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WITH A CONSIDERATION OF THE

PROBLEMS OF DEMOCRACY

BY

FRANK ABBOTT MAGRUDER, PH.D.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL SCIENCE

OREGON AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE

FORMERLY INSTRUCTOR IN POLITICS

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY

"It is the duty of the government to make it easy
for the people to do right, and difficult for the
people to do wrong.” — W. E. GLADSTONE.

ALLYN AND BACON

BOSTON

ATLANTA

NEW YORK

CHICAGO
SAN FRANCISCO

594526

'c

COPYRIGHT, 1921
BY FRANK ABBOTT MAGRUDER

DNAA

PREFACE

The aims of American Government

may be summed

up

under four heads :

First, to impress upon the pupil his responsibility, as a junior citizen, for the development of better government.

Second, to show how the state has developed from a simple organization for defense to the complex socialized society of to-day; and to make it clear that government is not operated according to preconceived theories, but is a living organism developed by the people to meet the needs resulting from changing conditions; to show, for example, that the Constitution of the United States is not a dead contract, but a living agreement which has developed with time and has adapted itself to economic and social conditions.

Third, to explain the actual operation of the National, State, and Local governments, emphasizing the functions of government without neglecting the necessary details of frame-work.

Fourth, to make plain the influence of the judiciary; and to present the political and social problems of to-day, such as the initiative, referendum, recall, short ballot, woman suffrage, industrial education, and prohibition.

The author has endeavored to make all important facts stand out clearly, by separating details from the main text, by explaining fully in footnotes all necessary technical terms, and by placing interesting collateral material in the questions for discussion. The text is further simplified by brief examples, outlines, diagrams, maps, and illustrations taken from all sections of the country, the details regarding each State being given in their proper setting.

The treatment of the National government precedes that of State and Local governments, because the National government is the general type followed by all of the States; because it is simpler to treat the State governments by showing that they exercise all those powers not delegated to the National government; and because it is easier to arouse the students' interest by approaching the larger subject first. However, if the teacher prefers to commence with Local government, he may begin with Chapters XXIII and XXIV and follow these with Chapters XVIII to XXII, I to XVII, and XXV to XXIX in succession, without loss of sequence.

As special aid to pupils and teachers, questions on the text, and questions for discussion which show the local application of the context, have been placed at the end of each chapter. Attention is called to Appendix IV, which gives further suggestions to teachers, and a select list of reference works that may be used in connection with the course.

The author is greatly indebted to Professor W. W. Willoughby of the Johns Hopkins University, who read the original manuscript and offered many valuable suggestions; also to many friends and government officials who have read portions of the text. He also acknowledges the discriminating assistance of his wife in the planning and execution of the work.

FRANK ABBOTT MAGRUDER.

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