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the voters themselves may enact them by means of the Initiative

(see Secs. 156 and 169). Or if the officers prove incompetent for dishonest they may be removed by the Recall (see Sec. 243).

PROGRESS OF THE INITIATIVE, REFERENDUM AND RECALL
Percentages in this table refer to voters required on petitions

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12 % state 20% local

Ohio

6%

5% indirect 8% direct
8% direct
3% indirect 10 % direct
6% direct
10 % direct 15 % direct
10 % direct
and indirect

1912

Nebraska
Washington

1912
1912

(2)
10,000 direct 20,000 direct

10% 6%

25 % state 35 % local

7,000

Idaho
No. Dakota
Kansas
Louisiana
Mississippi
Maryland
Massachu-

setts

1912
1914
1914
1914
1914
1915
1918

10, 15, 25 %

25 %

7,500 direct

7,500 direct

6,000

10,000 voters 25,000

15,000 indirect

20,000 indirect

1 “ Indirect” means that opportunity must first be given for action by the legislature on initiated measures.

2 Initiative and Referendum amendments were adopted by the voters of Idaho in 1912, but without a self-enacting clause. Each has remained a dead letter for lack of action by the legislature; hence they are omitted from the above table.

8 Laws for any one county or Baltimore city may be referred to the voters thereof on a 10 % petition.

MUNICIPAL: The Initiative, Referendum, and Recall have been incorporated more or less completely in the charters of over 300 cities and towns in the United States and are in successful operation, Many such municipalities

This direct action on the part of the people demands enlight enment on the part of the voters, and for this purpose many of the States which have adopted the Initiative and Referendum send a pamphlet to each voter before an election giving in a condensed form the strongest arguments on each side of every question referred to them. Thus with this publicity the people are prepared to vote upon the various issues with a degree of enlightenment.

If too many measures are submitted to the people, the voters are just as burdened as when they have too many officers to elect. Woodrow Wilson argued that these safeguards should be considered merely as “a gun behind the door” to be used only in cases of emergency.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CALLDS, R. S. Short Ballot Principles. 1911.
JONES, CHESTER LLOYD. Readings on Parties and Elections in the

United States. 1912.
KALES, ALBERT M. Unpopular Government in the United States.

1914. Ray, P. ORMAN. An Introduction to Political Parties and Practical

Politics. Revised edi ion, 1917.
MERRIAM, C. E. The American Party System. 1922.
SAIT, E. M. American Parties and Elections. 1922.
Election Laws of your State.
Sample Ballots.

QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT 1. What is meant by registration? How often need one register in the State in which you live? Explain just how one registers.

2. What useful service is performed by political parties?

3. How do political parties induce weak-minded persons to vote a straight ticket?

4. Name five different methods of nominating candidates.

are not in the above mentioned Initiative and Referendum States, the Initiative, Referendum, and Recall having been granted by the legislatures by means of general laws or special charters.

By courtesy of Equity.

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5. Describe a delegate convention.
6. Describe a direct primary election.
7. What is meant by nomination by petition ?

8. What is meant by the “closed” primary? By the “open" primary? What advantages and disadvantages has each? 9. Is the direct primary “ an opportunity” or a

” of election evils? Explain.

10. When are most elections held for choosing State officers ? Federal officers? City officers ?

11. Explain just how an election is held — officers, place, equipment, ballots, booths, poll books, time of day, “watcher.”

12. Explain the Australian method of voting and tell just how it was introduced into the United States.

13. Why are voting machines undesirable ?

14. Explain why secret voting has taken the place of the viva voce method.

15. Describe an Australian ballot.

16. Should the names of candidates be arranged on the ballot in party columns or alphabetically ?

17. What is meant by the short ballot movement? Give the arguments in favor of short ballots.

18. Explain how city officers are elected in Birmingham ? In Cleveland ? In Ashtabula ?

19. What is meant by the Recall ?

20. What is meant by direct legislation? Does Woodrow Wilson favor it?

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

1. What provision is made in your State constitution in regard to State elections ?

2. Upon what date is your State election held? City election? National election ? County election? Why should National, State, and local elections be held on different dates?

3. Obtain a copy of the last ballot voted at your home and compare it with those printed in this chapter. Which do you consider the better?

4. Have your father, or your brother, who votes make a list of the National, State, county, township, city or village, and school officers elected by the people in your State. If they cannot do this do you not think that it is a strong indication that more officers are being elected than the voters are capable of electing wisely? Which of them do you think should be appointed ?

5. Explain the following quotation, which favors a “short ballot”: “We cannot make the voters all go into politics, but by a drastic reduction in the number of elective officers we can make politics come to the voters."

6. Nicholas Longworth when congratulated on his election to Congress is reported to have said : “ Election! I wasn't elected; I was appointed." What is the significance of this remark?

7. The New Jersey election law enacted under the influence of Woodrow Wilson provides that a State convention of each party shall be held annually to adopt a party platform. The convention is composed of forty candidates nominated at the party primary for the offices of assemblymen or State senators, hold-over senators, members of the State committee, and the governor, or the candidate for governor the autumn when a new governor is to be elected. Would you favor this arrangement for your State? Why?

8. Mr. C. L. Gruber explains the word “government” in the following words: “The word “government'is derived from the French

from the Latin guberno, which was borrowed by the Romans from the Greek kybernao, a word meaning 'to steer a ship.' We therefore sometimes speak of the government as the ship of state.' The idea of general welfare and great vigilance is therefore embodied in the etymology of the word, since the interests of him who steers the ship are but the interests of every one on board. The safety of the vessel depends upon the skill and watchfulness of the man at the helm.' Prepare an argument on the subject, “ Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty.”

9. In 1896 the Municipal Voters' League of Chicago was organized to promote efficient government in Chicago. It investigates the records of candidates nominated by the regular party organizations and furnishes the information pertaining to each candidate to the voters of the city. Its membership is never called together, its work being directed by an executive committee of nine members. This committee has the sole authority to commit the organization for or against any candidate or measure. Are the voters of your community informed as to the qualifications of candidates, or do you need such an organization ?

gouver

ner,

CHAPTER XXVII

STATE FINANCE

245. The Taxing Power of a State. — Taxes are charges imposed by a legislative body upon persons or property to raise money for public purposes. With the following exceptions, a State legislature may impose taxes of any kind and any amount, or may give permission to the legislative bodies of counties, townships, towns, or cities to do the same.

(1) Taxes must be for a public purpose. Exactly what is meant by a “public purpose" cannot be defined, but must be decided by the courts whenever taxpayers feel that they are being taxed for a private purpose and carry their complaints into court.

Some years ago Topeka, with permission of the legislature of Kansas, agreed to pay a sum of money to a manufacturing concern if it would locate its iron works in that city. The factory was so located, but when taxes were assessed for the payment of this sum of money certain taxpayers brought their complaint to court, and, after several appeals, the Supreme Court of the United States decided that taxes could not be collected for this private purpose.

On the other hand railroads may receive aid from a State, county, or city, unless the State constitution prohibits it, because the public generally have such a direct interest in the transportation of commodities and the circulation of business that the whole community is benefited.

(2) Taxes must operate uniformly upon those subject to them. The assessment of all persons and property within a class or district selected for taxation must be according to a uniform rule. For instance, when a citizen of New York State

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