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Sanitation to be of any great value must be practiced throughout the city. When Preston was mayor of Baltimore he waged a war on the mosquito. Inspectors were employed to go from house to house to locate places where mosquitoes might breed. Behold, in the Mayor's own yard was found a jar containing water in which mosquitoes could multiply. He paid his fine cheerfully, but the incident goes to show that the sanitation of a city, or State, cannot be left to individuals. It is too natural for one to be a bit negligent— to forget.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Annual Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities and Corrections.

The Survey — A magazine in the interest of social legislation.

The Youth and the Nation, by Harry Moore. Macmillan, 1917. A guide to service in combating social evils.

QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT 1. What is meant by “ social reforms” as used in this chapter? 2. How are the States taking care of their insane?

3. What do the States do for their feeble-minded persons ? What three kinds of feeble-minded persons are there?

4. Do most States permit weak-minded persons to marry? Should they?

5. Explain how liquor was taxed under the license system?

6. Describe the government dispensary plan for conducting the liquor business. Did it prove a success ?

7. Explain what was meant by local option in relation to the liquor problem.

8. What is meant by State-wide prohibition? How many States adopted it?

9. What was the ultimate aim of persons who are opposed to the liquor traffic? How was their desire accomplished ?

10. How has the theory as to the causes of disease changed in recent years?

11. How does the State protect the health of its citizens ? How do cities?

12. Under present conditions could the spread of disease be prevented without the aid of government ?

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION 1. The united charities associations of many cities have a card index of all deserving and all undeserving poor or street beggars. Any individual can obtain a little folder containing letters of introduction to the association; and if he gives such a letter to a beggar, he knows that the latter will be cared for by the association. Should you give what you have for charities to the unknown beggars or to the association ? Is there a State or local officer to whom you can refer beggars for help and employment?

2. Doctor Carl Kelsey has grouped the causes of poverty into three main classes : 1. Environmental : a. Adverse physical environment: polar regions, tropics, deserts,

swamps.
b. Disasters : flood, earthquake, fire, famine.
2. Personal :

a. Physical defects : feeble-mindedness, insanity, blindness.
b. Moral defects : dishonesty, laziness, shiftlessness, etc.
C. Intemperance.
d. Licentiousness.
e. Sickness.

f. Accident. 3. Social: a. Industrial changes affecting the worker : changes of location of

trade, inventions, strikes.
b. Exploitation.
C. Race prejudice.
d. Sickness, death, desertion, crime of natural supporter.
e. Defective sanitation.
f. Defective educational system.
g. Bad social environment.
h. War.

i. Unwise philanthropy. What are the chief causes of poverty in your immediate neighborhood ? Which of these numerous causes enumerated are secondary to some primary trait of character or habit: for instance, lack of foresight and frugality? Drunkenness? Lack of religious or moral training ?

3. Why is it unwise for a child to have much money to spend ?

4. Is your State penitentiary primarily a place to detain criminals or a place to reform them? Which should it be?

5. Warden P. E. Thomas has established a “home rule” system among prisoners of the Ohio prison. Seven men have been selected from various sections of the prison to act as the prison council and meet with the warden every Monday morning to discuss the affairs of the prison. Their powers are merely advisory. Do you think this warden is helping to solve the criminal problem ?

6. The warden of the Colorado State prison has organized a convict band. Do you think he is helping to solve the criminal problem ?

7. How many of the conditions mentioned below have you observed ?

“Intemperance cuts down youth in its vigor, manhood in its strength, and age in its weakness. It breaks the father's heart, bereaves the doting mother, extinguishes natural affections, erases conjugal love, blots out filial attachments, blights parental hope, and brings down mourning age in sorrow to the grave. It produces weakness, not strength; sickness, not health; death, not life. It makes wives widows, children orphans, fathers fiends, and all of them paupers and beggars. It feeds rheumatism, nurses gout, welcomes epidemics, invites cholera, imports pestilence, and embraces consumption. It covers the land with idleness, misery, and crime. It fills your jails, supplies your almshouses, and demands your asylums. It engenders controversies, fosters quarrels, and cherishes riots. It crowds your penitentiaries, and furnishes victims to your scaffolds. It is the lifeblood of the gambler, the element of the burglar, the prop of the highwayman, and the support of the midnight incendiary. It countenances the liar, respects the thief, esteems the blasphemer. It violates obligations, reverences frauds, and honors infamy. It defames benevolence, hates love, scorns virtue, and slanders innocence. It incites the father to butcher his helpless offspring, and helps the husband to massacre his wife, and the child to grind the parricidal

It burns up men, consumes women, detests life, curses God, and despises heaven. It suborns witnesses, nurses perjury, defiles the jury-box, and stains the judicial ermine. It degrades the citizen, debases the legislator, dishonors the statesman, and disarms the patriot. It brings shame, not honor; terror, not safety; despair, not hope; misery, not happiness. And with the malevolence of a fiend, it calmly surveys its frightful desolation, and unsatisfied with its havoc, it poisons felicity, kills peace, ruins morals, blights confidence. slays reputation, and wipes out national honors.”

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APPENDIX I

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES

(ANNOTATED)

PREAMBLE 1

WE, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

ARTICLE I

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT

Section 1. Two Houses

1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2. House of Representatives

1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.2

2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the

1 The Preamble is an introduction to the main subject, but is no part of it. It grants no powers, but assists in interpreting the various clauses that follow by indicating the intentions of the framers of the Constitution. 3“ Electors means voters.

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