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but it is probably greater in all that concerns opportunity and the chances of life. There is a sense in which the interest of the poor man in the prosperity of the country is greater than that of the rich man: he has no reserve, and his very life may depend upon it. The very life of an undeveloped community may depend upon what will
rich community mere emporary inconvenience or negligible distress.”
A country so extensive as ours, and representing such a great variety of social, economic, and political conditions, would not have held together without equal representation of the States in the Senate.
Each number indicates a room, e.g., rooms 1, 2, 3, and 4 are occupied by the Committee on Appropriations, and number 40 is the room of the President.
34. Sessions of Congress. Each Congress is numbered consecutively from the first term, which began March 4, 1789. The Sixty-seventh Congress began March 4, 1921, and will end March 4, 1923.
There are two regular sessions of each Congress, which are commonly designated as the long" and the “short” session. The long session begins on the first Monday in December of the odd-numbered years and lasts until some time in the following spring or summer. The short session begins on the same date in the even-numbered years and lasts until March 4 following, when the term of all representatives expires. Prior to 1853 the short session ended at midnight, March 3, but at the the present time all business transacted between midnight of the third and noon of the fourth is dated the 3d of March. Also, if business is pressing at noon of March 4, the clock is turned back.
The President may call extra sessions of Congress. President Harding called such a session for April 11, 1921, to consider protective tariff legislation and other platform promises.
35. The House of Representatives.- Membership. The House of Representatives is the more numerous body of Congress. The membership is determined by Congress after each census, but the number allotted to each State must be in proportion to its total population. With a single exception (1842) the number of representatives has regularly increased with each new apportionment. A representative from a State which has increased very little in population will naturally not consent to a reduction in the representation of his own State, as this would possibly mean the destruction of his own district. His only alternative is to vote to increase the representation of the States that have increased in population.
The number of representatives for the decade 1920-1930 is 435 — the same as that for the decade 1910–1920 — unless the two Houses of Congress can agree upon a new re-apportionment. The average number of inhabitants to a member has increased from 33,000 in 1793 to 211,877 for the last decade. A State is entitled to at least one member, regardless of population. Nevada, which has a population of only 77,407, and Arizona, New Mexico, Wyoming, and Delaware have one representative each. The largest number from any one Stato is forty-three, the number from New York State.1
1 The Fourteenth Amendment declares that whenever a State shall limit the right of its adult male citizens to vote, except for crime, its representation in Congress shall be proportionately reduced. This provision has never been enforced, and some statesmen claim that it has been superseded by the Fif. teenth Amendment.
Election of Representatives. — The time, place, and manner of electing representatives are determined by Congress, but the Constitution provides for two-year terms of office and that any person may vote for them whom the State permits to vote for members of the most numerous branch of the State legislature. Since 1871 Congress has required the States to use ballots and since 1872 to hold congressional elections uniformly on the Tuesday following the first Monday of November every even
numbered year.? But in case of a vacancy in any State the Governor thereof
may call a special election. During the first fifty years of our Union the States were permitted to elect their representatives as they chose. The method of electing them by districts early became popular, but
1 A territory is represented in Congress by one delegate, the Philippine Islands by two Resident Commissioners, and Porto Rico by one. Any one of these may take part in debate, but none of them can vote.
2 By a special provision of Congress. Maine is permitted to hold her congressional election in September.
some States elected all members at large, which made it possible for a State with a small Democratic majority to elect
all Democratic members.
This was clearly unrepre9,000 Dem.
8,000 Dem. 13,000 Rep.
10,000 Rep. '
sentative, and in 1842
Congress prescribed that 1
thenceforth all members 12,000 Dem.
6,000 Dem. / 5,000 Dem. 6,000 Rep. 6,000 Rep. 5,000 Rep.
should be chosen by dis
The district sys
tem tends to give repre8,000 Dem. 2,200 Rep.
sentation to the minority
party, but, as the States 3
were laid out into districts 16,000 Dem.
13,000 Dem. by the State legislatures, 24,000 Rep.
the districts were so arA
ranged that the majority party continued to have
a great advantage. 17,000 Dem.
By an act passed in 1 23,000 Rep.
1872, Congress required
that the congressional dis26,000 Dem.
tricts be of contiguous 2 14,000 Rep.
territory and contain as nearly equal populations as practicable. The re
quirement that all terri3
district be 4 16,000 Dem.
contiguous has been ob
18,000 Dem. 24,000 Rep.
22,000 Rep. served to the letter but
not always in spirit. For B
instance, in South Carolina the first district of the 1890 apportionment was shaped like two arrow heads which merely touched at the points.
1 At large means from the entire State. Each voter expresses as many preferences as there are congressmen to elect from the State.
The requirement that population be as nearly equal as practicable has been frequently violated. Recently one of the Republican districts in New York State contained 165,701 inhabitants while one of the Democratic districts had a population of 450,000 inhabitants.
Gerrymandering. - The scheme resorted to by an unfair legislative body to lay out congressional or other districts so
as to secure a majority of voters for the party in power in the greatest possible number of them is known as gerrymandering. This can sometimes be done by collecting as many voters of the minority party as possible into one district so as to make other bordering districts safe for the majority party.
For instance, the accompanying figure A represents a State with four congressional districts, each consisting of 40,000