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the students pay 4 per cent interest. The New York State Department of Education awards every year 750 scholarships, each of which entitles the holder to $100 a year for a period of four years. A list of the names of all pupils residing in each county who are entitled to college entrance diplomas is arranged in order of merit and the scholarships are awarded in that order. Five scholarships are awarded each county annually for each assembly district therein. Which of these plans do you think the better?

10. Has your school a baseball diamond ? Basket ball court? Volley ball court? Tennis court? Plenty of swings? If not, is there not some boy or girl in the school with leadership enough to “start something"?

11. Mr. Edison has prepared moving picture films for use in schools, ranging from “the dog barks” and “the dog runs daily life of a fly for the kindergarten up to illustrations for the department of physics. Can you not interest your Civic League in a moving picture machine for your school ?

12. The Board of Education of Brooklyn, New York, adopted a plan to establish penny savings banks in the public schools of that city. Do you think this was a good thing ? Do you think it will tend to induce public school children to be frugal and thrifty ?

13. In many schools it is customary for either the class in government or the graduating class of high schools to take a trip to Washington to see Congress in session and visit the various departments, the Library of Congress, Mt. Vernon, and other places of interest. The cost is usually defrayed by a class entertainment. The other three classes assist with the entertainment as they, too, look forward to the trip. Could the graduates of the several high schools in your county arrange to take this trip together ?

14. Could your city give a summer course in toy-making? The toys could be made and sold by the boys and girls and in this way they would get a practical idea of the manufacturing business.

15. Every child in Wisconsin between fourteen and sixteen years of age who, under a special permit, enters upon some useful employment, must go to an industrial, commercial, or evening school for five hours each week. The employer continues the wages during these hours, the atteñidance upon school being for such hours and at such places as the local Board of Education prescribes. What is the importance of this Wisconsin law ? Should your State have a similar one?

16. The University of Wisconsin can tell a farmer the best way

to blast and pull stumps. This university receives liberal support from the State. Is your State university so practical as this?

17. “At a public meeting called to discuss school taxes the following argument is advanced in an effort to reduce school taxes: (a) The State and local governments are overburdened with school charges, – schooling' is a matter for those who can afford it, — let every one take as much as he can pay for in private institutions ; (b) there are too many fads’ in education. Let every one be given the good oldfashioned 'three R’s' without the many additional • trimmings' that have been loaded on to our school system, — if the old system were maintained, school expenses would be materially reduced. What would be your attitude toward each of these arguments and how would you express

it?” - The New American Government and its Work, by James T. Young.

CHAPTER XXIX

SOCIAL LEGISLATION

(265. Introduction. There are numerous organizations' pro

moting legislation for various social reforms, but there are three problems that deserve special attention because they have been subjects of much recent legislation. These are (1) care of mental defectives, (2) regulation of liquor traffic, and (3) conservation of health.

266. Care of Mental Defectives. — Mental defectives who are classed as insane and confined to hospitals for the insane should be distinguished from feeble-minded persons, or those who are unable to compete on equal terms with their normal fellows. While insanity is a disease which is often cured, feeble-mindedness seems to be a permanent condition which cannot be cured.

Insane in Hospitals. - In 1880 only 40,000 persons, or 81 for each 100,000 of population, were supported by the States in institutions for the insane. In 1918, the latest census issued, 239,820 persons were reported in hospitals for the insane, or 240 for each 100,000 of population. Insanity has not increased to so great an extent as these figures would inf

1 Some of the more important of these organizations are: Anti-Saloon League of America, Woman's Christian Temperance Union, World's Purity Federation, International Reform Bureau, American Civic Association, National Committee for Mental Hygiene, National Reform Association, National Probation Association, League for World Peace, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, American Peace and Arbitration League, American Peace Society.

Those desiring literature from the above organizations may obtain the address of the secretary from the World Almanac or some similar year book. 1 These States are Connecticut, Indiana, Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, Washington, and Wisconsin.

dicate, because a larger proportion of insane persons were cared f

for in institutions in 1918 than in 1880, but the real increase of insanity is great, and the prevention of insanity and treatment of insane persons is one of our greatest problems.

The Feeble-Minded. - Feeble-mindedness is a stats of mental defect, existing from birth or from an early age, rendering persons thus affected incapable of performing their duties as members of society in the position of life to which they are born. A feeble-minded person whose mental age does not sur

pass two years is known as an idiot; one whose mental age is E between three and seven years is called an imbecile; and one

whose mental age is between seven and twelve is technically f known as a moron. f The education of imbeciles and morons should be apart from other children. They do not develop initiative, and have weak will power, but can be taught to lead a useful life within an institution and they can be happiest there because occupied at such tasks as they can perform.

In 1910, 20,000 feeble-minded persons were in special institutions, 13,000 in almshouses, and several hundred thousand at large. The greater portion of these are morons and could be nearly self-supporting in institutions, and much happier there among others of their kind than at large.

All but eleven States have laws against the marriage of insane persons, and about the same number prohibit the marriage of idiots; a smaller number prohibit the marriage of imbeciles; and only nine States prohibit the marriage of all feeble-minded persons, thus including the morons, though several other States, such as Michigan and New Jersey, prohibit the marriage of morons if they have been in institutions for the feeble-minded.

Not only will the increased proportion of feeble-minded persons injure our race, but they contribute a large proportion of our criminals, paupers, and drunkards; hence all States

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should have rigid laws to prevent the marriage of feebleminded persons.

267. Abolition of the Saloon. The License System. - Before the Civil War liquor was sold at grocery stores at about the same price that is now paid for cider. From the time of the Civil War until the adoption of national prohibition the United States government imposed a tax on liquor ranging as high as several dollars a gallon. In addition to this federal tax on liquor, the United States, the States, and the cities each imposed a license tax ranging from $25 to more than $1000 upon every saloon.

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The license system lessened the number of saloons and the amount of liquor sold, and produced revenue for the National, State, and city governments. But the license system made the government a partner in the evils of the traffic and gave a certain respectability to the liquor business. Moreover, the high license tended to put saloons into the hands of a few wealthy men who used their money to secure the election of public officials that were favorable to the liquor business, thus having a corrupting influence upon the National, State, and city officials.

The Dispensary System. — Under the dispensary plan the government had a monopoly of the liquor business, and all

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