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be of the same political party, appointed by the President and Senate for terms of twelve years. Each member receives a salary of $7500 per annum.

The commission is given wide powers to investigate the administration and financial and industrial effects of the customs laws of the United States, various tariff relations between the United States and foreign countries, and international tariff agreements in Europe. This information is collected for the benefit of the President, the Ways and Means Committee of the House, and the Finance Committee of the Senate in order that Congress may legislate more wisely upon the tariff problem, and thus remove it as far as possible from politics.

Other Institutions Administered by Executive Officials. - The following institutions are administered by executive officials independently of the ten administrative departments or of the eight boards and commissions just described : Government Printing Office, Library of Congress, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum, International Bureau of American Republics, and the United States Veterans’ Bureau.

BIBLIOGRAPHY DODD, W. F. Government of the District of Columbia. 1909. Barnes Federal Code. 1919. Supplement, 1922. OWEN, R. L. The Federal Reserve Act. 1919. WIPRUD, A. C. The Federal Farm Loan System in Operation. 1921. The Congressional Directory. Annual Report of the United States Civil Service Commission. Proceedings of the National Civil Service Reform League.

1 Subordinate to the Librarian of Congress is the Register of Copyrights, whose office is in the Library of Congress building in Washington. When a book is published the notice of copyright should be printed on the title page or the page following. Promptly after publication two copies of the best edition must be sent to the register with an application for registration and a money order for one dollar payable to the Register of Copyrights. Application forms will be furnished upon request. For a work of art a photograph is sent. For photographs the fee is only 50 cents if a certificate of registration is not desired; for anything else the fee is one dollar. Only one copy of lectures and dramatic or musical compositions not to be published need be sent. (See Sec. 47.)

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QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT 1. Why have boards and commissions been created independent of administrative departments ?

2. By whom is the District of Columbia administered? Who legislates for the district ? Do the inhabitants of the district have any right of suffrage ?

3. About how many employees of the United States secure their employment through competitive examinations ?

4. What is the spoils system ?

5. When was the Civil Service Commission created? Composed of how many members ? By whom appointed ?

6. What are the duties of the Civil Service Commission ? Through what local agents do they conduct examinations ?

What are the more important civil service rules? 8. May civil service employees be dismissed ?

9. When was the Interstate Commerce Commission created ?' Of how many members does it consist? By whom are they appointed ? What are the duties of the commission ?

10. When the commission discovers that a corporation has violated a law to what United States officer is the fact reported ?

11. When was the Federal Reserve Act passed ? How many federal reserve banks are there? Where is the one nearest you?

12. From whom do the federal reserve banks receive deposits ? When they lend money to member banks, what security must be given?

13. What banks are members of a federal reserve bank? How may a bank become a member? 14. When was the Federal Farm Loan Board created ? How

many federal farm loan banks are there? How do they differ from the federal reserve banks ?

15. What is the Federal Trade Commission? When was it created ? Of how many members is it composed ? By whom are they appointed ? What are the duties of the commission ?

16. What are the duties of the United States Shipping Board ?

17. What are the duties of the United States Tariff Commission?

18. Name soine institutions administered independently of the administrative departments, boards, and commissions just described.

19. How may a copyright be obtained ?

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION 1. The District of Columbia is perhaps the only civilized capital in the world whose inhabitants have absolutely no rights of suffrage, yet Washington is well governed. Do you consider that Congress acted wisely in depriving the inhabitants of suffrage ?

2. In our civil service should promotion be based upon length of service, efficiency of service, or examination ?

3. Each State has a commission to regulate railroads within its own borders. The Interstate Commerce Commission regulates rail. roads extending from one State into another. Would you favor the control of all railroads by the Interstate Commerce Cornmission alone?

4. Should the Trade Commission have power to permit agreements in restraint of trade if it thinks such agreements beneficial to the public?

5. Of what federal reserve bank are the National banks in your town members ?

6. How will the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 prevent "panics like that of 1907, which resulted from a scarcity or rather hoarding of money?

7. How much money would be necessary to establish a member National bank in your town or city?

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CHAPTER XIV

THE JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT

121. The System of Federal Courts. The Constitution declares that the judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one Supreme Court and in such inferior courts as Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. Congress has established, and later abolished, various inferior courts, but at present the following federal courts exist:

Regular Courts

One Supreme Court
Nine Circuit Courts of Appeals

Ninety-nine District Courts (81 districts)
Special Courts

One Court of Claims
One Court of Customs Appeals

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122. The Jurisdiction of Federal Courts. Cases are tried by federal courts either because of the character of the subject matter of the suit or because of the character of the parties to the suit. Depending upon the subject matter of the suit, the following cases may be tried in federal courts : (1) cases in law or equity 2 arising under the Constitution or statutes of the United States, or treaties made under their authority; (2) cases of admiralty and maritime : jurisdiction. Depending upon the

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1 Jurisdiction means the legal right to hear and determine cases. A court is said to have jurisdiction over those cases which it has authority to try.

2 For meaning of " equity," see Sec. 182, note.

8 For meaning of "admiralty and maritime," see U. S. Constitution, Art III, Sec. 2, note.

parties to the suit, the following cases may be tried in federal courts : (1) cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls; (2) controversies to which the United States is a party ; (3) controversies between two or more States ; (4) controversies between a State and citizens of another State;1 (5) controversies between citizens of different

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States; and (6) controversies between a State, or citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.

123. Regular Courts. — In order to show the proper relation of the different regular courts and how cases may be appealed from the lowest to the highest, the District Courts will be dis

1 In 1793 in the case of Chisholm vs. Georgia the Supreme Court construed this passage to mean that an individual may sue a State without the consent of the latter. The States had not so understood this clause, and immediately the Eleventh Amendment was added to the Constitution, which provides that à State may not be sued in a federal court by citizens of another State. However, a State may still bring suit in a federal court against a citizen of another State or against an alien.

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