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the wish that the wad of a cannon discharged as a salute to President Adams had hit the broadest part of the President's breeches. Again, Matthew Lyon, of Vermont, also violated this law while canvassing for reëlection to Congress. He charged the President with “ unbounded thirst for ridiculous pomp, foolish adulation, and a selfish avarice.” This expression cost Mr. Lyon four months in jail and a fine of $1000. Do you think this sedition law was unconstitutional ? (Constitution, Amendment I.)

7. In January, 1913, more than a thousand men and a thousand women marched to the Capitol to present to Congress, through Senator Sheppard of Texas and Representative Hobson of Alabama, a bill for the submission to the States of an amendment to the Constitution of the United States prohibiting the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors to be used as a beverage in the United States. Could the Washington police have compelled this assemblage to disband? (Constitution, Amendment I.)

8. In 1913 Buffalo, New York, put 759 prisoners on probation, allowing them to pay by instalments their fines, amounting to a total of $12,500. The Juvenile Court of Cleveland imposes fines upon youthful gamblers, allowing them to pay these fines by instalments from their own earnings of the week. Tell why this method is better than having parents pay the fines of their children.

CHAPTER XVI

TERRITORIES AND FOREIGN POSSESSIONS

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137. Hawaii. — Upon the outbreak of hostilities with Spain in 1898 the value of island possessions as coaling stations and for other strategic purposes became very apparent. There

fore, the same year, Hawaiian Republic, which had previously desired to become annexed to the United States, was admitted as the Territory of Hawaii.

The Hawaiian islands

are in the mid-Pacific beHAWAII.

tween California and the Philippine Islands, and have a total area of 6449 square miles. According to the United States Census of 1920 their population was 255,912, of whom 41,750 were native Hawaiians, 23,507 Chinese, 109,274 Japanese, and the remainder mostly Caucasians including some 10,000 Americans. Immigration from China, Japan, and Korea to Hawaii is now prohibited in the same manner that immigration from these countries to the United States is prohibited; but Filipino immigration is unrestricted, and in 1920 there were 21,031 Filipinos in the Territory

In 1900 Congress framed laws for the government of Hawaii. These laws were very largely copied from those for the gove ernment of Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Arizona, which were then territories of the United States and hence governed according to the wishes of Congress. All of the provisions of the Constitution and laws of the United States, except where special exception was made or where they are locally inapplicable, were extended to Hawaii. Under this government American citizenship was extended to all Hawaiian citizens and Hawaiian citizenship to all resident American citizens.

The Hawaiian government is divided into three branches the executive, the legislative, and the judicial. Members of both houses of the legislature are popularly elected, and be

cause of this fact Hawaii is known as a fully organized territory 1 of the United States.

The Chief Executive of the Territory of Hawaii is the governor. He is appointed by the President and Senate of the United States for a term of four years, and must be a citizen of the territory. He, in turn, appoints the chief administrative officers with the advice and consent of the territorial senate, and exercises the usual powers of a governor, including the veto of bills in their entirety or of separate items in appropriation bills.

The Legislature of the territory consists of a senate with fifteen members elected for the term of four years, and a house of representatives with thirty members elected for the term of two years. Regular sessions of the legislature are held biennially and are limited to sixty days. The legislature may enact any law which does not conflict with the Constitution, statutes, or treaties of the United States. Congress, however, has by statutes imposed restrictions upon the power of the legislature, especially in regard to financial matters.

The Judiciary of the territory consists of a Supreme Court with three judges, residents of the territory, appointed by the President and Senate for a term of four years, a United States District Court with two judges appointed by the President and Senate for a term of six years, and inferior courts created by the territorial legislature.

1 All of our forty-eight States were Territories before becoming States, except the thirteen original States and Maine, Vermont, Kentucky, West Virginia, Texas, and California.

A Territorial Delegate to the government of the United States is elected by the people of the territory for each term of Congress. He is allowed a seat in the House of Representatives with a right to debate and serve on committees, but he cannot vote. His salary is $7500 a year.

138. Alaska. — In 1867 Alaska was purchased from Russia, and its inhabitants became citizens of the United States, but

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Congress did not create a fully organized territorial government for it until 1912. Its area is 590,884 square miles, but its population in 1920 was only 54,899 including 26,421 Indians (Eskimos). Today the Territory of Alaska is governed in very much the same manner as the Territory of Hawaii.

The Governor is appointed by the President and Senate of the United States for a term of four years and has the usual powers.

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The Legislature consists of a senate with eight members popularly elected and a house of representatives with sixteen members popularly elected. It meets biennially for a period not exceeding sixty days and its powers are general except where specifically restricted. All Alaskan laws are valid until disapproved by an act of Congress if they are originally passed within the limits of the organic act.

As an example of the restrictions imposed by Congress, neither the Hawaiian nor the Alaskan government may grant divorces to persons who have resided in the country less than two years.

It is interesting to note that one of the first acts passed by the legislature of Alaska

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT RAILROAD. extended full suffrage This is a construction scene on the governto women, and that in ment railroad from Seward to Fairbanks,

Alaska, a distance of 471 miles. 1916 the people voted for territory-wide prohibition by a large majority, carrying every incorporated town but Engle, which cast a tie vote.

The Judiciary of Alaska consists of four United States district courts with judges appointed by the President and Senate for a term of four years. The Alaskan legislature creates inferior courts.

A Territorial Delegate is elected every second November to represent Alaska in the Congress of the United States. Like the territorial delegate from Hawaii he has a seat in the House of Representatives, debates, and serves on committees, but may not vote. His salary is $7500 a year.

139. Porto Rico. - The United States took possession of the island of Porto Rico in 1898 during the Spanish-American

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