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power. There are no prescribed qualifications, but the ruler to whom the ambassador is accredited may refuse to receive in a diplomatic way any person who is for any reason objectionable (persona non grata). Any country may demand the recall of an ambassador who has made himself obnoxious to its government, and in extreme cases may dismiss him.

The duties of an ambassador are to transmit official communications; make reports to the Secretary of State; promote

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UNITED STATES LEGATION AT PEKING. Guard of Honor preceding the Minister to the President's Palace.

American interests in every way; protect American citizens , and negotiate treaties and other agreements.

To perform the above duties efficiently the ambassador must be on terms of friendly intimacy with leading men in the country to which he is sent. Newspaper editors may be most useful acquaintances because the ambassador can both learn from them and impress upon them the good intentions of our government, and so reach the public through the press. The salary is $17,500, and as the social affairs of the official set at a European capital call for heavy expenditures few ambassadors can live upon their salaries. It is said that a recent ambassador, in maintaining the American embassy at London, spent $250,000 a year.

Ambassadors, and their families and servants to a great extent, are exempt from arrest and from taxation of personal belongings. Within their embassies (official residences) they may do anything not prohibited by the laws of the nation which has sent them. Of course noises, or anything which proves a nuisance outside of the embassy, are not permitted. These privileges are associated with a legal fiction known as exterritoriality, which term means that the ambassador has, as it were, carried a portion of the territory of his home country with its laws to the foreign country.

Ministers are sent to the governments of all independent countries of any importance except to those to which ambassadors are sent. Everything that has been said concerning ambassadors applies to ministers except the honor or rank, salary, and the name of their residences. The salaries of ministers range from $10,000 to $12,000 and their official residences are called “legations." 75. Consular Service. - In addition to diplomatic agents, the

President, with the consent of the Senate, appoints about 700 consular officers. The full consuls are appointed from those who have passed the civil service examination. They are commercial agents, or “America's lookouts on the watchtowers of international trade," and one is stationed at every important commercial city. One is sent even to the inaccessible town of Chung King, far back in the interior of China, six weeks' travel by river from Shanghai.

A consul, being primarily a commercial representative, must certify the invoices of goods exported to the United States, and is thus required to be familiar with the character and value of commodities and with every detail of our tariff system. He must also “spy out new promised lands of commercial opportunity." A few years ago this service secured an order amounting to $23,000,000 for battleships and armament from Argentina, and recently a New England manufacturer of knives asked the Consular Service for a list of English retail dealers in cutlery. He got the list and is

now

carrying coals to Newcastle” by shipping knives to Sheffield.1

Consular Jurisdiction. The consul has some jurisdiction over whatever relates to the internal economy of American vessels. He settles disputes among masters, officers, and men.

In several backward countries the consuls have jurisdiction over American citizens. For instance, in China American consuls have jurisdiction over American citizens in both civil and criminal cases by virtue of treaty arrangements. They also hear civil cases between an American and a Chinese when the American is the defendant, and they try Americans who are accused of criminal offenses against Chinese.

For American citizens the consul also administers oaths, takes depositions, and acts as a witness to marriages. In brief, he is a friend and counselor to every American citizen. Any consul whose pay is less than $ 1000 a year may transact a private business. A few years ago the Stars and Stripes marking the office of a consular agent floated over a laundry in a South American city.

Consuls' Compensation. The salaries of regular consuls range from $2000 to $8000, but those of consuls-general, who are ordinarily sent to foreign capitals and have supervisory authority over the other consuls sent to the country, range from $3000 to $12,000. They are not entitled to the immunities of diplomatic representatives, but most countries by treaty exempt them from arrest in civil cases and guarantee the protection of their archives. A consulate of the United States in a weak state is a fairly safe place in times of disturbances, and an embassy or legation is almost invariably a place of safety.

1 The daily Commerce Report, published by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, is sent to about 10,000 American manufacturers who subscribe for it. Items like the following are published in it :

No. 2547. Souvenir button machines. -- A letter has been received by the Bureau of Manufacturers in which the names of makers of hand machines for making souvenir buttons are asked for.

No. 2548. American breeding cattle and horses. — An American consular officer reports that a business man has written to him that it is his intention to import American breeding cattle and horses into one of the Latin American countries, and he desires that breeders communicate with him.

The names of prospective buyers are not published for fear foreign manufacturers might get the information gathered by our consuls.

Passports.— A passport is a certificate used to identify a citizen of one state when traveling or residing in a foreign country in order that the citizen may enjoy all the privileges that international law, treaties, or the prestige of his native state can insure. The Division of Passport Control regulates the issuance of passports, and determines questions relating to the citizenship of Americans in foreign countries.

An American citizen who desires to travel abroad may make a written application 1 to the Secretary of State for a passport. The application contains a detailed description of the person and information as to his age, residence, and occupation. It must be signed by the person applying, and an affidavit must be attested by a clerk of a Federal Court or of a State Court if there is no Federal Court within the district of the State Court. It must also be accompanied by a certificate from a creditable witness that the applicant is the person he represents himself to be, and by a fee of nine dollars. The passport is authenticated by th Great Seal of the United States is valid for one year, but may be renewed for another year. An application for a renewal should be made to the nearest diplomatic or consular office.

A passport for most countries must be viséd (approved) by a consul of the country to be visited, for which a fee is usually charged.

The Emergency Fund for this department, which is about $ 200,000 a year, is the only fund in the administration of which no original accounts or vouchers to the Treasury Department are required. The Secretary of State gives a certificate of such expenditure. This fund enables him to keep a watch on affairs in other countries.

i A blank form may be obtained from the Secretary of State or from the clerk of a Federal Court.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOWMAN, ISAIAH. The New World. 1921.
MATHEWS, J. M. The Conduct of American Foreign Relations.

1922. WRIGHT, Q. The Control of American Foreign Relations. 1922. VAN DYNE, FREDERICK. Our Foreign Service: the “A B C” of

American Diplomacy. 1909.
The Congressional Directory.
Annual Report of the Secretary of State.

QUESTIONS ON THE TEXT
1. Who is considered the most important cabinet officer?

2. What are the domestic duties of the Secretary of State? The foreign duties?

3. What are the duties of ambassadors and ministers? What special privileges do they enjoy?

4. What is meant by exterritoriality ?
5. How do ambassadors differ from ministers?
6. What is a chargé d'affaires (pronounced shär-zhā'dăf-fâr') ?

7. What are consuls, and how does the consular service differ from the diplomatic service ?

8. How do consuls serve manufacturers ? 9. What is meant by consular jurisdiction ? 10. What salaries are paid to ambassadors ? Ministers ? Consuls ?

11. How is a passport obtained and what is its value? Is it of equal value in all countries and at all times ?

12. What is the emergency fund? How does it differ from all other funds ?

QUESTIONS FOR Discussion 1. Explain the following simile : “ The State Department may be likened to an artificial person, whose head is in Washington and whose body lies abroad.”

2. In Japan the United States had consular jurisdiction until 1899, when it was abolished by treaty. Why do you suppose it was abolished ? 3. A mediæval ambassador has been defined as

a person sent to lie abroad for the good of his country.” Washington thus instructed

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