網頁圖片
PDF
ePub 版

10. During the Civil War the United States paper money was worth much less than gold money. Why? Confederate paper money was worth even less than United States paper money; and at the end of the war Confederate paper money had no value. Why?

11. Bring to class as many kinds of paper money as possible and examine the various kinds carefully. If you should happen to burn your paper money beyond recognition who would gain thereby? If a mouse should tear it to shreds could you exchange the pieces for new money?

CHAPTER XI

WAR, NAVY, JUSTICE, AND POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENTS

WAR DEPARTMENT

82. The Secretary of War directs the army, including the General Staff College, West Point, and service schools. He also has charge of fortifications, river and harbor improvements, bridges over navigable streams, and the administration of the Philippine Islands and Porto Rico. All estimates of appropriations for the above functions of the department must be examined by him and referred to the President and to Congress. The war department is especially subject to the

. President because the Constitution makes him commander-inchief of the

army. 83. Military Administration is distributed as follows: The adjutant-general transmits to the the troops and individuals the orders that go out from the central administration and keeps records and statistics of the army. The inspector-general supervises the inspection of all branches of the army. The quartermaster-general has charge of transportation, buildings, subsistence, and other supplies. The surgeon-general supervises the medical department. The paymaster-general is charged with the payment of soldiers and employees of the department. The chief of engineers is head of the corps of engi

1 For the United States Military Academy at West Point the President appoints 60 cadets from the United States at large, 4 from each State at large (recommended by senators), 2 from each congressional district (recommended by representatives), 4 each from the District of Columbia and the Philippines, and 2 each from Hawaii, Alaska, and Porto Rico (recommended by local officials), 20 honor graduates of schools having officers of the Regular Army detailed as professors of military science and tactics (recommended by heads of schools), and not exceeding 180 enlisted men of the Regular Army and National Guard (recommended by commanding generals and State governors respectively). Appointees must be between 17 and 22 years of age, except those from the Regular Army and National Guard, who must be between 19 and 22. All must pass a physical examination and a mental examination equivalent to a college entrance examination unless they come from accredited schools. During the four years of attendance each cadet is allowed about $1000 a year for expenses; and upon graduation he is commissioned as second lieutenant in the Regular Army.

[graphic]

Copyright, Underwood & Underwood, N. Y. COAST DEFENCE DRILL BY WEST POINT CADETS.

neers which looks after the construction and maintenance of forts, military roads, bridges, and river and harbor improvements. The chief of ordnance provides and distributes the implements of war. The judge-advocate-general records the proceedings of courts-martial, and is legal adviser to the Secretary of War. The chief signal officer supervises army communications, and there is now also a separate chief of the air service. The chief of the chemical warfare service experiments with and supplies smoke and incendiary materials, toxic gases, and gas defense appliances.

84. The General Staff. — During the Spanish-American War (1898) President McKinley, the Secretary of War, and the Secretary of the Navy sat in the War Room at the White House and sent out general instructions to the army

and

navy, leaving the details to the commanding officers. It was seen that these civil administrators lacked practical experience for this duty and, in 1903, a supervising military bureau of the War Department, known as the General Staff, was created.

The General Staff consists of the Chief of Staff, four assistants, and more than a hundred other officers of grades not below that of captain. It prepares plans for national defense, investigates the efficiency of the army, and advises the Secretary of War. Plans or recommendations are transmitted through the Chief of Staff, and, if approved, the Chief carries the same into effect. The members of the staff do not serve for more than four consecutive years, and thus the body is kept in constant touch with the practical problems of warfare.

85. The War Council and Staff College. - The War Council, consisting of the Secretary of War, the general of the Army, and the Chief of Staff meet from time to time to advise the Secretary concerning military and munitions problems.

The General Staff College, which has replaced the Army War College, functions under the Chief of Staff. It is a school where not exceeding one hundred especially fitted officers study military strategy and the handling of large units.

86. The Army. — The army of the United States consists of the regular army, the organized reserve, and the national guard while in the service of the United States.

According to the law of 1922 the Regular Army is composed of not exceeding 125,000 enlisted men. Original enlistments are for a period of either one or three years, but reënlistments are for three years.

1 No person under eighteen years of age may enlist without the consent of his parents or guardian,

Reserve Officers are commissioned by the President for a period of five years, but an appointment in force at the outbreak of war, or made in time of war, continues in force until six months after termination. Enlisted Reserves enlist for three years, except World War veterans who may enlist for one year. Neither Reserve Officers nor Enlisted Reserves may be summoned for active duty for more than fifteen days

[graphic][merged small]

a year without their consent, unless Congress declares an emergency to exist.

National Guard original enlistments are for a period of three years and subsequent ones for a period of one year. National Guard Reserves may enlist for one or three years. During peace the national guard of any State is subject to the governor, and is commonly called the “organized militia.” 1

1 The unorganized militia includes all male citizens between 18 and 45 years

of age.

« 上一頁繼續 »