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8. The contents of State constitutions are becoming very similar to ordinary statutes, and since the method of changing them, by the initiative, is that which is commonly used for ordinary statutes, do we any longer need these constitutions ? If State constitutions were abolished would it make the governments more or less democratic?

9. Prepare a brief constitution for a baseball team or a basketball team.

CHAPTER XIX

STATE LEGISLATURES

160. Structure of State Legislatures. — Every State has a legislative body. In twenty-three of the States this body

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is known as the “ Legislature,” in twenty as the “General Assembly," in three as the “Legislative Assembly," and in New Hampshire and Massachusetts as the “General Court." In each State the legislative body is composed of two houses the Senate and House of Representatives. In six States, however, the lower house is known as the “Assembly," and in three as the "House of Delegates."

161. Membership of State Legislatures. — The Senates vary in membership from 17 in Nevada to 67 in Minnesota. In some States one senator is elected from each county, but most States are divided into Senatorial Districts of about equal

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population. Senators are elected for terms of 4 years in 31 States, 2 years in 16 States, and 3 years in New Jersey.

The membership of the House of Representatives varies from 35 in Delaware to 422 in New Hampshire. In some States one or more representatives are elected from each county or each township, whereas other States are divided into House Districts of about equal population.

From time to time the legislatures create new Senate and House districts which correspond to the changed distribution of population. As the cities grow in population the rural county representatives commonly refuse to increase city repre. sentation proportionately for fear that the counties will be controlled by the cities. An especially unfair apportionment is called a "gerrymander.” (See Sec. 35.)

In most States any qualified voter is eligible to membership in the Senate or House, but in some States the age qualification for the Senate is higher than that for the House. The members, either by law or custom, usually reside in the districts from which they are elected.

162. Legislative Sessions. — The legislatures of six States meet annually, that of Alabama quadrennially, and those of all other States biennially. Every odd-numbered year forty-one legislatures convene thirty-nine of them in the month of . January. Many State constitutions absolutely limit the sessions to a definite number of days, others allow no compensation after the prescribed number of days. However, there is a tendency to remove the restriction because many of the bills which are rushed through the last days do not receive careful consideration. For any special or urgent purpose the governor may call an extra session.

163. Privileges, Immunities, and Compensation of Members. State constitutions usually provide that for any speech or debate in either house a member may not be questioned in any other place; and that members are not subject to arrest under any civil process during any legislative session or coming thereto or going therefrom. This latter privilege amounts to scarcely anything to-day, for a member who commits treason, felony, or breach of the peace may be arrested like any other individual.

The salary of members of each house is always the same. In some States it is determined by the legislature, while in others it is prescribed by the constitution. It varies from $3 per diem while in session in Kansas to $3500 per session in Illinois.

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Alabama Quad. 50 days
Arizona

Bien. | 60 days
Arkansas Bien. | 60 days
California Bien. None
Colorado

Bien. None Connecticut Bien. 155 da. Delaware Bien. 60 days Florida

Bien. | 60 days Georgia

Ann. 50 days Idaho

Bien. 60 days Illinois

Bien. None Indiana

Bien.

60 days Iowa

Bien. None Kansas

Bien. 50 days Kentucky Bien.

60 days Louisiana Bien.

60 days Maine

Bien. None Maryland

Bien.

90 days Massachusetts Ann. None Michigan Bien. None Minnesota Bien. 90 days Mississippi Bien. None Missouri

Bien. 70 days Montana Bien. | 60 days Nebraska

Bien. None Nevada

Bien.

60 days New Hampshire Bien. None New Jersey Ann. None New Mexico Bien. 60 days New York Ann. None North Carolina | Bien. 60 days North Dakota . Bien.

60 days Ohio

Bien. None Oklahoma Bien.

60 days Oregon

Biep. 40 days Pennsylvania Bien. None Rhode Island Ann.

60 days South Carolina Ann. None South Dakota . Bien.

60 days Tennessee Bien.

75 days Texas.

Bien. 60 days Utah

Bien. 60 days Vermont

Bien. None Virginia . Bien.

60 days Washington Bien.

60 days West Virginia . Bien. 45 days Wisconsin Bien. None Wyoming

Bien 40 days

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