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8. President Roosevelt recommended that campaign expenses de paid by the Federal government. What arguments can be advanced for and against this recommendation ?

9. What argument can you advance for and against compulsory voting?

10. Though it is morally just, why is it practically inexpedient to penalize both bribe-giver and bribe-taker?

11. Prepare a report on the election of 1824.

12. Woodrow Wilson, in a message to Congress, advocated the nomination of the presidential and vice-presidential candidates by a direct primary election instead of National Conventions. Why do you favor or oppose this suggestion? Do you think Congress can enact a law creating such a primary, or must the Constitution be amended ? (See Art. II. Sec. 1; also Amendments XII, XIV, and XV.)

13. The functions of political parties are: (1) to frame issues for the voters to choose between, (2) to nominate candidates so that the successful candidate may be the choice of a large number of voters, (3) to educate the voters by speeches and literature, (4) to arouse interest in public issues, (5) to create a loyal spirit among legislators which will cause them to sacrifice their individual views for the sake of a legislative program, and (6) to censor the opposing party and expose its shortcomings.

Canada shows its appreciation of an opposition party by paying a substantial salary to its leader in parliament; and most people believe political parties essential to a republic. But would the party system be of any value if there were no independent voters ?

14. Every member of the Socialist Party has a membership book containing stamps purchased annually as evidence of membership; and to vote for any candidate other than a Socialist is party treason and results in expulsion from the party. Would you favor this rule for the larger parties ?

15. The Socialist Party aims at social ownership and democratic control of all the necessary means of production the elimination of profit, rent, and interest to “make it impossible for any to share the product without sharing the burden of labor.” Do you favor the elimination of profit, rent, and interest ?

CHAPTER XVIII

STATE CONSTITUTIONS

152. Origin of State Constitutions. - As the result of the Revolutionary War the thirteen colonies of North America became thirteen independent States. Each had power to enact such laws as it considered wise. As expressed by a meeting of New Hampshire towns: “It is our humble opinion, that when the Declaration of Independence took place, the Colonies were absolutely in a state of nature, and the powers of Government reverted to the people at large.” Thus the people of each State had power to create any kind of government they preferred.

Connecticut and Rhode Island found the colonial charters granted to them by Charles II to be so liberal that these charters were sufficient for their purposes. These States merely renounced their allegiance to the King of England and continued to be governed according to the provisions of their charters until 1818 and 1842 respectively. Between 1776 and 1780 all of the other States prepared new documents, known as constitutions. In addition to outlining a form of government these documents contained certain rules to which all State legislation must conform.

These original constitutions were framed by State conventions, or congresses, some of which were composed of members of the State assemblies; while others were especially constituted for that purpose. All of our State constitutions now in existence were framed by assemblies representing the people. Congress never admits a new State into the Union until the

territory desiring to be admitted has framed its constitution. On the admission of some States Congress has passed an act empowering the people of a territory to hold a convention and frame a constitution; on the admission of other States Congress has accepted and confirmed the constitution previously drawn up by a territorial convention.

153. State Constitutions Analyzed. State constitutions commonly consist of six parts :

(1) A preamble stating the general purpose for which the government is organized.

(2) A Bill of Rights listing certain rights which must not be infringed upon even by enactments of the legislature.

(3) Provisions for the organization of the legislative, executive, and judicial departments, and the powers and duties of each.

(4) Provisions of a miscellaneous character treating of such subjects as suffrage and elections, revenues and expenditures, local government, public education, and railroads and other corporations.

(5) Provisions for future changes by partial amendment or total revision.

(6) A schedule providing for such matters as submitting the new constitution to the voters and putting it into operation without conflicting with the previous constitution.

154. Revision of State Constitutions. As the provisions of our State constitutions cannot be changed by the State legislatures in the same manner that ordinary laws are changed, special means have developed for altering them when new conditions make it advisable. If the people desire to make many changes in the constitution a convention is called to revise the old constitution or to frame a new one. But if only a few portions of the constitution are to be changed, a simpler procedure is followed, known as partial amendment.

155. Constitutional Conventions. - A constitutional convention is an assembly of delegates chosen by the voters to revise an old constitution or to frame a new one. In all States except Rhode Island the constitution may be changed by a conven

tion, but in most States it must then be ratified by the voters before it becomes law.

There are usually three popular votes connected with a new or revised constitution : (1) the vote of the people authorizing a convention, (2) the election by the voters of delegates to the convention, and (3) the submission to the people for approval of the constitution framed by the convention."

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NEW YORK STATE CAPITOL. Here the Constitutional Convention recently met. This is the most

expensive State Capitol in the United States.

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156. Partial Amendment. In all States except New Hampshire the constitution may be changed by partial amendment, which method is used when only a few alterations are to be made. The details of this method are given below in order that the reader may learn in what manner the constitution of his State may be amended. (1) Amendment by an affirmative vote of two successive

1 Some States dispense with the first vote, others with the third, and Mississippi dispensed with both the first and the third in 1890. On this occasion the legislature of Mississippi provided for an election at which delegates were chosen, and when the delegates bad framed a constitution they adopted it without consulting the people.

legislatures, without being submitted to the voters.1 (2) Proposal by the legislature and confirmation by a vote of

the people, but with the final determination left to the

legislature. (3) Amendment proposed by the legislature, and approved

by the voters, but with the amending process subject
to such restrictions as to make constitutional changes
difficult. Such restrictions are of three kinds :
(a) Requirement of an affirmative vote by two suc-

cessive sessions of the legislature for the proposal

of amendments.3 (6) Limitations as to the number, frequency, or

character of proposals. (c) Requirement of an affirmative vote by more than

a bare majority of all persons voting upon the amendment-e.g., by a majority of those who

vote for officers at that election.5 (4) Unrestricted proposal of amendments by one legislature

and their adoption by the vote of a majority of the per

sons voting thereon. The Initiative. - - In addition to the above methods of amending State constitutions a new way has developed since 1902,

1 Delaware.
2 Mississippi and South Carolina.

8 Connecticut, Indiana, Iowa, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, and Wisconsin.

4 Arkansas, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Montana, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Vermont.

5 Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Tennessee, and Wyoming.

6 Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Missouri, Michigan, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington, and West Virginia.

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