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4. How is the cost of government borne, and by whom? 5. Is the cost of government becoming more or less of a burden?

6. Name and explain the benefits of government discussed in the text.

7. How much was spent on public free education in the United States in the


1913 ? 8. How is the health of citizens of the United States protected from contagious diseases prevalent in foreign countries ?

9. What great services have been rendered the American people by the United States Public Health Service?

10. In what way are the public morals of your community regulated ?

11. What is the census of the United States ? What did the census of 1910 cost, and what are its benefits ?

12. What service has the Agricultural Department of the United States performed for American farmers ?

13. How do governments protect the poor against the oppression of the wealthy ?

14. Why is it better to have some lines of business conducted by the government instead of by individuals ?

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION 1. In the United States about 400,000 persons are incapacitated and about 30,000 are killed by typhoid fever each year. This disease is only one fifth as prevalent in some of the European countries as it is in the United States, the improvement having been brought about by better sanitary regulations by the governments. Would you favor a State law for compulsory vaccination against typhoid fever? Or would you favor having your local government spend enough money to prevent the spread of this disease ?

2. What connection is there between free public schools and government by the people?

3. Is it cheaper to send articles by mail or by express? How many pounds may be sent by mail? How does the parcel post encourage commerce ?

4. What would be the effect upon the stock-raising industry if there were no cattle quarantine regulations ?

5. It has been said that society would drift into barbarism in a generation if it were not for religion and public opinion. What would be the effect upon society if all governments ceased to exist?

6. Why are taxes lower in China than in the United States ? Give arguments in favor of high taxes.

7. Do you think that only taxpayers should be permitted to vote? Who are the taxpayers ?

8. In 1920 there were 2,000,000 more males than females in the United States. Where could you verify this fact? What practical use could a manufacturing firm make of the fact that there are 66,000 more women than men in Massachusetts and 168,000 more men than women in Michigan? What industries of these two states account for these facts ?

9. Why do governments enact laws regulating the following: (a) workmen's compensation; (b) minimum wage; (c) hours of labor; (d) widows' pensions; (e) employment bureaus; (f) food; (g) weights and measures ?

10. Is the regulation of savings banks, building and loan associations, trust companies, and life insurance companies more in the interest of the rich or the poor?

11. Jefferson had some doubt as to the propriety of a national post office, thinking it might be better to leave the carriage of letters to private enterprise. Do you think post offices in private hands would have resulted in the following:

In the reduction of postage on a four-page letter from Boston to Charleston from one dollar to two cents ?

In reducing the rates of postage before commercially profitable in order that intercourse may be maintained between scattered friends, and thus strengthen our nation ?

In establishing rural free delivery although it is not self-sustaining?

In carrying public documents free and thus saving millions of dollars for the government ?

In establishing free postage for county newspapers ? All periodicals have been carried for less than cost to cement our Union through free interchange of thought.

In establishing five mail routes in the fifties to encourage settle ment between the Mississippi River and California ? The business of one typical year showed postal receipts of $39,775 and expenditures of $1,446,447. The arrangement was really a bonus to Wells Fargo and other companies to maintain stage routes.

In establishing air routes to promote aviation as well as rapid communication ?

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7. Introduction. — In living organisms there is a continual G tendency for the simple to develop into the complex, and so it

has been with organized society — the state. In the beginning very few functions

were performed by the state, but new discoveries and inventions created social and economic conditions which could be solved only through the united action of society; so the state has de

A PRIMITIVE FISHERMAN. veloped to its present position along with these various social and economic changes.

At some time in the history of the world the ancestors of every race of people lived in a rude, uncivilized manner. The want of food and of other material comforts brought suffering; superstition brought fear; and lack of wisdom brought misunderstanding, quarreling, fighting, war. From this rude condition some peoples have advanced through many stages of social and economic development in the upward trend of the human race. The most highly developed nations have gradually advanced through the following stages : hunting and fishing, pastoral, agricultural, commercial, and capitalistic. Each social or economic stage demanded a more extensive organization;



and in turn, each extension of political organization made possible the advance to a more complex social or economic stage.

8. Hunting and Fishing Stage. — During the hunting and fishing stage of each race the mode of living was but little above that of beasts. Men lived from hand to mouth in the struggle for existence. Ownership in land was unknown, but each savage horde had temporary hunting grounds beyond which their members went at their peril. They had little


and less capacity for political organization, 9. Pastoral Stage. When an ingenious horde saved alive the young of wild animals and domesticated them, an epoch-making step was taken. By a little foresight and self-denial

on hand for times of scarcity. The

abundance of flesh foods A SHEPHERD WITH HIS FLOCK.

gradually banished can

nibalism, especially when it was perceived that a muscle of a captive was worth more for labor than for food. Permanent food supplies and slaves gave leisure and opportunity for meditation. Wandering hordes became family tribes bound together by the common possession of flocks and herds. These possessions brought the envy of neighboring bands, and organization for defense became necessary. The patriarch of a family became leader of this organization and developed absolute authority to the extent of life

and death over his wives, sons, daughters, sons' wives and f children, and slaves. In reality he was an absolute ruler over

a “family state."


food was

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10. Agricultural Stage. — The possession of flocks made the habitation of man sufficiently permanent to make possible the planting of seeds with the thought of ultimately

reaping the harvest. + Slavery became more

profitable, the possession of land became necessary, and ownership desirable. As family tribes gradually

PRIMITIVE AGRICULTURE. sent out clans to establish new village communities, common blood, common religion, and common economic interests held them together into loose confederations for social and commercial intercourse and for self-defense. In short, the necessary elements of a modern state existed : law and authority, definiteness and permanence of organization, and a consciousness of political unity.

11. Commercial Stage. — Wealth in flocks, herds, and agriculture multiplied man's needs. Commerce met the demand. Yoked beasts of burden, sailboats, and forms of money as medium of exchange gave the merchant a place in civilization.


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