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8. Experienced legislators cannot be elected, but they can be reelected until they become skilful legislators. What is the inference of this statement?
9. The National Voters League prepares a bulletin, called the “ Searchlight on Congress,” which gives the votes of each congressman upon all important measures that come up during his term of office. Is there any organization in the State in which you live to inform you as to the record of your State legislators ? Should there be ?
10. If possible examine a copy of the acts of the legislature and mention a few of the laws passed at its last session. (Any lawyer, court clerk, or justice of the peace should have a copy.)
11. Do you think a legislator should vote according to the will of the majority of his constituents or that he should use his own discretion regardless of their wishes ?
12. Why may one fifth of the members voting in either house of the State legislature demand that the vote of each member be recorded in the journal ?
13. The constitution of Idaho (Art. V, Sec. 25) requires the judges of her trial courts to report annually to her supreme court such defects and omissions in the State constitution or statutes as they have observed. The supreme court considers these suggestions and makes recommendation to the governor for suitable legislation. Do you favor this practice?
14. Draft a bill in due form for the enactment of any law which you would like to see passed by your State legislature. Be careful to prepare a measure which does not conflict with any higher law. The wording should begin: “Be it enacted by the legislature of the State of that,” etc.
171. The Office of Governor. — Every State has a governor as its chief executive officer. He is elected by the voters of
the State. During colonial days the royal governors did the bidding of the King and often merited the dislike of the people. When the colonists grew weary of British rule their legislatures were able to protect them against despotic acts of the governors.
Thus when they gained their independence they naturally
1 In Mississippi the Governor must receive a majority of the popular votes of the State as in all other States, but in addition to this requirement he must receive a majority of popular votes in more than half of the districts from which representatives are elected for the most numerous branch of the legislature.
$ 7,500 and residence 1
6,500 4,000 and house rent 10,000 and residence 5,000 5,000 4,000 6,000 and residence 7,500 and residence 5,000 12,000 and residence 8,000 and residence 6,200 and house rent 5,000 and residence 6,500 and residence 7,500 and residence 5,000 and residence 4,500 and residence 10,000 5,000 7,000 5,000 and residence 5,000 and residence 7,500 and residence 7,500 and residence 7,000 and house rent 3,000 10,000
5,000 and residence 10,000 and residence 7,100 and residence 5,000 and residence 10,000 and residence 4,500 7,500 18,000 and residence 8,000 5,000 and residence 3,000 4,000 and residence 4,000 and residence 6,000 3,000 5,000 and residence 6,000 and residence 10,000 and residence 5,000 and residence 6,000 and residence
2 4, 4 4
1 Furnishings, heat, and light are usually supplied, and the wages of ser. vants are paid in some States.
regarded governors with suspicion and looked upon the legislatures as guardians of their liberty. Therefore governors were granted little power in the early constitutions. In addressing the Federal Constitutional Convention of 1787 Madison said, “The executives of the States are in general little more than ciphers; the legislatures are omnipotent.”
However, the public have gradually lost confidence in their State legislatures because the character of the legislators has deteriorated. This is due to the fact that the States extended suffrage more rapidly than they educated the voters in the proper use of the ballot. Prejudice against governors has disappeared, and it is realized that it is easier to elect one honest and efficient leader who can be held responsible to the people than it is to elect numerous responsible legislators.
So, recently the governors have been regarded as the guardians of the people's liberty. Such governors as Roosevelt and Hughes of New York, LaFollette of Wisconsin, and Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey, have exalted the office of governor in the public mind; and constitutional changes have increased the legal powers of the occupant.
172. The Governors’ Powers. The powers of a governor are usually classified under three heads : (1) executive powers, such as appointing officers and seeing that the civil and criminal laws of the State are enforced ; (2) legislative powers, such as sending messages to the legislature and vetoing objectionable laws; and (3) judicial powers, such as pardoning persons convicted of crime.
173. Executive Powers of the Governor. - A State constitution almost invariably provides that the governor shall take care that the laws of the State are faithfully executed, but to him is never given power for the performance of this duty as is given to the President of the United States. (See Sec. 63.)
Practically all of the most important State officers, such as the secretary of state, attorney general, auditor, and treasurer are elected by the people. Judges are elected by the people in most States. Sheriffs and state's attorneys are elected by the people with few exceptions. Thus, the governor is merely one of a number of officers whom the people elect to enforce the laws, and if the other officers do not perform their duties in an efficient and honest manner the governor is often helpless.
A story is told of a sheriff who permitted a prisoner to be taken from his jail and lynched. The governor wrote a letter to the sheriff reprimanding him for his neglect of duty. The sheriff promptly replied by telling the governor to mind his own business; that he was responsible to the people of his county who had elected him and to nobody else. According to the law of his State the sheriff was right. It may be said that a governor is the captain of a Ship of
Underwood & Underwood, N.Y. State which is navi
A MOUNTED SQUAD OF PENNSYLVANIA
STATE POLICE. gated by a crew that he does not select, and over which he has few powers of command.
As commander-in-chief of the State militia the governor has a real power. When a riot occurs, when a prisoner is in danger of being lynched, or when a strike cannot be handled by local officers the governor may call out the militia.
State Police. — A few of the States have regular State police. For example, the governor of Massachusetts has a small body of State police to assist him in the enforcement of the State laws. It acts as a detective force to aid in the suppression of disorder and in the enforcement of criminal laws. It also per