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Section 2. Apportionment of Representatives Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states accord ing to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being twentyone years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such state.
Section 3. Political Disabilities No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any state, who, baving previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any state, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
Section 4. Public Debt
The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any state shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void.
Section 5. Powers of Congress The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
ARTICLE XV 55
RIGHT OF SUFFRAGE
Section 1. Right of Negro to Vote The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Section 2. Power of Congress The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
ARTICLE XVI 56
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration.
ARTICLE XVII 57
SENATE: ELECTION: VACANCIES
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislatures.
When vacancies happen in the representation of any state in the Senate, the executive authority of such state shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies : Provided, That the legislature of may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointment until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. 57
This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.
55 This amendment was adopted in 1870. It was passed to secure negro suffrage and to prevent negroes from being disfranchised.
56 Amendment XVI was adopted in 1913. It modifies Art. 1, Sec. 9, Cl. 4.
67 This amendment was adopted in 1913. It modifies Art. 1, Sec. 3, Cls. 1 and 2.
ARTICLE XVIII 58
Section 1 — After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
SECTION 2- The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
SECTION 3 This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years of the date of the submission hereof to the States by Congress.
ARTICLE XIX 59
SECTION 1— The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
SECTION 2— Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
58 This amendment was adopted in 1919. 69 This amendment was adopted in 1920.
COST OF THE GREAT WAR
Professor Bogart of the University of Illinois estimates the direct cost of the Great War at more than one hundred and eighty-five billions of dollars. The indirect cost he puts at over one hundred and fifty billions. His estimate of the total cost reaches the stupendous figure of $337,946,179,657.00, an expense almost beyond belief.
It is generally recognized that a war on the scale of the Great War must be exceedingly costly. Yet, the United States' share of this tremendous expenditure reached a figure which has brought on the administration a charge of extravagance, which has extended not only to the conduct of the war, but to all its other activities. In fact, this charge was made one of the chief issues of the election of 1920.
THE ELECTION OF 1920
The Presidential Election of November, 1920, gave the Republican candidates, Warren G. Harding of Ohio, and Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts, an overwhelming majority over the Democratic nominees, James M. Cox of Ohio and Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York. The Republicans carried every northern state, together with Oklahoma and Tennessee, the latter always counted heretofore in the “Solid South.”
The Republicans carried both houses of Congress by a safe working majority, so that they are able to look forward to a coöperation between the executive and legislative branches of the government which was lacking during the last two years of President Wilson's term of office when with a Democratic administration Congress was Republican.
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
Every American should be interested in the publications that emanate from this Office, for public documents are the history of the country. While a small proportion of the issues might be obtained without cost through the friendship of public men, by far the larger part must be purchased, and nearly everyone interested in the literature of the United States prefers to pay for what he desires, rather than to be under obligation for small favors. Because of this it may be desirable to give the widest possible publicity to the fact that public documents can be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, at a nominal cost. Price lists, indicating the subjects covered, may be obtained free, upon application in person or by mail. Among them are the following: 1
1 Lists 1 to 9, 12 to 14, etc. are omitted because they are out of print.
The character of the price lists may be better understood by an illustration. Price List 45, entitled Public Roads Office, lists about one hundred reports, bulletins, and circulars, which sell for five or ten cents each. The following titles are typical: Construction of macadam roads; Sand-clay and earth roads in the Middle West; Dust prevention and road preservation; Bitumens and their essential constituents for road construction and maintenance; Examination and classification of rocks for road building, including physical properties of rocks with reference to their mineral composition and structure; Road-making material in Arkansas; Public roads of Alabama (and each of the other states); Laws of certain states relating to the use of wide tires; Notes on the use of convicts in connection with road building; Descriptive catalog of road model exhibit; Proceedings of National Good Roads Convention; and Historical and technical papers on road building in the United States.