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f of the States, and the chairman of each delegation announces
the votes for the entire delegation.
In the Republican convention the votes of a bare majority of delegates nominate; in the Democratic the votes of two thirds of the delegates are necessary.
In 1912 it was necessary to ballot forty-six times to nominate Woodrow Wilson, although in 1916 he was nominated by the first ballot. The Vice-President is nominated in the same manner as the President.
A number of the States have extended the direct primary to the selection of delegates for national conventions, or else to the instruction of delegates as to whom the majority of the party desires to be nominated.
150. Party Machinery.8 — Between the nomination of candidates and election day a political campaign must be waged, and for this purpose party organizations are necessary. Party machinery in the form of a national committee, national subcommittees, a congressional campaign committee, State committees, and local committees, is necessary for each party.
The National Committees of the Democratic and Republican parties have long consisted of one member from each State and Territory, but the extension of suffrage to women has created a demand for additional representation.
In some States the committeeman is chosen by the direct primary
1 Until 1912 the Democratic party used what was known as the “Unit Rule" by which all the votes of a State went to the same candidate; but the 1912 Convention modified the rule by providing that the unit rule should not be enforced for the delegations from States whose laws provide for the nomination and election of delegates to the national convention in congressional districts. In the last Democratic Convention delegates from nearly all the States voted as individuals as freely as in the Republican Convention.
2 In Pennsylvania and South Dakota delegates to the National Convention are selected by a direct primary. In Maryland, Illinois, and Michigan a direct primary enables the party voters to express a presidential preference. In Oregon, North Dakota, Wisconsin, New Jersey, Nebraska, California, Ohio, and Massachusetts the delegates are chosen by a direct primary and a presidential preference is expressed at the same direct primary.
8 The party machinery described in this section applies to the Democratic and Republican parties. That of other parties is very similar.
method, in some by a State convention, while in others he is
Since the adoption of popular election of senators, similar committees have been organized by both parties to assist in the election of party candidates for the senate. During presidential years these committees coöperate with the national committees.
The State Committees vary in composition and powers from State to State. In number they vary from a few to more than a hundred members, and serve terms varying from one to four years. Except in those States where the State convention system has been abolished, the committeemen are selected at the State conventions. In some States the unit of representation is the congressional district, in others the county. Subordinate to State committees are various local committees.
151. Party Finance. - Previous to 1908 official records of national campaign expenditures were not published, but since that date full publicity of both contributions and expenditures has either been made voluntarily or, since 1910, required by national law. The following expenditures have been made by the Democratic and Republican national committees since 1908 :
1 Second in importance only to the national chairman is the national secretary, who is director at headquarters. He is more familiar with the actual details of the campaign than the chairman, who has largely determined the policy.
1920 Democratic $620,000 $1,130,000 $1,958,508 $1,318,274 Republican 1,655,518 1,070,000 3,829,260 5,319,729 In 1920 the Republican congressional committee spent $375,969; the Democratic, $24,498. The Republican senatorial committee spent $326,980; the Democratic, $6,675.
These funds are contributed by candidates, relatives, and admirers; by office seekers; by manufacturers desiring protective tariff or ship-owners opposing it; by those favoring or opposing reforms; and by loyal party supporters.
Until recently private corporations contributed large amounts, sometimes as much as $50,000 or $100,000 at a time. But in 1907 Congress passed an act prohibiting contributions by any corporations to any campaign fund used to aid in the election of the President, Vice-President, a Representative or a Senator. By the same law national banks and other federal corporations are forbidden to contribute to any campaign fund.
By acts of Congress, passed 1910 and 1911, a candidate for representative in Congress may not expend more than $5000 and a senator not more than $10,000 2 towards his election. At presidential and congressional elections the treasurer of the national committee and the treasurer of the congressional committee must report before and after elections the entire “campaign fund” contributed and expended, giving the name of each person contributing as much as $100 and an itemized statement of all expenditures of as much as $10. This report is filed with the clerk of the House of Representatives and is open to the public.
1 Besides this federal law prohibiting corporations from contributing, many States prohibit corporations from contributing to State and local elections. States have various laws limiting the amount of money a candidate may spend and also specifying for what purposes he may spend it.
2 Postage and a few items such as those which members of Congress obtain free are not included in the $10,000 limit.
A campaign fund may be expended for the maintenance of headquarters, convention halls, club rooms, mass-meetings, parades, and speakers' expenses; in most States for salaries, bulletins, pamphlets, and posters; and in a few States the cost of primaries must be borne by the Staté committees. Bribery, or gifts to influence voters, is everywhere illegal.
A law of Congress enacted in 1912 requires newspapers and other periodicals to publish the name or names of persons owning the publication so that it may be known to what extent certain persons or interests are influencing public opinion & election times. The law also requires publishers to insert the word “Advertisement” at the end of any reading matter for which the publisher receives pay.
MERRIAM, C. E. The American Party System. 1922.
QUESTIONS ON THE Text 1. What is a political party? 2. What is the National Committee? Of whom iş it composed ? 3. How is the National Chairman chosen ? What is his position ? 4. What is the duty of the various party representatives ? 5. What is meant by party factions ?
6. Why must the principles of a new party be emphasized ? What holds together an old party?
7. What is the immediate end of a political party? 8. Why are political parties useful to a democratic government? 9. What is a political platform ? 10. What is meant by a plank of a party platform ? N 11. What determines the value of a platform ?
12. What was advocated in the last Republican platform ? The Democratic platform ? The Socialist platform ? Discuss the different planks.
13. Describe a National Convention. When does it meet? Who, and what considerations, determine where it will meet ?
14. What is accomplished by a National Convention ?
15. How many votes of a convention are necessary to nominate a Republican candidate? A Democratic candidate?
16. How are vice-presidential candidates nominated ?
17. Describe party machinery and the methods of conducting a campaign.
18. What is the Congressional Campaign Committee ?
21. May corporations contribute money to a political party to influence a federal election ?
22. May a candidate for Congress spend as much as he desires towards his election?
23. How can one learn how much money has been expended by a candidate for a federal office ?
24. Is it legal in any State to use gifts or bribes to influence voters?
QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION 1. Referring to party organization, Mr. C. R. Fish says: “There must be drilling and training, hard work with the awkward squad, and an occasional dress parade. This work requires the work of many men: there must be captains of hundreds and captains of tens, district chiefs and ward heelers. Explain the meaning of this quotation.
2. Is your State a one-party State? Would government be more efficient if there were two parties of about equal strength ?
3. Compare the last platforms of the leading political parties. Which is the most progressive? Which the least? Which do you favor ? Did you inherit your views or do you think for yourself? Compare the last platforms with the most recent preceding ones. (See World Almanac for presidential year.)
4. What are the differences between socialism and anarchism?
5. What is the method of procedure in calling and conducting a caucus or primary in your own State ?
6. How are the delegates of the county and State conventions chosen in your own State — in theory and in actual practice?
7. Why is there always a lull in business during a presidential campaign when tariff reduction is an issue?