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collected, and all steerage passengers must undergo a physical examination and comply with various other regulations.
Our immigration law excludes persons mentally defective or those likely to become public charges, such as children without parents, persons with contagious diseases or physical defects, criminals, polygamists, anarchists, immoral women, and laborers brought to this country by contractors. Natives of Asia east of Persia and south of Siberia and of the islands adjacent to southern Asia, except the Philippines, are excluded except officials, certain professional classes, students, merchants, travellers, and their wives and children under sixteen. Japanese and Koreans are not excluded, but Japan has agreed by treaty not to grant passports to coolies from Japan or Korea.
111. Bureau of Naturalization. In order that immigrants to this country may become citizens of the United States in the prescribed manner only, the government maintains a bureau of naturalization. This bureau keeps records of immigrants and sees that they become naturalized according to law.
Whites, American Indians, and Africans may become naturalized in the following manner :1 (1) The applicant for citizenship appears before a court of record (federal or State) at least two years before admission to citizenship and declares on oath his or her intention to become a citizen and renounces allegiance to any other government. This application is recorded and the applicant is furnished a copy of the record.
1 The Texans were naturalized en masse by a joint resolution of Congress. In 1848 the President and the Senate, by means of a treaty with Mexico, naturalized the citizens of the ceded territory, except those who chose to remain citizens of Mexico. Inhabitants of Louisiana (1803) and of a portion of Maine (1842) and Indians bave been admitted by treaty. Indians remaining in States when their tribes moved West have also been naturalized en masse by statute.
The wife and minor children of a naturalized male citizen become citizens through his naturalization. If a mother becomes naturalized her minor children likewise become citizens. Children born abroad to citizens of the United States, whether native born or naturalized, are American citizens.
(2) At least two years later the applicant appears in court, proves that he has resided in the United States for five years, and in the State where he is appearing before the court for at least one year, and that he is a person of good moral character. (3) He must take an oath to support the Constitution of the
Copyright, Underwood & Underwood, N.Y. FUTURE CITIZENS OF AMERICA.
United States and renounce allegiance to any foreign government. In case he has any title of nobility it must be renounced. These facts are recorded by the clerk of the court and a certificate of naturalization is granted.
112. The Children's Bureau investigates the labor conditions under which children work; also the care and training of infants and children. This bureau is the first United States bureau to have a woman at its head.
JENKS, J. W., AND LAUCK, W. J. The Immigration Problem.
4th ed. 1921. HASKIN, F. J. The American Government. 1912. The Congressional Directory. The Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior. Annual Report of the Secretary of Agriculture. Annual Report of the Secretary of Commerce. Annual Report of the Secretary of Labor. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Education. Bulletins of the Bureau of Education. A list of such bulletins car
be obtained from the Commissioner of Education, Washington, D. C., and most of the bulletins will be furnished free.
QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT
1. When was the Department of the Interior created ? What bureaus are under this department?
2. What are the duties of the General Land Office? The Geological Survey? The Reclamation Bureau ? The Commissioner of Indian Affairs? The Bureau of Education? The Bureau of Patents ? The Pension Office ?
3. How may a patent be obtained ?
4. Into what bureaus and divisions is the Agricultural Department divided ?
5. What are the duties of the Bureau of Animal Industry? Bureau of Plant Industry? The Weather Bureau? Forest Service ? The Entomology Division ? Bureau of Chemistry?
6. What are the different bureaus of the Department of Commerce?
7. What functions are performed by the Census Bureau of the Department of Commerce ?
8. What are the duties of the Secretary of Labor ? 9. What are the duties of the Bureau of Immigration? 10. What tax is imposed upon immigrants entering the United States ?
11. What classes of persons are excluded from the United States ? 12. What persons may become naturalized ? How?
13. How did the Texans become naturalized ? The inhabitants of Louisiana in 1803 ? Certain Indians ?
14. What is the purpose of the Children's Bureau ?
QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION 1. If you desired to construct an electric power plant on a river, how would you learn how much power you could produce each month?
2. Could you profitably irrigate your farm, orchard, or garden ?
3. For centuries it was believed that there was no practical limit to the number of fish in the lakes and bays. To-day countries find it necessary to restrict the catching of fish and to hatch fish to replenish the lakes and bays. If there were no governments to replenish this great source of food, could private individuals be depended upon to do it? Where can you get a supply of minnows for your lake or stream ?
4. The number of aliens of any nationality who may be admitted under the immigration laws of the United States in any fiscal year is limited to 3% of the number of foreign-born persons of such nationality resident in the United States. This limitation does not apply to persons who have resided on the American continents during the preceding year; nor does it apply to Orientals, who are excluded from the so-called barred zone by act of Congress, nor to Japanese, who are restricted by a Gentlemen's Agreement.
Just before the World War about 1,000,000 immigrants annually reached our shores. In the fiscal year 1922 only 300,000 persons classed as immigrants were admitted and 200,000 persons classed as emigrants departed; thus the net gain was only about 100,000. What effect will this restriction have upon our social and labor conditions ?
5. For the naturalization ceremonies the United States District Judge of Oregon held court upon the spacious stage of the Portland Municipal Auditorium which was walled on all sides with immense American flags. Grouped near the flag-draped judge's bench were the new citizens of Portland and America, their families, city, county, and State officials, and representatives of various patriotic organizations. An immense interested audience interrupted the proceedings frequently with enthusiastic applause. Stirring patriotic addresses by a minister of the gospel and the mayor, welcoming hand-shaking, and blood-tingling strains of The Star-Spangled Banner helped to make real Americans of those who had once been subjects of kings. Does your community give this warm welcome to new Americans ?
BOARDS AND COMMISSIONS
113. Why Boards and Commissions are created. In addition to the ten administrative departments, whose heads are members of the President's cabinet, various independent boards and commissions have been created to relieve the pressure of business on the President and Congress. Boards and commissions have been created instead of additional administrative departments (1) because the duties to be performed require experts whose terms of office should not depend upon the political fortune of the President, and (2) because their duties require the deliberation of a board rather than the opinion of one individual.
The following boards and commissions are discussed in the order in which they were created.
114. Commissioners for the District of Crlumbia.— The Constitution of the United States gives Congress power to exercise exclusive legislation over the District of Columbia in all cases whatsoever. Previous to 1874 Congress permitted the District to be governed by elective officials, elections being held there the same as in the States. Elections became so corrupt — a fact partly due to the vote of inexperienced negroes — that Congress abolished the council form of government and provided for its government by Congress and commissioners.1
Since 1874 the District has been administered by three commissioners, two of whom are appointed for terms of three years
1 Since 1874 the inhabitants of the District of Columbia have been excluded from all suffrage, not even being permitted to vote for presidential electors. However, a large proportion of the population consists of government employees who may return to their home States to vote.