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War, and acquired it by treaty the following year is 3606 square miles and its population in 1920 was 1,299,809, including 948,709 whites, 49,246 blacks, 301,816 mulattoes, and 36 mongolians.

Congress provides for the government of Porto Rico, and did not extend complete American citizenship to its inhabitants until 1917. However, between 1898 and 1917 Porto Ricans

owed allegiance to the United States, could enter the country • unrestricted by immigration laws, and were protected by the United States when travelling abroad. Most of the civil rights

guaranteed to Ameri

can citizens were A T L AN TIO

tended to them. The Aggadales Camus,

law of Congress, signed March 2, 1917, gives

Porto Ricans full AmerO À DI B BA N

PORTO RICO ican citizenship and

provides for universal

manhood suffrage. The Executive branch of the Porto Rican government consists of a governor and an executive council of eleven members, all of whom are appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate. At least five of the members of the executive council must be Porto Ricans.

The executive council grants franchises, ratifies important nominations to public office, determines salaries, and approves municipal ordinances.

Seven members of the executive council act as heads of the administrative departments : secretary, attorney general, treasurer, auditor, commissioner of the interior, commissioner of education, and commissioner of public health, charities, and corrections.

The governor has the usual powers, except that he does not appoint the heads of administrative departments. His veto may be orerridden by a two-thirds vote of the legislature. In some cases where the veto is overridden, the bill may be referred to the President of the United States, who has an absolute veto.

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The Legislature of the Island is composed of two houses, a senate and a house of delegates. The senate consists of nineteen members, fourteen elected from seven districts and five elected at large. The house of delegates consists of thirty-nine members, thirty-five elected from seven districts and four elected at large.

The Judiciary of Porto Rico has been almost completely Americanized in form, law, and procedure. The supreme court consists of five judges appointed for life by the President — three Porto Ricans and two Americans in prac

PHILIPPINE tice. Below this court are seven local district courts, each having one judge appointed by the governor of the territory with the consent Lingayet of the council for four years. Be

Manila Bay Manila low the district courts are twentyfour municipal courts with justices of the peace elected by the voters

PANAY of the territory for terms of two years.

A Commissioner, elected by the voters every two years, represents the island in Washington. Unlike OINEO the territorial delegate, he has no statute right to a seat in the House, but by courtesy the House has given him the privilege of speaking and of serving on committees. He receives a salary of $7500 per annum.

140. The Philippines. — The United States took possession of the Philippine Islands in 1898 during the Spanish-American War, and they were ceded to the United States the following year. This archipelago consists of about 3141 islands with a total area of 127,853 square miles, and a population of 10,350,640. There are 3945 Spaniards, 5774 Americans, 7806 Japanese, and 43,802 Chinese. Chinese are now excluded. The population increased 35% from 1903 to 1918.

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Originally Congress provided a government for the Philippine Islands in which the natives played a very minor part, but in order to test their ability for self-government Congress and the President have gradually entrusted more offices to them.

The present government of the Philippines is provided for by a law enacted by Congress in 1916. This Act provides that

. the laws of Congress hereafter enacted shall not apply to the Philippine Islands except when they specifically so provide, and extends general legislative power to the Philippine Legislature with certain fundamental restrictions enumerated therein.

The Executive department consists of the Governor General, the Vice Governor, the heads - of the executive departments, and an auditor. The Governor General is appointed by the President and

Senate of the United THE FIRST PHILIPPINE ASSEMBLY, 1907.

States. His position

in the Philippine government is very similar to the President's position in the government of the United States. The Vice Governor is also appointed by the President and Senate, and acts as governor in case of the latter's inability to act. He is head of the-executive department of public instruction, which consists of the bureaus of education and health. The other executive departments are created by the Philippine Legislature and their heads are appointed by the Governor General. The Auditor, who is appointed by the President, safeguards the revenues of the central and local Philippine governments.

The Legislature consists of a senate and a house of representatives. The senate is composed of twenty-four members chosen in twelve districts for terms of six years. The house of

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representatives is composed of ninety members chosen in ninety districts 1 for terms of three years. Sessions are held annually. All legislative acts are subject to the approval of the Governor General or the President of the United States.

The Judiciary consists of a supreme court of seven judges appointed by the President and Senate, twenty-six courts of first instance with judges appointed by the Governor General and the Philippine Senate, and numerous justices of the peace. Appeals may be taken from the Philippine supreme court to the Su- Calon preme Court of the United States if the Constitution, a statute, or

Lake treaty of the United States is involved, or if an amount exceeding $25,000 is in question.

Two Commissioners, elected by the Philippine legislature for terms of three years, represent the

PANAMA CANAL ZONE. archipelago in Washington. These representatives have no seats in Congress, but by courtesy of the House they have the privilege of debating, and receive a salary of $7500 per annum.

141. Panama. - The occupation, use, and control of a zone five miles wide on each side of the Panama Canal was granted by Panama to the United States by treaty in 1904. The present permanent government for this zone was provided for by an act of Congress in 1912. The government is placed in the hands of the President of the United States. With the con

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1 Two senators and nine representatives are appointed by the Governor General for indefinite terms to represent the non-Christian tribes, which were unrepresented before 1916; all other members of the legislature are elected by a restricted suffrage.

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Copyright, Underwood & Underwood, N.Y.

THE PANAMA CANAL. This scene shows the first ship through the canal after the great Culebra slide.

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Copyright, Underwood & Underwood, N. Y. Two HUNDRED Ton SIXTEEN-INCH DISAPPEARING GUN FOR THE

PANAMA FORTIFICATIONS.

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