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7. What three restrictions are placed upon, Congress as to the power of taxation?
8. What is the reason for prohibiting export taxes? 9. What is the meaning of import taxes? Why must they be uniform thoughout the United States?
10. Explain how Congress has used the power of taxation for the purpose of regulating or destroying certain industries. -11. What is the only redress against unreasonably high taxes? Has the United States levied any
12. What are direct taxes?
direct taxes since the Civil War?
13. What are
are indirect taxes? What two kinds of indirect taxes By what other name are customs
an example of a customs tax. Of an excise tax.
duties known? Give
14. There are what two kinds of tariff? What is meant by ad valorem tariff? By specific tariff? By tariff for revenue? By tariff for protection?
16. What is meant by an income tax? How much federal income tax would a single man whose income is $5000 have to pay?
17. What is meant by foreign commerce?
18. Under its powers to regulate foreign commerce Congress has excluded what articles from the United States?
19. What is meant by interstate commerce?
20. Explain how the power of Congress to regulate commerce has expanded? Does commerce include navigation? Transportation? Wireless telegraphy?
21. What interstate commerce has been prohibited by Congress?
22. How has commerce been protected by Congress under its power to regulate interstate commerce?
23. What is a trust or monopoly?
24. What are the two most important expressed powers of Congress?
25. May a State coin money or issue paper money?
26. What does naturalization mean? Who may not be naturalized in the United States?
27. What is meant by post roads?
28. What is a copyright? A patent? For how many years does each protect the author or inventor?
29. What war power has Congress?
30. What is meant by implied powers? Give examples.
31. What is meant by the elastic clause? What other name is given this clause? In what Article and Section of the Constitution is it found?
QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
1. The English Parliament has power to do "anything but make a man a woman or a woman a man." Why has Congress only about eighteen enumerated powers and those necessary and proper to carry the enumerated powers into execution?
favor a you
liberal construction" or a "strict construc
tion" of the Constitution? Why?
3. Are direct taxes or indirect taxes more just? Which are easier to collect?
4. When a high internal revenue tax was placed on tobacco the people of Virginia, who manufactured large quantities of tobacco, felt that they were being unjustly taxed. The tax has not been reduced, but complaints are no longer heard. Why?
5. How could Congress destroy the manufacture and sale of tobacco in the United States?
6. Why was the tariff on champagne $3.00 a gallon and that on vinegar only four cents?
7. Does the American manufacturer or the American laborer receive more benefit from a protective tariff when cheap labor from Europe can come to this country for a few dollars and compete with American laborers?
8. Is a protective tariff a tax in proportion to ability to pay or does it unfairly tax the poor?
9. When the tariff on luxuries, e.g., 46 per cent ad valorem on silk fabrics, is so high that scarcely any are imported is it a tax on luxuries or merely a bounty to those who produce it in this country?
10. The patriarchs of old were blessed with many children, and their private property immediately benefited a large number. The multi-millionaires to-day are blessed with few children, and property from generation to generation tends to concentrate in a few hands. Does this condition make a high progressive income or inheritance tax more reasonable and expedient to-day than formerly?
11. Why is an inheritance tax easy to collect? Why is it a just tax? Should inheritances of less than $50,000 be taxed? Should one of $50,000 be taxed at the same rate as one of $100,000?
12. A congressman has recently proposed that the National government borrow a billion dollars and lend it to States or counties for road-building under certain restrictions including provision for the permanent maintenance of the road. States and counties have to pay about six per cent interest on money that they borrow; the United States can borrow money at about four per cent. If the States and counties pay an average of six per cent interest to the National government, how long would it be before the debt would be entirely wiped out if the difference of four per cent and six per cent is applied to the principal? The National government has been an honest borrower; some States have not been honest. How much would the United States' reputation be worth in fifty years?
13. In 1913 Congress enacted a law providing for the physical valuation of all railroads that carry interstate commerce. Why does Congress desire to know what it costs to construct or reconstruct these roads?
14. Under the pure food act of 1906 the labels on bottles of patent medicines must name the ingredients of the medicine. Do you favor this "prying into a man's business or do you favor the old theory, "Let the purchaser beware"? What other articles should the government require the manufacturers to label correctly?
15. Does the federal Interstate Commerce Commission or the Virginia Corporation Commission regulate the rate of carfare between Norfolk and Richmond, Virginia? Between Norfolk, Virginia, and Baltimore, Maryland ?
16. A Brooklyn boy was fined fifty dollars for setting up a wireless apparatus on the roof of his house without first securing a federal license. The instrument could pick up messages from ships and from other States. Why can the Federal government require a license for such an apparatus?
17. The independent press agencies claim that the Associated Press violates the anti-trust law by monopolizing the agencies for the distribution of news. If this accusation is true is the Associated Press a very dangerous monopoly?
18. Of more than a million immigrants who came to this country annually before the European war more than 300,000 could neither
read nor write any language. Do you favor the law of 1917 which excludes aliens who cannot read any language?
19. At present a patent gives a person a monopoly. The Socialists claim that this is bad policy, and that anybody should be permitted to manufacture a patented article who will pay the patentee a uniform royalty, the amount to be determined by the government. What argument can you advance for and against the contention of the Socialists?
20. Under a 1919 Act of Congress the long arm of the United States will get a thief who runs a stolen automobile or other motor vehicle across a state line or into a foreign country or territory. The penalty is a fine of $5000 or imprisonment of not more than five years, or both. The penalty also applies to anyone who intentionally receives, conceals, or disposes of such motor vehicle. Under what power of Congress was this law enacted? What significance has this legislation?
CONGRESS IN ACTION
51. Organization of the House of Representatives. Officers.Before a new Congress assembles it is known which party will control the House; and the members of the majority party hold a caucus (see Sec. 57) to nominate the Speaker, who is the presiding officer of the House; a clerk; a chaplain, who opens each daily session with a short prayer; a sergeantat-arms, who preserves order;1 a door-keeper; a postmaster; and other less important officers. As the action of this caucus is considered binding upon the majority members, the final election after the House convenes is a mere formality.
Opening of a New Congress.—Representatives who are elected in November of the even-numbered year succeed their predecessors the following March, when the previous Congress officially ends; but unless a special session is called between March 4 and the first Monday in December they will not be sworn in until the latter date. thirteen months after election. Immediately after the expiration of a Congress at noon on the 4th of March of every odd-numbered year the House is without a Speaker and committees. It has no rules, no sworn membership, and no actual existence as an organized body. All un
1 The sergeant-at-arms also has charge of the halls and pays members their salaries, but his most interesting function is that of custodian of the mace, a representation of the Roman fasces surmounted by a globe and an eagle of silver, which is the symbol of authority. When the House is in session the mace is always in a stand to the right of the Speaker. If the Speaker cannot maintain order he instructs the sergeant-at-arms to approach the unruly member with the mace and demand order in the name of the House. If the display of the mace does not restore order the House may authorize the sergeant-at-arms to arrest the unruly member.