General Observations on the state of the country and posilion of the

Government at the commencement of the year 1842-Secession of the Duke of Buckingham from the Cabinet Parliament opened on the 3rd of February by the Queen in person--- Presence of the King of Prussia on the occasionHer Majesty's Speech from the ThroneAddress moved in the House of Lords by the Marquess of Abercorn, seconded by the Earl of Dalhousie -Speeches of Viscount Melbourne, Duke of Wellington, Lord Brougham, Earl Fitzwilliam, Duke of Buckingham, and other Peers - Address carried unanimously-Debate in the House of Commons Address moved by the Earl of March, seconded by Mr. Beckett Speeches of Mr. Ewart, Lord John Russell, Sir Robert Peel, Mr. Villiers, and Mr. Escott General allusion to the Corn-laws-Statement of Sir R. Peel respecting his Financial Measures - Address carried without a division.

THE

THE commencement of the so secure as a mere reference to his

year 1842 found the Conser. Parliamentary strength would, vative Administration occupying a under other circumstances, have position of great apparent strength, appeared to indicate. A revenue, commanding large majorities in which had now for several years both Houses of Parliament. At exhibited the alarming symptom the same time, when viewed with of an annual deficiency, with an regard to the actual condition of expenditure which our warlike the country, and to the terms on operations in the East were at the which he had succeeded to office, same time tending to increase ; the tenure of Sir Robert Peel's excitement and agitation at home, power could hardly be pronounced widely diffused on the subject of the Vol. LXXXIV.

[B]

Corn-laws, and a necessity now had given by anticipation so large generally acknowledged for some a pledge of its confidence at the re-settlement of that delicate and late elections, was still only a Miarduous question; increasing dis- nistry on its trial, and that trial as union between the agricultural and keen and severe as any Cabinet in manufacturing interests; loud and modern times has been required to general complaints of depression in undergo. It was consequently imall the principal branches of trade, possible even for those whose poliaccompanied by distress among the tical creed led them to place the poorer classes, which, making every greatest confidence in the ability allowance for exaggeration, was and resources of Sir Robert Peel beyond all doubt both real and ex- and his colleagues, not to feel an tensive ;-all these causes seemed anxious solicitude when the time to impose upon the ministry which approached for the development of had lately been called to office a those measures of which the prutask which it would require no or- dence of the Prime Minister had dinary resources of statesmanship hitherto refused to allow even the to discharge in a manner commen- slightest outline to transpire to the surate with the exigencies of the curiosity of the public. The embartimes. To allay the popular out- rassments of the country were becry for cheap food, without with. yond dispute; the capacity of the drawing its due support from existing Administration to grapple agriculture; to impart a new sti- with them was warmly controvertmulus to trade without detriment ed, and the disclosure of their plans to interests which claimed protec- was anticipated by the different tion, and to retrieve the deficiencies parties in the country according to of the revenue without imposing their respective predilections or innew burthens on industry, were terests, with all the eagerness of problems on the solution of which hope or fear. The only incident the credit of the new Administra- worthy of remark which occurred tion was staked, and on which its previously to the opening of Parexistence might be considered, not. liament to excite public speculawithstanding its present apparent tion and throw some degree of strength, to depend. Moreover, to light upon the forthcoming policy these requisitions of the country, of the Government, was the anSir Robert Peel had, on accepting nounced retirement in the month office, declared himself prepared to of January of the Duke of Buckminister, stipulating only for time ingham from the office of Lordto mature his remedial measures, keeper of the Privy Seal. It was while the interval thus necessarily palpable that dissatisfaction with employed, of which his opponents the measure projected by his coldid not fail to take advantage leagues for the settlement of the against him, served in no small de- Corn-laws had induced this step, gree to enhance the expectations and the original admission of and hopes of the public, and to the Duke, the uncompromising prepare them to feel a keener dis- advocate of the landed interests, appointment in the event of any into the Cabinet, having been short-coming in the promised mea- looked upon as a pledge and secusures of relief. The Ministry, rity to the agriculturists that their therefore, to which the country interests would be adhered to, his secession at this moment caused son the office of sponsor at the some anxiety to that body. The christening of the Prince of opponents of the protective system, Wales. on the other hand, rejoiced in the “I receive from all Princes and hope that a division was taking States the continued assurance of place, which would tend to weaken their earnest desire to maintain the a Cabinet from which they ex- most friendly relations with this pected little satisfaction to their country, views, and deprive it of that sup- “ It is with great satisfaction port of the farming body which that I inform you that I have conwas so essential to its strength. cluded with the Emperor of AusHow far these expectations were tria, the King of the French, the realised will appear from the events King of Prussia, and the Einperor hereafter to be unfolded.

of Russia, a treaty for the more On the 3rd of February the effectual suppression of the SlaveSession was opened under eircum- trade; which, when the ratificastances of unusual splendour, oc- tions shall have been exchanged, casioned by the presence of the will be communicated to ParliaKing of Prussia, at that time ment. making a visit to England in “There shall also be laid before order to stand sponsor at the you a treaty which I have concluded christening of the infant Prince of with the same Powers, together Wales, and who accompanied Her with the Sultan, having for its Majesty to the ceremonial. The re- object the security of the Turkish cent birth of a male heir to the empire, and the maintenance of the Throne likewise added an interest general tranquillity. to the appearance of the Sovereign, “ The restoration of my diplo. who now addressed her Parliament matic and friendly intercourse with in the following Speech from the the Court of Tehran, has been Throne:

followed by the completion of a

commercial treaty with the King My Lords and Gentlemen,

of Persia ; which I have directed “ I cannot meet you in Parlia- to be laid before you. ment assembled without making a “I am engaged in negotiations public acknowledgment of my gra- with several Powers, which, I titude to Almighty God on account trust, by leading to conventions of the birth of the Prince my son ; founded on the just principle of an event which has completed the mutual advantage, may extend the measure of my domestic happiness, trade and commerce of the country. and has been hailed with every “I regret that I am not enabled demonstration of affectionate at. to announce to you the re-establishtachment to my person and govern- ment of peaceful relations with the ment by my faithful and loyal Government of China. The unipeople.

form success which has attended “I am confident that you will the hostile operations directed participate in the satisfaction which against that Power, and my confi. I have derived from the presence dence in the skill and gallantry of in this country of my good brother my naval and military forces, enand ally the King of Prussia; who, courage the hope on my part that * my request, undertook in per- our differences with the Government of China will be brought to gret the continued distress in the an early termination, and our com- Manufacturing districts of the mercial relations with that country country. The sufferings and pri. placed on a satisfactory basis. vations which have resulted from

it have been borne with exemplary Gentlemen of the House of patience and fortitude. Commons,

I feel assured that your deli“ The Estimates for the year berations on the various important have been prepared, and will be matters which will occupy your laid before you. I rely with en

attention will be directed by a tire confidence on your disposition, comprehensive regard for the interwhile you enforce the principles of ests and permanent welfare of all a wise economy, to make that pro- classes of my subjects; and I fervision for the service of the coun- vently pray that they may tend in try which the public exigencies their result to improve the national require.

resources, and to encourage the

industry and promote the happiness My Lords and Gentlemen,

of my people." “I recommend to your imme- The business of the Session was diate attention the state of the Fi. commenced in the House of Lords nances and of the Expenditure of the by the Marquess of Abercorn, who, country. You will have seen with after her Majesty's Speech had regret, that, for several years past, been read by the Lord Chancellor, the annual income has been inade. rose to move the Address in reply. quate to bear the public charges, His Lordship, after passing shortly and I feel confident, that, fully in review the preliminary passages sensible of the evil which must of the Speech, called the attention result from a continued deficiency of the House especially to that of this nature during peace, you portion of it which referred to the will carefully consider the best state of the national finances. Remeans of averting it.

duction and retrenchment, carried "I recommend also to your con- to the utmost limit which a due sideration the state of the laws regard to the public service would which affect the importation of admit of, had failed in rendering Corn, and of other articles the pro- the income equal to the expendiduce of foreign countries.

ture ; and it would now be ncces. “ Measures will be submitted sary to adopt some measure to for your consideration for the meet the great consequent defiamendment of the law of Bank- ciency which had for several years ruptcy, and for the improvement been accumulating. With respect of the jurisdiction exercised by the to the Corn-laws, he rejoiced to Ecclesiastical Courts in England find that the question would be and Wales.

taken into early consideration. “It will also be desirable that Much misapprehension and some you should consider, with a view ill-feeling had, he feared, been ento their revision, the laws which re- gendered by those agitators who gulate the Registration of Electors had endeavoured to persuade the of Members to serve in Parlia- public that the interests of the agriment.

culturist and of the manufacturer "I have observed with deep re- were at variance ; but he confi.

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